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Lim S.,Korea International Cooperation Agency
Globalizations | Year: 2014

Abstract: This study raises the question of what determines compliance with the OECD DAC framework on the basis of a case study of South Korea. This research argues that fragmented institutional structures limit the bureaucratic capacity for greater compliance. At the same time, the findings illustrate that lack of interest from dominant institutions can limit the consolidation of political will for change at the national level. This study has implications for future DAC donors in that special and peer reviews can be useful methodologies to identify current limitations for change. Finally, the study emphasises the importance of consolidated political will in terms of readiness to adopt global standards at the domestic level before commencing membership and obligatory processes. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

Lee Y.-H.,Chungnam National University | Jeong H.G.,Korea Association of Health Promotion | Kong W.H.,Korea Association of Health Promotion | Lee S.-H.,Korea Association of Health Promotion | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in Sudan, particularly Schistosoma haematobium infection. This study presents the disease-reduction outcomes of an integrated control program for schistosomiasis in Al Jabalain locality of White Nile State, Sudan from 2009 through 2011.The total population of the project sites was 482,902, and the major target group for intervention among them was 78,615 primary school students. For the cross-sectional study of the prevalence, urine and stool specimens were examined using the urine sedimentation method and the Kato cellophane thick smear method, respectively. To assess the impacts of health education for students and a drinking water supply facility at Al Hidaib village, questionnaire survey was done.The overall prevalence for S. haematobium and S. mansoni at baseline was 28.5% and 0.4%, respectively. At follow-up survey after 6–9 months post-treatment, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced to 13.5% (95% CI = 0.331–0.462). A higher reduction in prevalence was observed among girls, those with moderately infected status (around 20%), and residents in rural areas, than among boys, those with high prevalence (>40%), and residents in urban areas. After health education, increased awareness about schistosomiasis was checked by questionnaire survey. Also, a drinking water facility was constructed at Al Hidaib village, where infection rate was reduced more compared to that in a neighboring village within the same unit. However, we found no significant change in the prevalence of S. mansoni infection between baseline and follow-up survey (95% CI = 0.933–6.891).At the end of the project, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced by more than 50% in comparison with the baseline rate. Approximately 200,000 subjects had received either praziquantel therapy, health education, or supply of clean water. To consolidate the achievements of this project, the integrated intervention should be adapted continuously. © 2015 Lee et al. Source

Choi S.-J.,Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources | Jeon J.S.,Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources | Choi J.-H.,Korea Basic Science Institute | Kim B.,Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources | And 3 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

The Korean Peninsula is located in the intraplate regime of the Eurasian plate, and numerous historical and instrumental earthquakes have been recorded. Among these, the largest earthquakes were recorded in and around the Gyeongju and Ulsan areas in the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. We recently reexamined faults in Jinhyun and Jintee, part of the Ulsan fault swarm, to clarify the average slip rate and the maximum potential magnitude of future earthquakes. The Jinhyun fault extends to the Tabgol fault (J-T fault), and the Jintee fault extends to the Singye (S-J fault). The faults cut through alluvial fans and are covered by unconsolidated granite washes on Tertiary granite. All of these faults show reverse sense of motion such that the Tertiary granite has been moved upward with a high angle relative to the Quaternary sediments. Most sediment samples from the Jinhyun and Jintee faults showed quartz OSL ages of ca. 40-60 ka. The calculated vertical slip rate for the Jinhyun and Jintee faults is in the range of 0.18-0.28 mm/y. Based on maximum earthquake magnitudes calculated from geological survey results as well as historical and instrumental earthquake information, the maximum potential magnitudes of future earthquakes in the Gyeongju area are estimated to range from 4.6 to 5.6. This suggests that the potential maximum magnitude in the southern Korean Peninsula is presumably not more than 6. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source

Cha S.,Korea International Cooperation Agency | Cha S.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Cho Y.,Seoul National University
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

Under-5 child mortality decreased throughout the world by 49% from 1990 to 2013. However, it is unknown if this reduction was more effectively achieved in countries with a higher child mortality burden. We investigated the reduction of cause-specific global child mortality burden in 2000-2010. A total of 195 countries were selected for this analysis. A random-effect or fixed-effect model was chosen based on the Hausman test. Countries with a higher child mortality rate performed better with regard to the prevention of child deaths from major infectious diseases, but cause-specific progress was highly variable by disease within each country. Pneumonia-specific progress was much slower than that for diarrhea, and neonatal-specific child mortality increased in some countries. With a few exceptions, the overall performance in the countries with the largest share of child deaths was not good. This study identified priority interventions for child survival in the post-2015 period. © 2015 Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health. Source

Jung S.,Seoul Development Institute | Doh Y.-A.,Korea International Cooperation Agency | Bizuneh D.B.,Center for Development Research | Beyene H.,Health Bureau | And 7 more authors.
Trials | Year: 2016

Background: Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death, killing 1.3 million in 2013 across the globe, of whom, 0.59 million were children under 5 years of age. Globally, about 1 billion people practice open defecation, and an estimated 2.4 billion people were living without improved sanitation facilities in 2015. Much of the previous research investigating the effect of improved sanitation has been based on observational studies. Recent studies have executed a cluster-randomized controlled trial to investigate the effect of improved sanitation. However, none of these recent studies achieved a sufficient level of latrine coverage. Without universal or at least a sufficient level of latrine coverage, a determination of the effect of improved latrines on the prevention of diarrheal disease is difficult. This cluster-randomized trial aims to explore the net effect of improved latrines on diarrheal prevalence and incidence in children under five and to investigate the effect on the diarrheal duration. Method/design: A phase-in and factorial design will be used for the study. The intervention for improving latrines will be implemented in an intervention arm during the first phase, and the comparable intervention will be performed in the control arm during the second phase. During the second phase, a water pipe will be connected to the gotts (villages) in the intervention arm. After the second phase is completed, the control group will undergo the intervention of receiving a water pipe connection. For diarrheal prevalence, five rounds of surveying will be conducted at the household level. The first four rounds will be carried out in the first phase to explore the effect of improved latrines, and the last one, in the second phase to examine the combined effects of improved water and sanitation. For documentation of diarrheal incidence and duration, the mother or caregiver will record the diarrheal episodes of her youngest child on the "Sanitation Calendar" every day. Of 212 gotts in the project area, 48 gotts were selected for the trial, and 1200 households with a child under 5 will be registered for the intervention or control arm. Informed consent from 1200 households will be obtained from the mother or caregiver in written form. Discussion: To our knowledge, this is the second study to assess the effects of improved latrines on child diarrheal reduction through the application of Community-Led Total Sanitation. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN82492848. © 2016 Jung et al. Source

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