Korea Rural Community Corporation

Ansan, South Korea

Korea Rural Community Corporation

Ansan, South Korea
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Park Y.-J.,Korea Rural Community Corporation | Nishikawa T.,Ministry of Agriculture | Matsushima K.,Shinshu University | Nemoto K.,Shinshu University
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2017

To clarify the mechanism underlying amylose synthesis in the amaranth pericarp, we attempted to identify new GBSS isoforms. A new GBSS-encoding gene (i.e., CrGBSSIb) was isolated from amaranth leaf tissue. The CrGBSSIb gene consists of 4699-bp, including a 1938-bp open reading frame encoding 606 amino acids. A comparison of the cDNA and genomic sequences suggested that CrGBSSIb contains 12 introns and 13 exons. Interestingly, a phylogenetic analysis revealed that the amaranth GBSSIb gene evolved independently from the other GBSSI isoforms within this crop (i.e., intraspecies) and differed from the other plant GBSSII genes. The expression patterns of two GBSS isoforms revealed that CrGBSSIb and CrGBSSI are expressed during the early and late phases of seed development, respectively. Additionally, a high CrGBSSIb transcript level was detected in leaf tissue. This result indicates that CrGBSSI and CrGBSSIb, which affect amylose synthesis in amaranth grains, are active in the perisperm and pericarp, respectively. Therefore, CrGBSSIb encodes an enzyme associated with amylose synthesis. The enzyme may be primarily responsible for amylose metabolism in pericarp tissue. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Ono Y.,University of Tokyo | Kim Y.D.,Korea Rural Community Corporation | Itsubo N.,Tokyo City University
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2017

Abstract: Interest in the impacts of water use in the life cycle of products and services are increasing among various stakeholders. The water footprint is a tool to identify critical and effective points for reducing the impact of water use through the entire life cycle of products, services, and organizations. The purpose of this study was to develop a water consumption inventory database that focused on identifying of Asian water consumption using an input-output (IO) framework. An Asia International Input-Output table (AIIO) was applied in this study. The amount of water consumption required for agricultural products was estimated by modeling; for other sectors it was estimated from statistical reports. The intensities of direct water consumption in each sector were calculated by dividing the amount of water consumption by the domestic production. Based on the IO analysis using Leontief's inverse matrix, the intensities of water consumption from cradle to gate were estimated for all goods and services. There was high intensity of water consumption in the primary industry sectors, together with a high dependency on rainwater as an input water source. The water consumption intensities generally showed a larger reduction in secondary sectors, in comparison with the tertiary sectors, due to the use of recycled water. There were differences between this study and previous studies due to the use of site-specific production data and the temporal resolution of crop production. By considering site-specific conditions, it is expected that the dataset developed here can be used for estimating the water footprint of products, services, and organizations in nine countries (Japan, South Korea, China, Taiwan, Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and USA). © 2017 by the authors.


Lee B.,Korea Rural Community Corporation | Mulheron M.,University of Surrey
Magazine of Concrete Research | Year: 2015

Two issues make measuring the local bond stress-slip relationship difficult: first, the bar is embedded within the concrete, making measurement of local strain values complex; second, yielding of the steel bar influences the bond stress-slip behaviour. Global bond stress-slip behaviour is generally obtained by measuring the slip that occurs at the free end of the bar during pull-out testing. Several distinct mounting methods have been used to install electrical resistance strain gauges on embedded bars in concrete to obtain local strain data. These methods are reviewed in relation to their ability to deliver reliable and robust data at both small and large values of slip. The use of such strain gauges is found to provide a viable method for assessing the variation in strain along embedded steel bars during pull-out testing. The use of surface-mounted strain gauges leads to high failure rates due to physical damage to either the gauges or their connections. The use of near-surface- and central-groove-mounted strain gauges enables measurement of local bar strain over large displacements. Using data from near-surface-mounted strain gauges, it is shown that in the post-peak region the bond stress increases linearly from the free end of the bar.


Roostapour A.,Louisiana State University | Lee G.,Korea Rural Community Corporation | Zhong L.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Kam S.I.,Louisiana State University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2014

This study investigates how a foam model, developed in Roostapour and Kam [1], can be applied to make a fit to a set of existing laboratory flow experiments in an application relevant to deep vadose zone remediation.This study reveals a few important insights regarding foam-assisted deep vadose zone remediation: (i) the mathematical framework established for foam modeling can fit typical flow experiments matching wave velocities, saturation history, and pressure responses; (ii) the set of input parameters may not be unique for the fit, and therefore conducting experiments to measure basic model parameters related to relative permeability, initial and residual saturations, surfactant adsorption and so on should not be overlooked; and (iii) gas compressibility plays an important role for data analysis, thus should be handled carefully in laboratory flow experiments. Foam kinetics, causing foam texture to reach its steady-state value slowly, may impose additional complications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Patent
Korea Rural Community Corporation, BLUE ENVIRONMENT N Technology CO. and Kyungpook National University | Date: 2010-01-29

The present invention relates to an agricultural water-recycling system comprising an iron (Fe)-ionizing module and a method of recycling agricultural water using the same, and more particularly to an agricultural water-recycling system comprising an iron (Fe)-ionizing module and a method of recycling agricultural water using the same, in which phosphorus (P) contained in effluent from a sewage treatment plant is removed by using the iron (Fe)-ionizing module comprising an iron (Fe)-ionizing electrode consisting of an iron plate serving as a cathode and a titanium plate serving as an anode and an electrode-washing device. According to the present invention, an effluent treatment process of a sewage treatment plant and an electrode washing process needed for iron ionization can be simultaneously performed, the iron ionization is controlled depending on the concentration of phosphorus contained in the effluent, thereby improving effluent treatment efficiency.


Afsharpoor A.,Louisiana State University | Lee G.S.,Korea Rural Community Corporation | Kam S.I.,Louisiana State University
Chemical Engineering Science | Year: 2010

The use of foam for mobility control is a promising means to improve sweep efficiency in subsurface applications such as improved/enhanced oil recovery and aquifer remediation. Foam can be introduced into geological formations by injecting gas and surfactant solutions simultaneously or alternatively. Alternating gas and surfactant solutions, which is often referred to as surfactant-alternating-gas (SAG) processes, is known to effectively create fine-textured strong foams in situ by repeating drainage and imbibition processes. Recent studies show that foam rheology in porous media can be characterized by foam catastrophe theory which exhibits three foam states (weak-foam, strong-foam, and intermediate states) and two strong-foam regimes (high-quality and low-quality regimes). Using both mechanistic foam simulation technique and fractional flow analysis which are consistent with foam catastrophe theory, this study aims to understand the fundamentals of dynamic foam displacement during gas injection in SAG processes. The results revealed some important findings: (1) the complicated mechanistic foam fractional flow curves (fw vs. Sw) with both positive and negative slopes require a new way to solve the problem analytically rather than the typical method of constructing a tangent line from the initial condition; (2) none of the conventional mechanistic foam simulation and fractional flow analysis can fully capture sharply changing dynamic foam behavior at the leading edge of gas bank, which can be overcome by the pressure-modification procedure suggested in this study; (3) four foam model parameters (∇po, n, Cg/Cc, and Cf) can be determined systematically by using an S-shaped foam catastrophe curve, a two flow-regime map, and a coreflood experiment showing the onset of foam generation; and (4) at given input data set of foam simulation parameters, the inlet effect which explains a delay in strong-foam propagation near the core face is scaled by the system length, and therefore the change in system length requires a new set of individual lamella creation and coalescence parameters (Cg and Cc). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Park Y.,Kangwon National University | Lee J.-Y.,Kangwon National University | Kim J.-H.,Korea Rural Community Corporation | Song S.-H.,Korea Rural Community Corporation
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2012

Pollution of groundwater by seawater intrusion poses a threat to sustainable agriculture in the coastal areas of Korea. Therefore, seawater intrusion monitoring stations were installed in eastern, western, and southern coastal areas and have been operated since 1998. In this study, groundwater chemistry data obtained from the seawater intrusion monitoring stations during the period from 2007 to 2009 were analyzed and evaluated. Groundwater was classified into fresh (≤ 1,500 μS/cm), brackish (1,500-3,000 μS/cm), and saline (≥ 3,000 μS/cm) according to EC levels. Among groundwater samples (n = 233), 56, 7, and 37% were classified as the fresh, brackish, and saline, respectively. The major dissolved components of the brackish and saline groundwaters were enriched compared with those of the fresh groundwater. The enrichment of Na + and Cl - was especially noticeable due to seawater intrusion. Thus, the brackish and saline groundwaters were classified as Ca-Cl and Na-Cl types, while the fresh groundwater was classified as Na-HCO 3 and Ca-HCO 3 types. The groundwater included in the Na-Cl types indicated the effects of seawater mixing. Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Na +, K +, SO 4 2-, and Br - showed good correlations with Cl - of over r = 0.624. Of these components, the strong correlations of Mg 2+, SO 4 2-, and Br - with Cl - (r ≥ 0.823) indicated a distinct mixing between fresh groundwater and seawater. The Ca/Cl and HCO 3/Cl ratios of the groundwaters gradually decreased and approached those of seawater. The Mg/Cl, Na/Cl, K/Cl, SO 4/Cl, and Br/Cl ratios of the groundwaters gradually decreased, and were similar to or lower than those of seawater, indicating that Mg 2+, Na +, K +, SO 4 2-, and Br -, as well as Cl - in the saline groundwater can be enriched by seawater mixing, while Ca 2+ and HCO 3 - are mainly released by weathering processes. The influence of seawater intrusion was evaluated using threshold values of Cl - and Br -, which were estimated as 80.5 and 0.54 mg/L, respectively. According to these criteria, 41-50% of the groundwaters were affected by seawater mixing. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Kim K.Y.,Kangwon National University | Park Y.-G.,Korea Rural Community Corporation
Exploration Geophysics | Year: 2016

Microtremors were analysed using the reference-dependent horizontal spectral (H/H) method and the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (H/V) method to estimate site effects of the Cheongcheon earthen dam in Korea. Seismic vibrations were recorded on the dam's crest, at the toe of the dam, and in a downstream borehole using three-component accelerometers. The H/H peaks for crest versus toe-of-dam accelerations occurred at 3.1, 6.7 and 13.1Hz with ratios of 6.9, 11.4 and 8.9, respectively. The H/V peaks for the crest of the dam occurred at 3.0, 7.0 and 13.4Hz with ratios of 6.7, 7.8 and 5.6, respectively. The peak near 3Hz may correspond to depth to bedrock, whereas the other peaks at higher frequencies may reflect the geometrical effect of the dam or overtone responses to the thickness of dam fill overlying the clay core. For the toe data, from the H/V spectral ratio method, the basement boundary appeared as double peaks near 8 and 10Hz with corresponding amplification factors of 5.2 and 6.2. These may indicate a gradual change in velocity across the basement boundary at ∼10m depth. The third resonance, which occurred at 15Hz, may correlate with the refraction boundary at 5-6m depth in the overburden layer. Both the frequencies and magnitudes of resonance derived from the H/H and H/V methods are reasonably well matched to the theoretical response curves computed by the reflection and transmission matrix and the two-dimensional finite difference methods. © 2016 ASEG.


Song S.-H.,Korea Rural Community Corporation | Zemansky G.,Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2012

Groundwater systems in coastal aquifers may be affected by sea level change as increased seawater intrusion occurs with sea level rise. Artificial pumping taking place at the same time will increase this impact. In order to estimate the vulnerability of groundwater systems with sea level rise within coastal aquifers in South Korea, long-term groundwater data were analyzed using basic statistics, trend analysis, and correlation analysis. Conductivity depth profiling was also periodically conducted. Groundwater levels increased in wells with relatively low groundwater elevations but decreased in wells with higher groundwater elevations. At the same time, conductivity variations were greater in wells located in reclaimed land areas, which vertical conductivity profiles indicated were more affected by sea level variations, but decreased on the mainland. Results of auto-correlation analysis showed a decreasing trend with cyclic variations and significant periodic patterns during dry seasons, indicating that groundwater levels were not affected by artificial factors and that those in reclaimed land areas were less affected by rainfall than on the mainland. These results coincided with those from cross-correlation analysis showing that groundwater level was affected by sea level variation during the dry season. Sea level changes, which may be related to climate change, as well as rainfall in South Korea can influence groundwater levels, and the groundwater system in reclaimed land areas may be more affected than on the mainland, especially under dry conditions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Song S.-H.,Korea Rural Community Corporation | Zemansky G.,Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2013

Data for the Waimea Plains, New Zealand indicate that the lower confined groundwater aquifer is hydraulically homogeneous and that shallow groundwater levels inland are affected mostly by anthropogenic processes, while those near the coast are affected more by sea level variation. Analysis of long-term data for New Zealand indicates that sea level has increased continuously, but trends are not spatially uniform. Results from non-parametric trend analysis show that rising trends for groundwater levels are predominant in the shallow aquifer both inland on the Waimea Plains and, for recent years, near the coast, while decreasing trends are evident in the underlying confined aquifer near the coast. Groundwater level change in the shallow aquifer appears to be more affected by climate change than the lower confined aquifer. Correlation analysis indicated that groundwater levels are more affected by rainfall during the rainy season than the dry season and more influenced by rainfall inland than near the coast. Groundwater level declines in the lower confined aquifer near the coast, which has its major recharge area inland in the catchment, may be substantially affected by groundwater abstraction in inland areas as well as sea level variation, but there are little evidences of seawater intrusion. Meanwhile, groundwater recharge over the catchment area has great influence on rising groundwater levels in the shallow aquifer and its recharge is estimated to be 417.8 mm/year using chloride concentrations of precipitation and groundwater. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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