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Ansan, South Korea

Yamaguchi H.,Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency | Ishizaka J.,Nagoya University | Siswanto E.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Baek Son Y.,Korea Ocean Satellite Center | And 2 more authors.
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2013

Seasonal and spring interannual variations in chlorophyll-. a (Chl) and total suspended matter (TSM) in the Yellow and East China Seas through a 10-year period were examined by using new datasets from Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem Ocean Color Project (YOC) algorithms. YOC SCHL calculations are based on a combination of the SeaWiFS standard algorithm and a local empirical algorithm for areas of low and high normalized water-leaving radiance 555. nm, respectively. YOC SCHL was lower than the standard SCHL in areas with high concentrations of resuspended sediment, especially along the Chinese and Korean coasts and around the Changjiang Bank from fall to spring. YOC SCHL was high in areas of low TSM in the middle of the Yellow Sea, and offshore of the Changjiang Bank in April, indicating the occurrence of spring blooms. In these areas, TSM was dominated by phytoplankton cells and phytoplankton-related organic particles. Offshore from the Changjiang River mouth and around the Changjiang Bank, YOC SCHL and TSM in March were low and high, respectively, with maximum YOC SCHL values occurring around the Changjiang Bank in May. Spring bloom started with decrease in resuspended sediment concentrations in these areas. During summer, YOC SCHL values were high and TSM concentrations were low; TSM was dominated by organic particles related to phytoplankton activity when Changjiang River diluted water moved from the river mouth to east of the bank. YOC SCHL in spring offshore from the Changjiang River mouth increased significantly during the 10 years, and correspond to an increase in red tide events. In the middle of the Yellow Sea, maximum YOC SCHL in spring increased gradually and significantly during the 10 years. Many of the spatial and temporal variations in YOC SCHL were consistent with a range of earlier in situ descriptions. Our results indicate that the satellite ocean data with proper algorithms is a powerful tool to analyze phytoplankton dynamics in moderate-high suspended sediment area. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Yang C.-S.,Korea Ocean Satellite Center | Song J.-H.,Korea Aerospace University
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2012

The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) instrument acquires eight channels of multispectral images, which consist of 16 slots positioned in four lines and columns. GOCI Level 1B data, therefore, consist of a mosaic of 16 images, geometrically corrected with the Image Navigation and Registration Software Module (INRSM) system based on automatic point landmark matching for each slot and band. A study of the geometric performance characteristics of the Level 1B data was conducted over a period from August 2010 to September 2011 using residual data from Bands 7 and 8. To evaluate the geometric performance in detail, this paper examines the following four types of image navigation and registration errors: navigation performance, within-frame registration, frame-to-frame registration, and band-toband registration. In addition to the performance statistics based on mosaic images, we used a slot-based analysis method for the rainy season (here, June 2011) to understand the local distribution of the geometric performance. From the image-based results, the navigation and frame-to-frame accuracies were better than 1 pixel and the band-to-band registration accuracy was better than 0.4 pixels, while the within-frame registration accuracy was less than 1 pixel. However, for the band-to-band performance, the percentage of observations that fell within the specifications was slightly less than 99.7% for all 240 frames from June 2011. The within-frame performance was much lower than the other performance categories and the residual error for the east-west direction was higher than that for the north-south direction. The results from the slotbased performance evaluation suggest that abnormal errors (e. g. above 53 μrad for navigation) occur in some slots, although the performance during an estimation period of 7 continuous days was within the desired criteria. © 2012 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Park K.-A.,Seoul National University | Woo H.-J.,Seoul National University | Ryu J.-H.,Korea Ocean Satellite Center
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2012

The spatial scales of mesoscale eddies are of importance to understand physio-biogeochemical processes in the East/Japan Sea. Chlorophyll-a concentration images from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) revealed numerous eddies during the phytoplankton bloom in spring. These eddies were manually digitized to obtain geolocation information at the peripheries from GOCI images and then least-square fitted to each ellipse. The elliptic elements were the geolocation position of the eddy center, the rotation angle from due east, the eccentricity, the lengths of the semi-major and semi-minor axes, and the mean radius of the ellipse. The spatial scales of eddies had a mean radii ranging from 10 km to 75 km and tended to be smaller in the northern region. The scales revealed a linear trend of about -7.26 km/°N as a function of the latitude. This tendency depended on the latitudinal variation of the internal Rossby radius of deformation, which originates from the substantial difference in the density structure of the water column. The scales from the sea surface temperature image were larger by 1.30 times compared to those from ocean color image. This implies that physical processes along the periphery of the eddy affect the nutrient dynamics. © 2012 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Lamquin N.,ACRI ST | Mazeran C.,ACRI ST | Doxaran D.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Ryu J.-H.,Korea Ocean Satellite Center | Park Y.-J.,Korea Ocean Satellite Center
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2012

The first Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) launched by South Korea in June 2010 constitutes a major breakthrough in marine optics remote-sensing for its capabilities to observe the diurnal cycles of the ocean. The light signal recorded at eight wavelengths by the sensor allows, after correction for Solar illumination and atmospheric effects, the retrieval of coloured biogeochemical products such as the chlorophyll, suspended sediment and coloured dissolved organic matter concentrations every hour between 9:00 am and 4:00 pm local time around the Korean peninsula. However operational exploitation of the mission needs beforehand a sound validation of first the radiometric calibration, i. e. inspection of the top-of-atmosphere reflectance, and second atmospheric corrections for retrieval of the water-leaving reflectance at sea surface. This study constitutes a contribution to the quality assessment of the GOCI radiometric products generated by the Korea Ocean Satellite Center (KOSC) through comparison with concurrent data from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, NASA) and MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS, ESA) sensors as well as in situ measurements. These comparisons are made with spatially and temporally collocated data. We focus on Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (ρ RC) and normalized remote-sensing marine reflectance (nRrs). Although GOCI compares reasonably well with MERIS and MODIS, what demonstrates the success of Ocean Colour in geostationary orbit, we show that the current GOCI atmospheric correction systematically masks out data over very turbid waters and needs further examination and correction for future release of the GOCI products. © 2012 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Lee K.H.,Kyungil University | Ryu J.H.,Korea Ocean Satellite Center | Ahn J.H.,Korea Ocean Satellite Center | Kim Y.J.,Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2012

Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was retrieved from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) on board the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the first time. AOT values were retrieved over the ocean at a spatial scale of 0.5 × 0.5 km2 by using the look-up table (LUT)-based separation technique. The radiative transfer model (RTM) was used for different models of atmosphere-ocean environmental conditions, taking into account the realistic variability of scattering and absorption. Ocean surface properties affected by whitecaps and pigment content were also taken into account. The results show that the radiance observed by the GOCI amounts to only 5% of the radiation that penetrated the ocean and, consequently, 95% of the radiation is scattered in the atmosphere or reflected at the ocean surface in the visible wavelengths longer than 0.6 ìm. Within these wavelengths, radiance variations at the top of atmosphere (TOA) due to pigment variations are within 10%, while the radiance variation due to wind speed is considerably higher. For verification of GOCI-retrieved AOTs, comparison between GOCI and ground-based sunphotometer measurement at Gosan, Korea (126.10°E, 33.23°N)) showed good correlation (r = 0.99). The GOCI observations obtained by using the proposed technique showed promising results for the daily monitoring of atmospheric aerosol loading as well as being useful for environmental supervisory authorities. © 2012 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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