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Kim J.-E.,Kyung Hee University | Shin M.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Seo T.-B.,Korea Institute of Sports Science | Ji E.-S.,Sangmyung University | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2013

Autism is a neurological disorder that occurs during childhood and is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors. Abnormalities of the cerebellum in autism include Purkinje cell loss and motor disturbance. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on motor coordination and balance in correlation with reelin expression and the rate of apoptosis in the cerebellum of autistic rat pups. For the induction of the autism-like animal models, 400 mg/kg valproic acid was subcutaneously injected into rat pups on postnatal day 14. Rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min, once a day, five times a week for 4 weeks, starting on postnatal day 28. Motor coordination and balance, as measured using the rotarod test and vertical pole test, were affected by the induction of autism. By contrast, treadmill exercise ameliorated motor dysfunction in the autistic rat pups. The expression levels of reelin, GAD67 and cyclin D1 in the cerebellum of the autistic rat pups were decreased, while the expression levels of these molecules were increased in autistic rat pups who engaged in treadmill exercise. In the cerebellum of the autistic rat pups, Bcl-2 expression was decreased and Bax expression was increased. By contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced Bcl-2 expression and suppressed Bax expression. The therapeutic effect of treadmill exercise on motor deficits may be due to the reelin-mediated anti-apoptotic effect on cerebellar Purkinje neurons.

Kim J.-E.,Kyung Hee University | Ji E.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Seo J.-H.,Kyung Hee University | Lee M.-H.,Kyung Hee University | And 4 more authors.
Animal Cells and Systems | Year: 2012

Depression is one of the most prevalent diseases of alcohol abuse. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in cell survival in the hippocampus. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) is induced by BDNF, and it regulates cell proliferation and differentiation in the brain. We investigated the effects of alcohol intake on depression-like behavior, cell proliferation, expressions of BDNF and its downstream molecules in the hippocampus using Mongolian gerbils. The gerbils were divided into four groups: control group, 0.5 g/kg alcohol-treated group, 1 g/kg alcohol-treated group, 2 g/kg alcohol-treated group. Each dose of alcohol was orally administered for 3 weeks. The present results demonstrated that alcohol intake induced depression-like behavior. Both 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and its synthesizing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the dorsal raphe and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by alcohol intake. Alcohol intake suppressed BDNF expression, and resulted in the decrease of its downstream molecules, pERK1/2 and Bcl-2, in the hippocampus. We showed that alcohol intake may lead to a depressed-like state with reduced hippocampal cell proliferation through inhibition of the BDNF-ERK signaling pathway. © 2012 Copyright Korean Society for Integrative Biology.

Seo T.-B.,Korea Institute of Sports Science | Kim T.-W.,Kyung Hee University | Shin M.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Ji E.-S.,Kyung Hee University | And 4 more authors.
International Neurourology Journal | Year: 2014

Purpose: Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) is a possible consequence of several neurological disorders. NLUTD may produce debilitating symptoms and serious complications, such as chronic renal failure, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Many animal studies of NLUTD symptoms have focused on animal models of cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on memory function and its relation to cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus, following transient global ischemia in gerbils. Methods: To induce transient global ischemia in gerbil, both common carotid arteries were occluded for 5 minutes. Gerbils in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill exercise for 30 minutes once a day for 2 weeks. Step-down avoidance task and Y maze task were performed. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)- staining, immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2′-deoxyridine, doublecortin, caspase-3, and Western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c, caspase-3 were conducted. Results: Ischemia caused memory impairment with an increase of cell proliferation, BDNF expression, and apoptosis in the hippocampus. Treadmill exercise improved memory function with further increase of cell proliferation and BDNF expression and a decrease of apoptosis. Conclusions: The animal model that we have developed and our assessment of the relation between exercise and brain function can be useful tools for future investigations of NLUTD symptoms associated with stroke, particularly ischemic stroke. The present study suggests that treadmill exercise promoted the recovery of brain function after cerebral ischemia. © 2014 Korean Continence Society.

Lim S.-T.,Dong - A University | Min S.-K.,Korea Institute of Sports Science | Kwon Y.-C.,Dong - A University | Park S.-K.,Dong - A University | Park H.,Dong - A University
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2015

Objective: Cathepsin L (CatL), cathepsin S (CatS), and arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) are potent elastases implicated in human arterial wall remodeling. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of intermittent exercise on the plasma concentrations of these cathepsins and arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules in night shift workers. Methods: Thirty male participants who were night shift workers (experimental group, n = 15; control group, n = 15) were included in this study. The experimental group performed an intermittent exercise at 10-min bouts (30 min per day), three days a week during 10 weeks. Body composition, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease risk factors were measured. Results: After intermittent exercise, significant group time interactions for body weight (p < .01) and body fat percentage (p < .01) were found. With regard to cardiovascular disease risk factors, group time interactions for CatL (p < .01), CatS (p < .01), MCP-1 (p < .05), sE-selectin (p < .01), and sVCAM-1 (p < .01) were significant. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that intermittent exercise may represent an effective intervention strategy for preventing atherosclerosis, thus leading to improved cardiovascular health in night shift workers. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Kim E.,Korea University | Park J.,Korea Institute of Sports Science
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine | Year: 2011

To investigate how mild symptomatic patellar tendinopathy (PT) affects quadriceps contractions and the Fente motion, this casecontrol study examined elite fencers who continue to train and play fully with mild tendon pains. Twenty-four elite fencers (10 women) with mild symptomatic PT and 24 controls (10 women) participated in the study. Concentric/eccentric isokinetic strength of the quadriceps was tested, and peak torque and total work were recorded. Kinematic data from the knee during the Fente motion were collected. The first analysis period (P1) was after heel contact to the maximal flexion of the knee, and the second (P2) was right after P1 to heel-off. Normalized peak torque and work of concentric/eccentric contractions were not significantly different. Affected fencers demonstrated significantly reduced angular velocities at P2 (p = 0.042). The male fencers did not demonstrate any differences. The affected female fencers demonstrated significantly weaker concentric peak torque at 60°·s-1 (p = 0.009) and 180°·s-1 (p = 0.047) and less concentric work at 60°·s-1 (p = 0.020). They also demonstrated significantly reduced average angular velocities at P2 (p = 0.001). Therefore, mild symptomatic PT seems to have an effect on the isokinetic concentric contraction of the quadriceps and the angular velocity of the knee during the backward Fente motion in elite female fencers who are participating fully in training and competition. © Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.

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