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Kim H.-J.,Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements KRIHS | Rhee K.-A.,Seoul National University | Kim J.-K.,Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements KRIHS | Oh S.-H.,Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements KRIHS
17th ITS World Congress | Year: 2010

Korea has been developed considerably last 40 years of such a short period at the first onset of Gyeongbu express highway, but recently road investment efficiency become a hot issue in terms of safety, environment and overlapping investment. Especially, under the government's drive for 'low carbon, green growth' there is a growing need to supply infrastructure in eco-friendly, safe way to achieve green technology. So various smart infrastructure policies are being supported or promoted through U-city, SMART-HIGHWAY as a new growth engine. In this study, we draw the effects of SMART-HIGHWAY on the decrease of amount of CO2.

Lee S.,Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements KRIHS | Vink K.,National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
Water Policy | Year: 2015

This study aimed to identify age groups vulnerable to flood fatalities and quantify their vulnerability by means of statistical methods. First, the study obtained data of 122 victims directly resulting from five flood disasters in the Philippines over the period 2010-2013 which was used to compare the number of flood fatalities in each age group with the population numbers. The chi-square goodness-of-fit test shows that only one age group, people aged ≥70, was vulnerable to flood fatalities. Vulnerabilities of people aged ≥70 and <70, respectively, were quantified in terms of mortality, i.e., the ratio of flood fatalities and affected people. This study obtained two lognormal distribution curves moderately describing histograms built with samples on the mortality of the two age groups. Based on probabilistic parameters of the selected lognormal distribution curves, the study concludes that people aged ≥70 have more than three times the vulnerability to the risk of flood fatality than people aged <70. It is also suggested that the age dependency ratio, which is widely used to consider demographic vulnerability in flood vulnerability studies, should not be applied to the Philippines. © 2015 IWA Publishing.

Lee G.,University of Malaya | Bae J.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Lee S.,Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements KRIHS | Jang M.,Kwangwoon University | Park H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2016

A genetic algorithm (GA) was combined with artificial neural networks (ANN), designated as neuro-genetic algorithm (NGA) in this study, to determine the effective number of nodes and optimal activated functions (FAs) in an ANN structure. Developed NGA was applied to predict Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations in one-month increments in Lakes used as drinking water sources. Correlation analysis was used to setup input parameters. A simulation was conducted for four study sites with the most serious Chl-a problems in South Korea. Results from correlation analysis have indicated that phosphate phosphorus (PO4-P) and electrical conductivity showed high correlation with Chl-a, a factor not often considered in other studies. As the results of prediction of one-month forward Chl-a concentration, NGA showed high accuracy, with averaged determination coefficients of 0.89 and 0.84 in training and testing period, respectively. Double hidden layers showed better performance than a single hidden layer, while a logistic sigmoid function was frequently selected by the genetic algorithm in hidden layers in comparison with linear and hyperbolic tangent function. Practical uses for NGA in proactive water quality management are also discussed in this study. © 2016 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

Lee S.,Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements KRIHS | Lee S.,Public Works Research Institute PWRI | Okazumi T.,Policy Bureau | Kwak Y.,Public Works Research Institute PWRI
Water Policy | Year: 2015

This study aims to contemplate possibilities and challenges in the current development of global flood disaster risk indicators (GFDRIs). To this end, methodological requirements are first identified from stakeholders' opinions included in the post-2015 UN Development process and the post-2015 Hyogo Framework for Actions process. Then, state-of-the-art methods are applied, as a preliminary attempt, to fourteen countries in Asia to understand how the GFDRI estimates plausibly describe the number of affected people and fatalities under the 50-year return period condition. The results show that GFDRIs are capable of overcoming the unavailability of data necessary to analyze flood inundation depths and areas, describing the number of people affected by flood events, using vulnerability proxies contextually meaningful to understand why flood fatalities disproportionally occur in less developed countries, and making GFDRIs simple, understandable and transparent estimates. Simultaneously, it is revealed that there is still much room to technically improve GFDRIs, especially in dealing with reluctance in assigning a single value to an indicator for a large area such as a country, inaccessibility to authorized disaster records, difficulties in showing the effectiveness of infrastructure such as dams and dykes, and lack of local knowledge about vulnerability. © IWA Publishing 2015.

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