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Lee S.,Sookmyung Womens University | Lee H.,Sookmyung Womens University | Lee J.-Y.,Korea Livestock Products HACCP Accreditation Service | Skandamis P.,Agricultural University of Athens | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2013

In this study, mathematical models were developed to predict the growth probability and kinetic behavior of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh pork skin during storage at different temperatures. A 10-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated on fresh pork skin (3 by 5 cm) at 4 log CFU/cm 2. The inoculated samples were stored aerobically at 4, 7, and 10°C for 240 h, at 15 and 20°C for 96 h, and at 25 and 30°C for 12 h. The Baranyi model was fitted to L. monocytogenes growth data on PALCAM agar to calculate the maximum specific growth rate, lag-phase duration, the lower asymptote, and the upper asymptote. The kinetic parameters were then further analyzed as a function of storage temperature. The model simulated growth of L. monocytogenes under constant and changing temperatures, and the performances of the models were evaluated by the root mean square error and bias factor (B f). Of the 49 combinations (temperature | sampling time), the combinations with significant growth (P <, 0.05) of L. monocytogenes were assigned a value of 1, and the combinations with nonsignificant growth (P ≥ 0.05) were given a value of 0. These data were analyzed by logistic regression to develop a model predicting the probabilities of L. monocytogenes growth. At 4 to 10°C, obvious L. monocytogenes growth was observable after 24 h of storage; but, at other temperatures, the pathogen had obvious growth after 12 h of storage. Because the root mean square error value (0.184) and Bf (1.01) were close to 0 and 1, respectively, the performance of the developed model was acceptable, and the probabilistic model also showed good performance. These results indicate that the developed model should be useful in predicting kinetic behavior and calculating growth probabilities of L. monocytogenes as a function of temperature and time. © International Association for Food Protection.


Kim H.-W.,Konkuk University | Lee J.Y.,Korea Livestock Products HACCP Accreditation Service | Hong W.S.,Sangmyung University | Hwang S.-M.,Neo Systems Co. | And 3 more authors.
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2010

HACCP is a scientific and systematic program that identifies specific hazards and gives measurements in order to control them and ensure the safety of foods. Transportation of livestock and its products is one of the vulnerable sectors regarding food safety in Korea, as meats are transported by truck in the form of a carcass or packaged meat in a box. HACCP application and its acceleration of distribution, in particular transportation, are regarded as important to providing consumers with ultimately safe livestock products. To achieve this goal, practical tools for HACCP application should be developed. Supply chain management (SCM) is a holistic and strategic approach to demand, operations, procurement, and logistics process management. SCM has been beneficially applied to several industries, notably in vehicle manufacture and the retail trade. HACCP-based real-time visibility system using wireless application (WAP) of the livestock distribution is centralized management system that enables control of temperature and HACCP management in real-time for livestock transportation. Therefore, the application of HACCP to livestock distribution (transportation, storage, and sale) can be activated. Using this system, HACCP management can be made easier, and distribution of safe livestock products can be achieved.


Lee J.-Y.,Korea Livestock Products HACCP Accreditation Service | Suk H.-J.,Korea Livestock Products HACCP Accreditation Service | Lee H.,Sookmyung Womens University | Lee S.,Sookmyung Womens University | Yoon Y.,Sookmyung Womens University
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2012

This study calculated kinetic parameters of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and developed a probabilistic model to estimate growth probabilities of E. coli O157:H7 on polyethylene cutting boards as a function of temperature and time. The surfaces of polyethylene coupons (3×5 cm) were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 NCCP11142 at 4 Log CFU/cm2. The coupons were stored at 13 to 35°C for 12 h, and cell counts of E. coli O157:H7 were enumerated on McConkey II with sorbitol agar every 2 h. Kinetic parameters (maximum specific growth rate, Log CFU/cm2/h; lag phase duration, h; lower asymptote, Log CFU/cm2; upper asymptote, Log CFU/cm2) were calculated with the modified Gompertz model. Of 56 combinations (temperature×time), the combinations that had ≥0.5 Log CFU/cm2 of bacterial growth were designated with the value of 1, and the combinations that had increases of <0.5 Log CFU/cm2 were given the value 0. These growth response data were fitted to the logistic regression to develop the model predicting probabilities of E. coli O157:H7 growth. Specific growth rate and growth data showed that E. coli O157:H7 cells were grown at 28-35°C, but there were no obvious growth of the pathogen below 25°C. Moreover, the developed probabilistic model showed acceptable performance to calculate growth probability of E. coli O157:H7. Therefore, the results should be useful in determining upper limits of working temperature and time, inhibiting E. coli O157:H7 growth on polyethylene cutting board.


Yoon H.,Sookmyung Womens University | Lee J.-Y.,Korea Livestock Products HACCP Accreditation Service | Suk H.-J.,Korea Livestock Products HACCP Accreditation Service | Lee S.,Sookmyung Womens University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2012

This study developed models to predict the growth probabilities and kinetic behavior of Salmonella enterica strains on cutting boards. Polyethylene coupons (3 by 5 cm) were rubbed with pork belly, and pork purge was then sprayed on the coupon surface, followed by inoculation of a five-strain Salmonella mixture onto the surface of the coupons. These coupons were stored at 13 to 35°C for 12 h, and total bacterial and Salmonella cell counts were enumerated on tryptic soy agar and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD) agar, respectively, every 2 h, which produced 56 combinations. The combinations that had growth of ≥0.5 log CFU/cm2 of Salmonella bacteria recovered on XLD agar were given the value 1 (growth), and the combinations that had growth of <0.5 log CFU/cm2 were assigned the value 0 (no growth). These growth response data from XLD agar were analyzed by logistic regression for producing growth/no growth interfaces of Salmonella bacteria. In addition, a linear model was fitted to the Salmonella cell counts to calculate the growth rate (log CFU per square centimeter per hour) and initial cell count (log CFU per square centimeter), following secondary modeling with the square root model. All of the models developed were validated with observed data, which were not used for model development. Growth of total bacteria and Salmonella cells was observed at 28, 30, 33, and 35°C, but there was no growth detected below 20°C within the time frame investigated. Moreover, various indices indicated that the performance of the developed models was acceptable. The results suggest that the models developed in this study may be useful in predicting the growth/no growth interface and kinetic behavior of Salmonella bacteria on polyethylene cutting boards. © International Association for Food Protection.


Chang K.H.,Konkuk University | Park S.-H.,Dongwon Korea Ginseng Co. | Jee H.-S.,Konkuk University | Kim K.-T.,Konkuk University | And 2 more authors.
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

White ginseng extract (WGE) was hydrolyzed with organic acids to increase the yield of ginsenoside Rg3 which has high bio-functional activities. The condition of hydrolysis by citric acid was studied to maximize a production of ginsenoside Rg3. The total content of ginsenoside Rg3 in WGE treated with 10% citric acid at 110°C for 1 h was 10-folds greater than that of commercial extract. The antitumor and antioxidant activities of WGE and the acid-hydrolysates were evaluated via an MTT assay and the DPPH method, respectively. At 1.0 mg/mL, hydrolysates inhibited the proliferation of AGS and Hep-2 cells by more than 90%, but did not inhibit their growth. It suggests that citric acid hydrolysis enhances the content of Rg3. In addition, the acid hydrolysates evidenced a free radical scavenging activity of 80% at a concentration of 4.0 mg/mL, while WGE exhibited only a 49% free radical scavenging activity at the same concentration. © 2014 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Lee N.-K.,Konkuk University | Kim H.W.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Lee J.Y.,Korea Livestock Products HACCP Accreditation Service | Ahn D.U.,Iowa State University | And 2 more authors.
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2015

The microbial distribution of raw materials and beef jerky, and the effect of nisin on the growth of Bacillus cereus inoculated in beef jerky during storage, were studied. Five strains of pathogenic B. cereus were detected in beef jerky, and identified with 99.8% agreement using API CHB 50 kit. To evaluate the effect of nisin, beef jerky was inoculated with approximately 3 Log CFU/g of B. cereus mixed culture and nisin (100 IU/g and 500 IU/g). During the storage of beef jerky without nisin, the number of mesophilic bacteria and B. cereus increased unlikely for beef jerky with nisin. B. cereus started to grow after 3 d in 100 IU nisin/g treatment, and after 21 d in 500 IU nisin/g treatment. The results suggest that nisin could be an effective approach to extend the shelf-life, and improve the microbial safety of beef jerky, during storage.


Park Y.-S.,Gachon University | Lee J.-Y.,Korea Livestock Products HACCP Accreditation Service
Meat Science | Year: 2012

The effects of kimchi and freeze-dried kimchi-powder added to raw meat mixtures on the microbiological quality of fermented sausage were studied. The results clearly demonstrated that the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) integrated via the addition of kimchi as well as kimchi-powder were well adapted to the new habitat of fermenting sausage, reaching maximum numbers of 8.65-8.80log 10cfu/g after 1-2days of fermentation. In all kimchi and kimchi-powder sausages, the growth of Enterobacteriaceae was completely inhibited throughout the processing period (<2log 10cfu/g). The sausage batches containing more than 10% kimchi and 2% kimchi-powder showed no growth of S. aureus, whereas the control and another kimchi sausage batch reflected the growth of S. aureus (3.68-4.72log 10cfu/g). As a result, the addition of kimchi (≥10%) and kimchi-powder to the sausage mixture prior to fermentation produced the microbiological stability required for fermented sausages. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Lee J.-Y.,Korea Livestock Products HACCP Accreditation Service | Paik J.K.,Sangmyung University | Hwang H.S.,Sangmyung University | Lee J.E.,Yonsei University | And 4 more authors.
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2010

Considering the increasing trends of the consumption of livestock products in Korea, proper hygienic management and policies for ensuring their safety to protect public health and strengthen consumer confidence are demanded. It is particularly important to manage the livestock distribution processes to provide safe meat and meat products. This study was conducted to examine factors related to the hygiene management of livestock products and to check out the condition of hygienic management in meat markets. To accomplish this, 156 meat markets divided into HACCP-certified and non certified and evaluated for five factors, which received the following scores: facility and equipment management (1.00/2.0 points, 50.0%), storage and transport management (1.93/2.0 points, 96.5%), work place management (0.76/2.0 points, 38.0%), personal hygiene management (0.75/2.0 points, 37.5%), and inspection management (0.22/2.0 points, 11.0%). The results revealed that the scores of HACCP-certified meat markets were significantly higher than those of the non certified markets (p< 0.05, p< 0.01, p< 0.001). These findings suggest that meat markets that are not HACCP-certified must improve hygienic management conditions and educate their employees to improve the safety of livestock products during distribution.


Ahn S.H.,Konkuk University | Lee Y.J.,Konkuk University | Lee J.-Y.,Korea Livestock Products HACCP Accreditation Service | Paik H.-D.,Konkuk University
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2012

In this study, ready-to-cook (RTC) pork bulgogi was investigated microbiologically to determine contamination levels. The investigation was conducted because of an increasing trend in the consumption of RTC meat products in Korea. Ninety marinated RTC pork bulgogi samples were collected from major retail outlets (M) department stores (D), and local markets (L) in Seoul, Korea from March to June 2011. This study examined total plate counts (TPC), Escherichia coli, and coliform bacterial counts, and the presence of Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and E. coli O157:H7. The mean TPC values were 5.89, 6.08, and 5.89 Log CFU/g for M, D, and L, respectively. E. coli was not detected in any sample, but coliforms were present in 72 (80%) of the 90 samples collected. B. cereus, E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. were not detected; however, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were detected in five (5.5%) and one (1.1%) of the 90 samples. Samples collected from M and D were contaminated with S. aureus and those from L with L. monocytogenes. These results demonstrate that the conditions under which RTC pork bulgogis are handled and processed are unsanitary.


Kim J.-H.,Konkuk University | Rhim S.-R.,Konkuk University | Kim K.-T.,Konkuk University | Paik H.-D.,Konkuk University | Lee J.-Y.,Korea Livestock Products HACCP Accreditation Service
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2014

A rapid and specific PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus in foods was developed to reduce the detection time and to increase sensitivity. Multiplex PCR developed in this study produced only actA, fliC, hbl, invA, ileS amplicons, but did not produce any non-specific amplicon. The primer sets successfully amplified the target genes in the multiplex PCR without any non-specific or additional bands on the other strains. The multiplex PCR assays also amplified some target genes from five pathogens, and multiplex amplification was obtained from as little as 1 pg of DNA. According to the results from the sensitivity evaluation, the multiplex PCR developed in this study detected 10 cells/mL of the pathogens inoculated in milk samples, respectively. The results suggested that multiplex PCR was an effective assay demonstrating high specificity for the simultaneous detection of five target pathogens in food system.

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