Korea Institute of Sports Science

Seoul, South Korea

Korea Institute of Sports Science

Seoul, South Korea

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Lim S.-T.,Dong - A University | Min S.-K.,Korea Institute of Sports Science | Kwon Y.-C.,Dong - A University | Park S.-K.,Dong - A University | Park H.,Dong - A University
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2015

Objective: Cathepsin L (CatL), cathepsin S (CatS), and arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) are potent elastases implicated in human arterial wall remodeling. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of intermittent exercise on the plasma concentrations of these cathepsins and arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules in night shift workers. Methods: Thirty male participants who were night shift workers (experimental group, n = 15; control group, n = 15) were included in this study. The experimental group performed an intermittent exercise at 10-min bouts (30 min per day), three days a week during 10 weeks. Body composition, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease risk factors were measured. Results: After intermittent exercise, significant group time interactions for body weight (p < .01) and body fat percentage (p < .01) were found. With regard to cardiovascular disease risk factors, group time interactions for CatL (p < .01), CatS (p < .01), MCP-1 (p < .05), sE-selectin (p < .01), and sVCAM-1 (p < .01) were significant. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that intermittent exercise may represent an effective intervention strategy for preventing atherosclerosis, thus leading to improved cardiovascular health in night shift workers. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | Inje University, Korea University and Korea Institute of Sports Science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of exercise rehabilitation | Year: 2016

Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts both axonal pathways and segmental spinal cord circuity, resulting in permanent neurological deficits. Physical exercise is known to increase the expression of neurotrophins for improving the injured spinal cord. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on locomotor function in relation with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression after SCI. The rats were divided into five groups: control group, sham operation group, sham operation and exercise group, SCI group, and SCI and exercise group. The laminectomy was performed at the T9-T10 level. The exposed dorsal surface of the spinal cord received contusion injury (10 g 25 mm) using the impactor. Treadmill exercise was performed 6 days per a week for 6 weeks. In order to evaluate the locomotor function of animals, Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale was conducted once a week for 6 weeks. We examined BDNF expression and axonal sprouting in the injury site of the spinal cord using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. SCI induced loss of locomotor function with decreased BDNF expression in the injury site. Treadmill exercise increased the score of BBB locomotor scale and reduced cavity formation in the injury site. BDNF expression and axonal sprouting within the trabecula were further facilitated by treadmill exercise in SCI-exposed rats. The present study provides the evidence that treadmill exercise may facilitate recovery of locomotor function through axonal regeneration via BDNF expression following SCI.


Park H.,Cornell University | Kim S.,Cornell University | Morris K.,Cornell University | Moukperian M.,Cornell University | And 2 more authors.
Applied Ergonomics | Year: 2015

The biomechanical experiment with eight male and four female firefighters demonstrates that the effect of adding essential equipment: turnout ensemble, self-contained breathing apparatus, and boots (leather and rubber boots), significantly restricts foot pronation. This finding is supported by a decrease in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral excursion of center of plantar pressure (COP) trajectory during walking. The accumulation of this equipment decreases COP velocity and increases foot-ground contact time and stride time, indicating increased gait instability. An increase in the flexing resistance of the boots is the major contributor to restricted foot pronation and gait instability as evidenced by the greater decrease in excursion of COP in leather boots (greater flexing resistance) than in rubber boots (lower resistance). The leather boots also shows the greatest increase in foot contact time and stride time. These negative impacts can increase musculoskeletal injuries in unfavorable fire ground environments. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society.


PubMed | Cornell University, Korea Institute of Sports Science and Austin International Inc.
Type: | Journal: Applied ergonomics | Year: 2015

The biomechanical experiment with eight male and four female firefighters demonstrates that the effect of adding essential equipment: turnout ensemble, self-contained breathing apparatus, and boots (leather and rubber boots), significantly restricts foot pronation. This finding is supported by a decrease in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral excursion of center of plantar pressure (COP) trajectory during walking. The accumulation of this equipment decreases COP velocity and increases foot-ground contact time and stride time, indicating increased gait instability. An increase in the flexing resistance of the boots is the major contributor to restricted foot pronation and gait instability as evidenced by the greater decrease in excursion of COP in leather boots (greater flexing resistance) than in rubber boots (lower resistance). The leather boots also shows the greatest increase in foot contact time and stride time. These negative impacts can increase musculoskeletal injuries in unfavorable fire ground environments.


Kim J.-E.,Kyung Hee University | Shin M.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Seo T.-B.,Korea Institute of Sports Science | Ji E.-S.,Sangmyung University | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2013

Autism is a neurological disorder that occurs during childhood and is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors. Abnormalities of the cerebellum in autism include Purkinje cell loss and motor disturbance. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on motor coordination and balance in correlation with reelin expression and the rate of apoptosis in the cerebellum of autistic rat pups. For the induction of the autism-like animal models, 400 mg/kg valproic acid was subcutaneously injected into rat pups on postnatal day 14. Rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min, once a day, five times a week for 4 weeks, starting on postnatal day 28. Motor coordination and balance, as measured using the rotarod test and vertical pole test, were affected by the induction of autism. By contrast, treadmill exercise ameliorated motor dysfunction in the autistic rat pups. The expression levels of reelin, GAD67 and cyclin D1 in the cerebellum of the autistic rat pups were decreased, while the expression levels of these molecules were increased in autistic rat pups who engaged in treadmill exercise. In the cerebellum of the autistic rat pups, Bcl-2 expression was decreased and Bax expression was increased. By contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced Bcl-2 expression and suppressed Bax expression. The therapeutic effect of treadmill exercise on motor deficits may be due to the reelin-mediated anti-apoptotic effect on cerebellar Purkinje neurons.


PubMed | Korea Institute of Sports Science and Seoul National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The bone & joint journal | Year: 2016

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia and to examine its impact on patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS).This case-control study included two groups: one group consisting of patients with DLSS and a second group of control subjects without low back or neck pain and related leg pain. Five control cases were randomly selected and matched by age and gender (n = 77 cases and n = 385 controls) for each DLSS case. Appendicular muscle mass, hand-grip strength, sit-to-stand test, timed up and go (TUG) test, and clinical outcomes, including the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores and the EuroQol EQ-5D were compared between the two groups.The prevalence of sarcopenia, as defined by hand-grip strength, was significantly higher in the DLSS group (24%) when compared with the age- and gender-matched control group (12%) (p = 0.004). In the DLSS group, the sarcopenia subgroup demonstrated inferior results for the TUG test and ODI scores when compared with the non-sarcopenia subgroup (p=0.006 and p = 0.039, respectively) after adjusting for age and gender.This study demonstrated a higher prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with DLSS and highlighted its negative effect on clinical outcomes. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1093-8.


Seo T.-B.,Korea Institute of Sports Science | Kim T.-W.,Kyung Hee University | Shin M.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Ji E.-S.,Kyung Hee University | And 4 more authors.
International Neurourology Journal | Year: 2014

Purpose: Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) is a possible consequence of several neurological disorders. NLUTD may produce debilitating symptoms and serious complications, such as chronic renal failure, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Many animal studies of NLUTD symptoms have focused on animal models of cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on memory function and its relation to cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus, following transient global ischemia in gerbils. Methods: To induce transient global ischemia in gerbil, both common carotid arteries were occluded for 5 minutes. Gerbils in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill exercise for 30 minutes once a day for 2 weeks. Step-down avoidance task and Y maze task were performed. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)- staining, immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2′-deoxyridine, doublecortin, caspase-3, and Western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c, caspase-3 were conducted. Results: Ischemia caused memory impairment with an increase of cell proliferation, BDNF expression, and apoptosis in the hippocampus. Treadmill exercise improved memory function with further increase of cell proliferation and BDNF expression and a decrease of apoptosis. Conclusions: The animal model that we have developed and our assessment of the relation between exercise and brain function can be useful tools for future investigations of NLUTD symptoms associated with stroke, particularly ischemic stroke. The present study suggests that treadmill exercise promoted the recovery of brain function after cerebral ischemia. © 2014 Korean Continence Society.


Lee K.,Nippon Sport Science University | Lee K.,Korea Institute of Sports Science | Ochi E.,Okayama University | Song H.,Korea Institute of Sports Science | Nakazato K.,Nippon Sport Science University
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2015

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to regulate protein metabolism in skeletal muscle. We previously found that levels of Forkhead box proteins, FoxO1 and FoxO3a, and myostatin in rat gastrocnemius increased after exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Eccentric muscle contractions (ECs), defined as elongation of muscle under tension, were used for inducing EIMD. The objective of this study was to clarify whether AMPK participates in activation and expression of FoxO proteins and myostatin in rat gastrocnemius muscle after EIMD. Wistar rats were randomly assigned into the following three groups; CON (n = 6), 180ECs group (ankle angular velocity, 180°/s; n = 6), and 30ECs group (ankle angular velocity, 30°/s; n = 6). 20 ECs were conducted with percutaneous electrical stimulation of gastrocnemius and simultaneous forced dorsiflexion of ankle joint (from 0° to 45°). To evaluate activation of AMPK, we measured the phosphorylated states of AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase. For evaluation of the direct relationships of AMPK and other proteins, we also examined contents of FoxOs and myostatin with stimulation of L6 myotube with AMPK agonist, 5 -aminoimidazole -4 -carboxamide -1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) (0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mM). Western blotting was employed for protein analysis. Significant torque deficit was only observed in the 180ECs, suggesting EIMD. We also observed that phosphorylated AMPKα was induced in response to 180ECs (p < 0.01 vs. CON). Additionally, the level of phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase was significantly higher in response to 180ECs and 30ECs. The phosphorylated states of FoxO1, FoxO3a, and myostatin expression were increased significantly in response to 180ECs. Furthermore, treatment of L6 myotubes with AICAR showed similar tendencies to that observed in in vivo gastrocnemius muscle treated with 180ECs. Therefore, we conclude that activation of AMPK plays a key role in increasing the level of FoxO1, FoxO3a, and myostatin in gastrocnemius after EIMD. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.All rights reserved.


PubMed | Okayama University, Korea Institute of Sports Science and Nippon Sport Science University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications | Year: 2015

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to regulate protein metabolism in skeletal muscle. We previously found that levels of Forkhead box proteins, FoxO1 and FoxO3a, and myostatin in rat gastrocnemius increased after exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Eccentric muscle contractions (ECs), defined as elongation of muscle under tension, were used for inducing EIMD. The objective of this study was to clarify whether AMPK participates in activation and expression of FoxO proteins and myostatin in rat gastrocnemius muscle after EIMD. Wistar rats were randomly assigned into the following three groups; CON (n=6), 180ECs group (ankle angular velocity, 180/s; n=6), and 30ECs group (ankle angular velocity, 30/s; n=6). 20 ECs were conducted with percutaneous electrical stimulation of gastrocnemius and simultaneous forced dorsiflexion of ankle joint (from 0 to 45). To evaluate activation of AMPK, we measured the phosphorylated states of AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase. For evaluation of the direct relationships of AMPK and other proteins, we also examined contents of FoxOs and myostatin with stimulation of L6 myotube with AMPK agonist, 5 -aminoimidazole -4 -carboxamide -1--d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) (0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2mM). Western blotting was employed for protein analysis. Significant torque deficit was only observed in the 180ECs, suggesting EIMD. We also observed that phosphorylated AMPK was induced in response to 180ECs (p<0.01 vs. CON). Additionally, the level of phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase was significantly higher in response to 180ECs and 30ECs. The phosphorylated states of FoxO1, FoxO3a, and myostatin expression were increased significantly in response to 180ECs. Furthermore, treatment of L6 myotubes with AICAR showed similar tendencies to that observed in invivo gastrocnemius muscle treated with 180ECs. Therefore, we conclude that activation of AMPK plays a key role in increasing the level of FoxO1, FoxO3a, and myostatin in gastrocnemius after EIMD.


Kim J.-E.,Kyung Hee University | Ji E.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Seo J.-H.,Kyung Hee University | Lee M.-H.,Kyung Hee University | And 4 more authors.
Animal Cells and Systems | Year: 2012

Depression is one of the most prevalent diseases of alcohol abuse. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in cell survival in the hippocampus. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) is induced by BDNF, and it regulates cell proliferation and differentiation in the brain. We investigated the effects of alcohol intake on depression-like behavior, cell proliferation, expressions of BDNF and its downstream molecules in the hippocampus using Mongolian gerbils. The gerbils were divided into four groups: control group, 0.5 g/kg alcohol-treated group, 1 g/kg alcohol-treated group, 2 g/kg alcohol-treated group. Each dose of alcohol was orally administered for 3 weeks. The present results demonstrated that alcohol intake induced depression-like behavior. Both 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and its synthesizing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the dorsal raphe and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by alcohol intake. Alcohol intake suppressed BDNF expression, and resulted in the decrease of its downstream molecules, pERK1/2 and Bcl-2, in the hippocampus. We showed that alcohol intake may lead to a depressed-like state with reduced hippocampal cell proliferation through inhibition of the BDNF-ERK signaling pathway. © 2012 Copyright Korean Society for Integrative Biology.

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