Seoul, South Korea

Korea National Sport University
Seoul, South Korea

Korea National Sport University is a South Korean public university located in the neighborhood of Bangi-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul. It is the only national sport university of South Korea.Founded in December 1972, it opened its doors in March 1973. The university aims to educate and nurture excellent sportsmen and specialized sports coaches. All students majoring in physical education and sports guidance are required to live in the dormitory, and tuition and entrance fees are waived by the South Korean government. Wikipedia.

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Koo J.-H.,Korea National Sport University | Cho J.-Y.,Korea National Sport University
Neurotoxicity Research | Year: 2017

Accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) is significantly correlated with the presence of progressive motor deficits, which is the main symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although physical exercise reduces α-Syn levels, the molecular mechanisms by which physical exercise decreases α-Syn remain unclear. We hypothesized that treadmill exercise (TE) decreases α-Syn levels by improving mitochondrial function and promoting autophagy via the sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) signaling pathway in the chronic 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine with probenecid (MPTP/P)-induced mouse model of PD. We found that TE reduces α-Syn levels, which subsequently ameliorates dopaminergic (DAergic) neuron loss and α-Syn-mediated apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, TE increases SIRT1 expression, which results in increased mitochondrial biogenesis and decreased oxidative stress by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). SIRT1 activation by TE also promotes autophagic clearance of α-Syn by inducing the activation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3). Collectively, our results demonstrate that TE may reduce α-Syn levels by improving mitochondrial function and increasing autophagic flux, thereby ameliorating chronic MPTP/P-induced motor deficits in PD mice. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

Kim B.-S.,Sungshin Women's University | Kim M.-Y.,Inha University | Leem Y.-H.,Korea National Sport University
Neuroscience | Year: 2011

The present study investigated whether chronic exercise suppressed hippocampal neuronal death due to repeated stress followed by i.c.v. kainic acid (KA) injection, and whether cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activation contributed to the neuroprotective effect in this experimental paradigm. To achieve the objective, mice were subjected to treadmill running for 8 weeks (19 m/min, 1 h/d, 5 d/wk) followed by seven consecutive days of repeated restraint stress (2 h/d), and then i.c.v. injection of KA (0.05 μg/5 μL). Hippocampal neuronal death was assessed using Nissl staining, and protein levels were measured using Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Hippocampal neuronal loss in mice subjected to restraint stress and KA injection was exacerbated compared with KA injection alone, which was reversed in the hippocampal CA3 region with prior chronic exercise. To further identify the neuroprotective effects of chronic exercise administration on hippocampal insults by repeated stress, levels of stress-related factors were measured. First, there was no significant difference in serum corticosterone and glucocorticoid (Gc) receptor levels in mice with restraint alone and restraint combined with prior chronic exercise. Second, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite levels were significantly enhanced in restrained mice and were revered in restraint with chronic exercise. However, pCREB levels in the hippocampus in restraint mice with chronic exercise were profoundly increased compared with levels in restraint-alone mice. Among the MAPKs, pERK1/2 levels in restraint mice with chronic exercise were significantly higher than levels in mice with restraint alone. Furthermore, pCaMKII levels in restraint mice with chronic exercise were markedly elevated compared with levels in mice after restraint alone. Prior chronic exercise suppressed KA-induced hippocampal neuronal death in hippocampal CA3 region in restrained mice via declined ROS levels, which was lower MDA and nitrite levels, and activation of CREB, which was mediated by ERK1/2 and CaMKII, suggesting that chronic exercise exerts a protective effect on excitatory neurodegenerative disorders including epileptic seizure. © 2011 IBRO.

Cho H.-C.,Yong In University | Kim J.,Korea National Sport University | Kim S.,Yong In University | Son Y.H.,Chosun University | And 2 more authors.
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2012

The most current human-based studies in which brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the peripheral blood system are analyzed use it as an indicator that represents BDNF levels in the CNS. However, whether circulating BDNF (serum and plasma) is positively or inversely associated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels (VO 2max) is still controversial, and no study has done to investigate exercise effects on the concentration of BDNF stored in circulating platelets which, in fact, store a large amount of circulating BDNF. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the relation between VO 2max and all circulating BDNF levels (serum, plasma and platelets) in college male students (N=18; age, 19±1 years; height, 173.22±7.65cm; weight, 78.25±14.25kg; body fat percent, 13.82±5.68%). Dual X-ray energy absorptiometry whole body scan was used to measure their body composition. After the overnight fast, all participants were performed VO 2max test, and their blood was collected at rest and immediately after the exercise. Our data resulted in significant increases in platelet counts and serum, plasma and platelet BDNF levels immediately after the exercise (p<0.01). VO 2max had a significant negative correlation with serum BDNF, plasma BDNF and platelet BDNF at rest (p<0.05) but a significant positive correlation with serum, plasma BDNF, and platelet BDNF immediately after the exercise (p<0.01). However, our data show no correlation between VO 2max and platelet count both at rest and immediately after the exercise. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that basal BDNF levels are inversely correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels but that the inverse correlations turn into positive correlations with all circulating BDNF levels immediately after the exercise. Moreover, it is the first time to provide evidence that platelet BDNF levels are also positively affected by the exercise. However, future studies will be needed to investigate what tissues provide BDNF into the circulating system and to elucidate the role of circulating BDNF. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Leem Y.-H.,Korea National Sport University | Lee Y.-I.,Daegu University | Son H.-J.,Korea National Sport University | Lee S.-H.,Kangnam University
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2011

The objective of the present study was to investigate whether chronic endurance exercise attenuates the neuroinflammation in the brain of mice with NSE/htau23. In this study, the tau-transgenic (Tg) mouse, Tg-NSE/htau23, which over expresses human Tau23 in its brain, was subjected to chronic exercise for 3. months, from 16. months of age. The brains of Tg mice exhibited increased immunoreactivity and active morphological changes in GFAP (astrocyte marker) and MAC-1 (microglia marker) expression in an age-dependent manner. To identify the effects of chronic exercise on gliosis, the exercised Tg mice groups were treadmill run at a speed of 12. m/min (intermediate exercise group) or 19. m/min (high exercise group) for 1. h/day and 5. days/week during the 3. month period. The neuroinflammatory response characterized by activated astroglia and microglia was significantly repressed in the exercised Tg mice in an exercise intensity-dependent manner. In parallel, chronic exercise in Tg mice reduced the increased expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS. Consistently with these changes, the levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-ERK were markedly downregulated in the brain of Tg mice after exercise. In addition, nuclear NF-κB activity was profoundly reduced after chronic exercise in an exercise intensity-dependent manner. These findings suggest that chronic endurance exercise may alleviate neuroinflammation in the Tau pathology of Alzheimer's disease. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Kim C.-H.,Eulji University | Park M.,Eulji University | Kim H.,Korea National Sport University | Kim C.,Eulji University
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background: Obesity is a major health problem. It is associated with cardiovascular disease. The diagnosis of obesity is crucial to treating and preventing obesity-related medical problems. Objective: The objective was to determine optimal percentage body fat cutoffs in Korean adults for predicting obesity-related cardiovascular disease risk factors. Design: We evaluated the body composition and prevalence of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, in 41,088 Korean adults aged 18-92 y. The optimal percentage body fat cutoffs for Korean adults were determined. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of overweight and obesity were estimated by logistic regression. Results: The first cutoffs in men and women were 17% and 32% body fat, respectively; the second cutoffs were 21% and 37% body fat, respectively. The percentages of obese men and women were 41.8% and 15.9%, respectively. The adjusted OR of at least one risk factor for overweight or obesity in men was 2.22 (95% CI: 2.07, 2.38) or 4.05 (95% CI: 3.78, 4.33). The adjusted OR for women was 1.95 (95% CI: 1.79, 2.07; P < 0.0001) or 3.21 (95% CI: 2.87, 3.57). Conclusions: Only one-fourth of Korean men had a normal body composition, whereas most of the Korean women had a normal body composition. We conclude that susceptibility to cardiovascular disease and its risk factors is higher in Korean men than in Korean women. The cutoffs are useful for providing adequate guidelines for treating and preventing cardiovascular disease. This was the first study to determine cutoffs of percentage body fat for Korean adults. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.

Yoon J.H.,Korea National Sport University | So W.-Y.,Seoul Womens University
Iranian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: In Korea, hypertension has become more prevalent with the Westernization of Korean diets and lack of exercise. This study aimed at investigating the associations between physical fitness variables and hypertension status in Korean women. Methods: The subjects were 9,216 women aged >20 years who visited a public health promotion center for physical fitness tests. Cardiovascular respiratory fitness was evaluated using VO2max, resting heart rate (RHR), double product (DP), and vital capacity and coordination-related physical fitness was measured using grip strength, number of sit-ups completed, sit-and-reach score, vertical jump height, number of side steps performed, and 1-leg standing with eyes open. Results: The prevalence rates of prehypertension and hypertension were 30.3% and 12.9% in this study, respectively. After adjusting for age, body mass index, drinking frequency, smoking intensity, and exercise intensity, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were calculated, and no statistically significant association was found between hypertension and physical fitness as measured by grip strength (P = 0.056), number of sit-ups completed (P = 0.140), and vertical jump height (P = 0.121). However, significant associations were found between hypertension and VO2max (P < 0.001), RHR (P < 0.001), DP (P < 0.001), vital capacity (P < 0.001), sit-and-reach score (P = 0.012), the number of side steps performed (P = 0.001), and 1-leg standing with eyes open (P < 0.001). Conclusion: We found that all the cardiovascular respiratory fitness variables and half of the motor- and coordination-related physical fitness variables were closely related with hypertension status.

Kim H.J.,Korea National Sport University
Amino acids | Year: 2011

Doubtful allegations of adverse effects of creatine supplementation have been released through the press media and through scientific publications. In the present review we have tried to separate the wheat from the chaff by looking for the experimental evidence of any such claims. Anecdotal reports from athletes have appeared on muscle cramp and gastrointestinal complaints during creatine supplementation, but the incidence of these is limited and not necessarily linked to creatine itself. Despite several unproved allegations, liver (enzymes, urea) and kidneys (glomerular filtration urea and albumin excretion rates) show no change in functionality in healthy subjects supplemented with creatine, even during several months, in both young and older populations. The potential effects (production of heterocyclic amines) of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity induced by creatine supplementation have been claimed by a French Sanitary Agency (AFSSA), which might put consumers at risk. Even if there is a slight increase (within the normal range) of urinary methylamine and formaldehyde excretion after a heavy load of creatine (20 g/day) this is without effect on kidney function. The search for the excretion of heterocyclic amines remains a future task to definitively exclude the unproved allegation made by some national agencies. We advise that high-dose (>3-5 g/day) creatine supplementation should not be used by individuals with pre-existing renal disease or those with a potential risk for renal dysfunction (diabetes, hypertension, reduced glomerular filtration rate). A pre-supplementation investigation of kidney function might be considered for reasons of safety, but in normal healthy subjects appears unnecessary.

Park S.-K.,Korea National Sport University | Park S.-K.,University of Calgary | Stefanyshyn D.J.,University of Calgary
Clinical Biomechanics | Year: 2011

Background: A greater Q-angle has been suggested as a risk factor for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. Greater frontal plane knee moment and impulse have been found to play a functional role in the onset of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome in a running population. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between Q-angle and the magnitude of knee abduction moment and impulse during running. Methods: Q-angle was statically measured, using a goniometer from three markers on the anterior superior iliac spine, the midpoint of the patella and the tibial tuberosity. Thirty-one recreational runners (21 males and 10 females) performed 8-10 trials running at 4 m/s (SD 0.2) on a 30 m-runway. Absolute and normalized knee moment and impulse were calculated and correlated with Q-angle. Findings: Negative correlations between Q-angle and the magnitude of peak knee abduction moment (R2 = 0.2444, R = - 0.4944, P = 0.005) and impulse (R2 = 0.2563, R = - 0.5063, P = 0.004) were found. Additionally, negative correlations between Q-angle and the magnitude of weight normalized knee abduction moment (R2 = 0.1842, R = - 0.4292, P = 0.016) and impulse (R2 = 0.2304, R = - 0.4801, P = 0.006) were found. Interpretation: The findings indicate that greater Q-angle, which is actually associated with decreased frontal plane knee abduction moment and impulse during running, may not be a risk factor of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kim G.S.,Korea National Sport University
Obesity research & clinical practice | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Recently, osteocalcin (OC), an osteoblast-derived hormone, has been suggested as a new link between obesity and insulin resistance in humans. However, few studies regarding the relationship between OC and obesity in Asian children have been published. We investigated the association of OC with adiposity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean children.METHODS: Two hundred and nine (100 boys, 109 girls) children (age: 9.78 ± 1.05 years, body mass index (BMI): 22.27 ± 5.34 kg/m(2)) participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance, lipid profiles, total OC, and an inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured. MetS phenotype was also determined.RESULTS: Serum total OC levels were significantly lower in overweight or obese children (76.96 ± 27.08 ng/ml vs. 66.91 ± 21.39 ng/ml, p = 0.020) and it was negatively associated with body fat after controlling for age, gender and BMI. Serum total OC concentrations were significantly lower in participants with central obesity or at least two components of MetS driven by waist circumference than they were in those with none. Stepwise linear regression results also showed that serum total OC was partially explained by age, gender, waist-to-hip ratio, and fasting glucose.CONCLUSIONS: This study supported a negative association between serum total OC and adiposity in children. OC may be associated with childhood central obesity; however, further research using more accurate measurements is needed to identify the association between these variables. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kim E.,Korea National Sport University | Lee J.H.,Kyung Hee University
PM and R | Year: 2014

Objective: To determine the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) compared with dextrose prolotherapy (DP) in patients with chronic recalcitrant plantar fasciitis (PF). Design: A single-blinded, randomized, controlled study. Setting: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of a university hospital. Participants: Twenty-one patients with a clinical diagnosis of chronic PF confirmed by diagnostic ultrasound (plantar fascia thickness >4mm) were randomly assigned to the PRP group (n= 10) or the DP group (n= 11). Interventions: Each patient received 2 injections into the plantar fascia through a peppering technique under ultrasound guidance at an interval of 2 weeks, either with 2 mL of autologous PRP or 2 mL of 15% dextrose/lidocaine solution. Main Outcome Measurements: The outcome measures included the pain, disability, and activity limitation subscales, measured by means of the Foot Functional Index. Data were collected before the first injection, at 2 weeks (before the second injection), and at the 2- and 6-month follow-ups. Results: All patients completed the follow-ups, with the exception of 1 patient in the PRP group. The mean Foot Functional Index total and subcategory score improvements were greater in the PRP group compared with the DP group (improvement with PRP vs DP, total: 30.4% vs 15.1%, pain: 29.7% vs 17.1%, disability: 26.6% vs 14.5%, activity limitation: 28.0% vs 12.4%). However, no statistically significant difference was noted at any follow-up. In the pain and disability subcategories, both groups showed significant improvements at the last re-evaluation. The PRP group also showed significant improvements in the disability and activity limitation subscales at the second re-evaluation. Conclusions: Each treatment seems to be effective for chronic recalcitrant PF, expanding the treatment options for patients in whom conservative care has failed. PRP treatment also may lead to a better initial improvement in function compared with DP treatment. © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

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