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The Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Satellite 4 is an ultraviolet telescope in a satellite. It is funded by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute, and was launched on 27 September 2003 into an Earth orbit with a height between 675 and 695 km. Wikipedia.


Lee I.-O.,Samsung | Moon G.-W.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2014

A half-bridge integrated zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) full-bridge converter with reduced conduction loss for battery on-board chargers in electric vehicles (EVs) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is proposed in this paper. The proposed converter features a reduction in primary-conduction loss and a lower secondary-voltage stress. In addition, the proposed converter has the most favorable characteristics as battery chargers as follows: a full ZVS capability and a significantly reduced output filter size due to the improved output waveform. In this paper, the circuit configuration, operation principle, and relevant analysis results of the proposed converter are described, followed by the experimental results on a prototype converter realized with a scale-downed 2-kW battery charger for EVs or PHEVs. The experimental results validate the theoretical analysis and show the effectiveness of the proposed converter as battery on-board chargers for EVs or PHEVs. © 1982-2012 IEEE.


Choung J.-Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Hwang H.-R.,Daejeon Development Institute
Scientometrics | Year: 2013

The recent trend of rapid growth in the scientific and engineering activities in East Asian Newly Industrializing Economies (NIEs) resulted in a change in the structure of world knowledge production. In South Korea, particularly, not only the numbers of publications have increased, but there is a noticeable change in the composition of scientific and engineering activities. This paper notes the most of the research on the knowledge production of advanced countries, along with a handful of studies about the knowledge production of latecomers. Recent changes in the patterns of knowledge production in latecomer countries provoke the deeper understanding about the underlying mechanisms of ongoing change. Therefore, this paper explores the patterns of knowledge production activities in latecomers by analyzing scientific and engineering capabilities using empirical evidence from Korea. The results suggest that the patterns of accumulation of knowledge production in Korea gradually evolved from engineering to scientific activities. Important policy implications can be drawn from the findings for supporting scientific and engineering research activity in the latecomers in general and NIEs in particular. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


He S.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Kim I.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Lim M.S.,University of Michigan | Morrison S.J.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Genes and Development | Year: 2011

A key question concerns the mechanisms that determine temporal identity in stem cells. Fetal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) differ from adult HSCs in terms of gene expression profile, surface marker expression, differentiation, and self-renewal capacity. We previously showed that the transcription factor SOX17 is expressed by fetal, but not adult, HSCs and is required for the maintenance of fetal and neonatal, but not adult, HSCs. In the current study, we show that ectopic expression of Sox17 in adult HSCs and transiently reconstituting multipotent progenitors was sufficient to confer increased self-renewal potential and the expression of fetal HSC genes, including fetal HSC surface markers. Sox17 expression enabled transiently reconstituting adult progenitors to give long-term multilineage reconstitution that resembled fetal hematopoiesis, including increased erythropoiesis, increased myelopoiesis, and decreased lymphopoiesis. Long-term ectopic expression of Sox17 eventually led to leukemogenesis. These data demonstrate that SOX17 is sufficient to confer fetal HSC characteristics to adult hematopoietic progenitors and is therefore a key determinant of fetal HSC identity. © 2011 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.


Lee E.-S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND:: Default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity is one of the neuroimaging candidate biomarkers of Alzheimer disease. However, no studies have investigated DMN connectivity at different stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of DMN connectivity and its breakdown among cognitively normal (CN), early MCI (EMCI), and late MCI (LMCI) subjects. METHODS:: Magnetic resonance imaging data and neuropsychological test scores from 130 subjects (CN=43, EMCI=47, LMCI=40) were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. DMN functional connectivity was extracted using independent components analysis and compared between groups. RESULTS:: Functional connectivity in the precuneus, bilateral medial frontal, parahippocampal, middle temporal, right superior temporal, and left angular gyri was decreased in EMCI subjects compared with CN subjects. When the 2 MCI groups were directly compared, LMCI subjects exhibited decreased functional connectivity in the precuneus, bilateral medial frontal gyri, and left angular gyrus. There was no significant difference in gray matter volume among the 3 groups. Amyloid-positive EMCI subjects revealed more widespread breakdown of DMN connectivity than amyloid-negative EMCI subjects. A quantitative index of DMN connectivity correlated well with measures of cognitive performance. CONCLUSIONS:: Our results suggest that the breakdown of DMN connectivity may occur in the early stage of MCI. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved


Park K.-T.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Entomological Science | Year: 2011

Two new species of the genus Telephata Meyrick which has been known to be monotypic, T. melanista, sp. nov. and T. ferruginula, sp. nov., are described from Papua New Guinea. A known species from the island, Lecithocera nitens Daikonoff, is transferred to this genus; Telephata nitens (Diakonoff), comb. nov. Keys to the species of Telephata, based on external and genital characters are given, along with illustrations of adults, wing venations, and male genitalia. © 2011 The Entomological Society of Japan.


Avestro A.-J.,Northwestern University | Belowich M.E.,Northwestern University | Stoddart J.F.,Northwestern University | Stoddart J.F.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

The quest to construct mechanically interlocked polymers, which present precise monodisperse primary structures that are produced both consistently and with high efficiencies, has been a daunting goal for synthetic chemists for many years. Our ability to realise this goal has been limited, until recently, by the need to develop synthetic strategies that can direct the formation of the desired covalent bonds in a precise and concise fashion while avoiding the formation of unwanted kinetic by-products. The challenge, however, is a timely and welcome one, as a consequence of, primarily, the potential for mechanically interlocked polymers to act as dynamic (noncovalent) yet robust (covalent) new materials for a wide array of applications. One such strategy which has been employed widely in recent years to address this issue, known as Dynamic Covalent Chemistry (DCC), is a strategy in which reactions operate under equilibrium and so offer elements of "proof-reading" and "error-checking" to the bond forming and breaking processes such that the final product distribution always reflects the thermodynamically most favourable compound. By coupling DCC with template-directed protocols, which utilise multiple weak noncovalent interactions to pre-organise and self-assemble simpler small molecular precursors into their desired geometries prior to covalent bond formation, we are able to produce compounds with highly symmetric, robust and complex topologies that are otherwise simply unobtainable by more traditional methods. Harnessing these strategies in an iterative, step-wise fashion brings us ever so much closer towards perfecting the controlled synthesis of high order main-chain mechanically interlocked polymers. This tutorial review focuses (i) on the development of DCC - namely, the formation of dynamic imine bonds - used in conjunction with template-directed protocols to afford a variety of mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) and ultimately (ii) on the synthesis of highly ordered poly[n]rotaxanes with high conversion efficiencies. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.


Yoo H.-J.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine | Year: 2013

Wearable health care is part of the more general category of wearable computers or wearable electronics. Wearable electronics and wearable computers appeared in the mid-1990s, when the computer was regarded as the ultimate equipment for information processing and before laptop computers, tablet computers, and smartphones. At that time, people tried to find what kind of portable form factors would be good for the computer as an information device for daily living. Wearable computers refers to miniature electronic devices that are worn under, with, or on top of clothing [1]. With the help of humancomputer interaction (HCI) technology, which previously made use of the ?windows? concept, as Web browsers do, by means of a graphic user interface (GUI), wearable electronics have tried to use other modalities for HCI beyond the display and keyboard. In many respects, the current smartphone has already achieved the computing power the early wearable computers aimed at. But in addition to the smartphone?s strong computing power, more human body?compatible, wearable IO devices and sensors are necessary so that users can experience the full benefits of mobile computing, which the smartphone and tablet PC have begun to open up. In many applications, the user?s skin, hands, voice, eyes, and arms, as well as the user?s motion or attention, are actively exploited in appropriate engagement with the physical environment. Of course, this area shares many basic technologies with the mobile computing, ambient intelligence, and ubiquitous-computing research communities, including those that handle power management and heat dissipation, software architectures, and wireless and personal-area networks. © 2009-2012 IEEE.


Rigorous quantum mechanical transport calculations based on the multi-band k · p Hamiltonian are performed in this work to show that the coupling of heavy and light holes (LHs) greatly reduces on-state hole current in ultra-scaled p-type Si nanowire FETs. If the coupling between the heavy and light holes is artificially suppressed, on-current of the p-type devices almost doubles and becomes comparable to that of n-type counterparts. It is found that the effect of the coupling on the hole transport is maximized at the channel width of around 5 nm. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.


Thompson M.K.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
International Journal of Engineering Education | Year: 2012

The boundaries between engineering design and business are becoming increasingly blurred and the need to produce innovative, entrepreneurial engineering students is growing. This work explores the meaning of innovation and how innovation is currently included in undergraduate curricula. It presents an 8 element model for encouraging innovation in cornerstone design courses based on a required cornerstone design course at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). The difficulty in measuring innovation in student design projects is discussed, the limitations of proxies for innovation such as patents and publications are demonstrated, and the impact of national and disciplinary culture on innovation proxiesis examined. The challenges and limitations in continuing design projects after the end of the semester and for incubating technology developed during the semester at KAIST are described and a follow-up course on innovation and entrepreneurship is proposed. © 2012 TEMPUS Publications.


Flacke T.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Kong K.,University of Kansas | Park S.C.,Sungkyunkwan University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

The discovery of a Higgs boson and precise measurements of its properties open a new window to test physics beyond the standard model. Models with Universal Extra Dimensions are not an exception. Kaluza-Klein excitations of the standard model particles contribute to the production and decay of the Higgs boson. In particular, parameters associated with third generation quarks are constrained by Higgs data, which are relatively insensitive to other searches often involving light quarks and leptons. We investigate implications of the 126 GeV Higgs in next-to-minimal Universal Extra Dimensions, and show that boundary terms and bulk masses allow a lower compactification scale as compared to in minimal Universal Extra Dimensions. © 2013 The Authors.


Kim J.-G.,Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials | Lee P.-S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2015

In this paper, we propose a new component mode synthesis method by enhancing the Craig-Bampton (CB) method. To develop the enhanced CB method, the transformation matrix of the CB method is enhanced considering the effect of residual substructural modes and the unknown eigenvalue in the enhanced transformation matrix is approximated by using O'Callahan's approach in Guyan reduction. Using the newly defined transformation matrix, original finite element models can be more accurately approximated by reduced models. For this reason, the accuracy of the reduced models is significantly improved with a low additional computational cost. We here present the formulation details of the enhanced CB method and demonstrate its performance through several numerical examples. © 2015John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Lee N.,Samsung | Lim J.-B.,Samsung | Chun J.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2010

In this paper, we study a network information flow problem for a multiple-inputmultiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian wireless network with three users each equipped with M antennas and a single intermediate relay equipped with N antennas. In this network, each user intends to convey independent messages for two different users via the intermediate relay while receiving two independent messages from the other two users. This is a generalized version of the two-way relay channel for the three-user case. We will call it a MIMO Y channel. For this MIMO Y channel, we show that the capacity is 3M log (SNR)+o((rm SNR)) if N≥ [3M/2] by using two novel signaling techniques, which are signal space alignment for network coding, and network-coding-aware interference nulling beamforming. © 2006 IEEE.


Kang Y.S.,Myongji University | Lee H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2010

Given increasing investment in an IT (information technology) artifact (i.e., online service website), it is becoming important to retain existing customers. In order to help link website design and investment decisions to the strategy for retaining customers, we propose a model by extending the user satisfaction perspective into research on online service continuance. We empirically tested the model within the context of a social network service. The analysis results found that website information satisfaction and system satisfaction play key roles in forming continuance intention through perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment. It is also noted that computer anxiety serves as an important moderator toward continuance intention. Theoretical and practical implications are offered for better understanding of the role of the IT artifact in online service post-adoption phenomena. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lee J.H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Lee J.M.,Seoul National University
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering | Year: 2014

This review covers key developments and trends in chemical process control during the past two decades. Control methodologies and related supporting technologies are covered, and recent trends in applications are also examined. After the widespread adoption of model-based techniques by industry, control interest has begun to move beyond the traditional realm of readily measured variables to include chemical compositions and particle features. However, the shift is being slowed by the shortage of accurate, reliable, and inexpensive sensing devices. Although the past two decades saw no new major theoretical or methodological advances, several important incremental improvements and extensions have been made to help the ripening of the technologies developed in the preceding two decades. Control is regaining its importance owing to society's renewed focus on energy and the maturation of various emerging technologies, but a community-wide consensus on what general problems should be solved is lacking. © 2014 by Annual Reviews.


Kwon M.-S.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | Shin J.-S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

We theoretically and experimentally investigate 90° submicrometer radius bends (SRB) of metal-insulator-siliconinsulator- metal (MISIM) waveguides that are plasmonic waveguides fabricated with standard CMOS technology. We focus on the bends of MISIM waveguides with a wide (e.g., 160-220 nm) silicon line. This study shows that the bend efficiently turns the direction of the MISIM waveguide by 90° if its radius is about 0.7 μm. Moreover, we discuss the fact that the bend may be superior to a SRB of a silicon photonic waveguide when it is used to implement a ring resonator with a high quality factor and small volume. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Lee Y.S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2014

Many companies invest in various marketing efforts, such as price promotion and advertising, in order to attract new customers and build customer loyalty. This paper examines the problem of setting efficient inventory levels when new marketing efforts are made and product demand is autocorrelated. We assume that the inventory manager operates with a base stock policy based on a critical fractile. If marketing has a temporary effect, the underlying demand tends to revert to a long-term equilibrium trend and the inventory manager needs to use a stationary demand model (e.g., autoregressive model) to determine the required inventory level. In contrast, if the effect is permanent, demand shocks contain an element that represents a permanent departure from previous levels and a non-stationary demand model (e.g., random walk) needs to be used instead.We show that the required inventory behaves much differently for the case of using a stationary demand model as opposed to a non-stationary model, but it is difficult in practice to identify a correct demand model in the absence of a long sampling span. In this paper, we propose an inventory model that explicitly acknowledges uncertainty over stationary and non-stationary demand models in response to new marketing efforts. The proposed model averages the inventory policies of the two demand models, weighted by each model's posterior probability. This is an extension of Bayesian model averaging. Simulation results demonstrate that the Bayesian model averaging inventory model improves the inventory system. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lee H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

Shape-controlled nanoparticles with well-defined facets can be used as heterogeneous catalysts with enhanced activity and selectivity. The surface crystalline structure has a significant effect on the surface reaction, and shape control can be a way to obtain a desirable surface structure to improve the catalytic properties of nanoparticles. The shape of the nanoparticle can be formed by controlling the nucleation and overgrowth steps. Surface-capping agents are typically used to prevent aggregation of the nanoparticles during the overgrowth, but the subsequent treatment for their removal should be performed carefully. The extent of surface cleanness and the type of organic remnant can yield different catalytic properties. The surface agents, however, can also contribute to modulating the electronic structure or oxidation state of the surface, inducing improved catalytic activity and durability. Examples showing enhancements in the activity and selectivity of shape-controlled nanoparticles with well-defined facets are presented in this review, including electrocatalytic reactions, coupling reactions of organic compounds, water-gas shift reactions, CO oxidation, reforming reactions, and photocatalytic reactions. The well-defined facets control the adsorption of reactants to the surface, bond cleavage at the surface, desorption of products from the surface, and degree of surface-poisoning, resulting in enhanced activity and selectivity. However, the issues of shape preservation and mass production should be addressed further to apply the shaped nanoparticles in practical applications. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Jang I.G.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Kim I.Y.,Queens University
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2010

In this study, we developed a numerical framework that computationally determines simultaneous and interactive structural changes of cortical and trabecular bone types during bone remodeling, and we investigated the structural correlation between the two bone types in human proximal femur. We implemented a surface remodeling technique that performs bone remodeling in the exterior layer of the cortical bone while keeping its interior area unchanged. A micro-finite element (μFE) model was constructed that represents the entire cortical bone and full trabecular architecture in human proximal femur. This study simulated and compared the bone adaptation processes of two different structures: (1) femoral bone that has normal cortical bone shape and (2) perturbed femoral bone that has an artificial bone lump in the inferomedial cortex. Using the proposed numerical method in conjunction with design space optimization, we successfully obtained numerical results that resemble actual human proximal femur. The results revealed that actual cortical bone, as well as the trabecular bone, in human proximal femur has structurally optimal shapes, and it was also shown that a bone abnormality that has little contribution to bone structural integrity tends to disappear. This study also quantitatively determined the structural contribution of each bone: when the trabecular adaptation was complete, the trabecular bone supported 54% of the total load in the human proximal femur while the cortical bone carried 46%. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kim T.,Chosun University | Kwon S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2012

The design, construction, and flight test of a fuel cell-powered small unmanned aircraft are described. A fuel cell system featuring a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell combined with a hydrogen generator, which serves as a new power source alternative to the existing batteries, is proposed. The hydrogen generator uses a catalytic hydrolysis reaction to extract hydrogen from an alkaline solution of sodium borohydride, and constructed with a reactor, pump, separator, and fuel cartridge. Considering the performance characteristics of the fuel cell, the hybrid power management of a fuel cell and a battery was contrived. The fuel cell stack, hydrogen generator, and power management system were evaluated at the various load conditions. A high efficiency unmanned aircraft was designed and fabricated to validate the possibility of the proposed fuel cell system, and a small flight control system was developed for a high endurance test flight. Wind-tunnel tests were conducted before the flight tests under actual flight conditions. The possibility for the utilization of a fuel cell in a small aircraft was validated through the fuel cell powered flight test. The fuel cell aircraft flew for 2 h without incidents in the fuel cell system. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Jung C.,Globalfoundries | Lee T.-E.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing | Year: 2012

Cluster tools are automated production cells which are largely used for semiconductor manufacturing. They consist of several processing modules (PMs) and a transportation robot. Since cluster tools have limited buffers and diverse scheduling requirements such as complex wafer flow patterns, parallel PMs, wafer residency time constraints, and dual-arm robot, and so on, their scheduling problems are difficult. Due to the diversity of scheduling problems, dealing with those problems one by one may be impractical. Computational complexity is another difficulty. In this paper, we propose an efficient scheduling method to deal with diverse complex cluster tool scheduling problems by using timed Petri nets (TPN). We propose TPN models of cluster tools with various scheduling requirements. Then, based on the TPN models and their state equations, we develop a new mixed integer programming (MIP) model that can efficiently determine the optimal cyclic schedules. We show that many kinds of scheduling requirements such as parallel, reentrant and multiple material flows, a dual-armed robot, and time constrained PMs can be dealt with by the MIP model. Through experiments, we also show that the MIP model can efficiently solve most practical cluster tool scheduling problems. © 2012 IEEE.


Kim S.Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Ocean Dynamics | Year: 2014

Local and remote wind-coherent responses of sea surface heights (SSHs) off the US West Coast (USWC) are described with statistical and analytical models. The wind transfer functions are statistically derived from surface wind stress at National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys, located within 50 km from the shoreline, and detided SSHs (SSH anomalies; SSHAs) at shoreline tide gauges for 15 years (1995 to 2009) using linear regression in the frequency domain. A two-dimensional analytical model constrained by the coastal boundary provides a dynamical framework to interpret the data-derived statistical model. Although both transfer functions agree well at low frequency [σ ≤ 0.4 cycles per day (cpd)], they appear to be inconsistent at high frequency (σ ≥ 0.8 cpd; e.g., diurnal and its harmonic frequencies) because of incoherent signals between wind stress and SSHAs as well as their low signal-to-noise ratios. A multivariate regression analysis using wind stress at multiple wind buoys is implemented with a modified expectation maximization. The cross-validated skill increases and becomes saturated as the number of regression basis functions increases, demonstrating the influence of local and remote winds. The skill computed from all available winds off the USWC has a maximum as 0.1 in southern California, 0.2 to 0.3 in central California, and 0.3 to 0.5 in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The residual SSHAs, incoherent components with all available coastal wind stress off the USWC, still contain poleward propagating signals, considered as components forced by remote winds outside of the domain. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Sheng M.,Genentech | Kim E.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2011

The postsynaptic side of the synapse is specialized to receive the neurotransmitter signal released from the presynaptic terminal and transduce it into electrical and biochemical changes in the postsynaptic cell. The cardinal functional components of the postsynaptic specialization of excitatory and inhibitory synapses are the ionotropic receptors (ligandgated channels) for glutamate and g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), respectively. These receptor channels are concentrated at the postsynaptic membrane and embedded in a dense and rich protein network comprised of anchoring and scaffolding molecules, signaling enzymes, cytoskeletal components, aswell as other membrane proteins. Excitatoryand inhibitory postsynaptic specializations are quite different in molecular organization. The postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses is especially complex and dynamic in composition and regulation; it contains hundreds of different proteins, many of which are required for cognitive function and implicated in psychiatric illness. © 2011 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. all rights reserved.


Le T.Q.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society | Year: 2013

In this work, the aerodynamic performance of beetle wing in free-forward flight was explored by a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) simulation with measured wing kinematics. It is shown from the CFD results that twist and camber variation, which represent the wing flexibility, are most important when determining the aerodynamic performance. Twisting wing significantly increased the mean lift and camber variation enhanced the mean thrust while the required power was lower than the case when neither was considered. Thus, in a comparison of the power economy among rigid, twisting and flexible models, the flexible model showed the best performance. When the positive effect of wing interaction was added to that of wing flexibility, we found that the elytron created enough lift to support its weight, and the total lift (48.4 mN) generated from the simulation exceeded the gravity force of the beetle (47.5 mN) during forward flight.


Bathe K.-J.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Lee P.-S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Computers and Structures | Year: 2011

While shells have been analyzed abundantly for many years in engineering and the sciences, improved finite element and related analysis methods are still much desired and researched. More general and effective finite element procedures are needed for complex shell structures, including for the analysis of composite shells and the optimization of shells. In this paper we discuss how finite element methods, and other analysis techniques, should be tested in order to identify their reliability and effectiveness. We summarize some important theoretical results, present appropriate test problems and convergence measures, and we illustrate our discussion through some novel numerical results. An important conclusion is that the testing has to be performed very carefully in order to obtain relevant results, and we show how this is accomplished in detail. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kim B.,Samsung | Han I.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

Attracting new users is critical for the success of new information and communication technologies (ICT) such as mobile data services (MDS). Given the rapid growth and large investments in ICT, it is important to understand the formation processes of user behaviors in the ICT environment. This study develops a theoretical framework to examine the role of utilitarian and hedonic values in an MDS adoption phenomenon. This study also presents an investigation of the key antecedents of utilitarian and hedonic values to understand the mechanism of enhancing these values. This study posits information quality, system quality, and perceived fee as the key antecedents of utilitarian and hedonic values. The proposed research model is empirically evaluated by using survey data collected from 120 potential adopters. The results of this study show that the adoption intention is solely determined by utilitarian value. The findings also indicate that the information quality and perceived fee play a significant role in the formation of adoption intention of MDS. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yeom G.-S.,Kunsan National University | Chang K.-S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Computers and Fluids | Year: 2013

We present a modified HLLC-type Riemann solver that is applicable to the compressible six-equation two-fluid model of the two-phase flow. The modified HLLC scheme restores all the characteristic fields that have been neglected by the recent HLLC scheme proposed by Zein et al. (Zein A, Hantke M, Warnecke G. Modeling phase transition for compressible two-phase flows applied to metastable liquids. J Comput Phys 2010;229:2964-98). We test the modified HLLC scheme on several 1D two-phase shock tube problems and a 2D shock-bubble interaction problem. The modified HLLC scheme is proved more accurate than other schemes like the Zein et al.'s HLLC scheme and the earlier two-phase HLL scheme developed by the present authors (Yeom GS, Chang KS. Numerical simulation of two-fluid two-phase flows by HLL scheme using an approximate Jacobian matrix. Numer Heat Transfer B-Fund 2006;49:155-77). The numerical test indicates that the present HLLC scheme is very robust and effective in acquiring high resolution for the waves in the six-equation two-fluid model. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Ross C.A.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Berggren K.K.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Cheng J.Y.,IBM | Jung Y.S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Chang J.-B.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014

Thin films of block copolymers are widely seen as enablers for nanoscale fabrication of semiconductor devices, membranes, and other structures, taking advantage of microphase separation to produce well-organized nanostructures with periods of a few nm and above. However, the inherently three-dimensional structure of block copolymer microdomains could enable them to make 3D devices and structures directly, which could lead to efficient fabrication of complex heterogeneous structures. This article reviews recent progress in developing 3D nanofabrication processes based on block copolymers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Rew K.-H.,Hoseo University | Kim K.-S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2010

In this paper, we propose a new complete closed-form formula for asymmetric motion profiles of long, medium, and short distances, which enables easy manipulation of jerks in arrival time for effectively reducing the acceleration and thus the overshoot. The design parameter named jerk ratio is newly introduced to scale down the jerks during the deceleration period so that the velocity profile is in an asymmetric S-curve. Owing to the jerk ratio, the motion formulas are remarkably simplified in analytic forms for short, medium, and long distances. The effectiveness of the proposed approach will be illustrated with the sledge movement control in an optical data storage system by experiments. © 2010 IEEE.


Ryu I.,Stanford University | Choi J.W.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Cui Y.,Stanford University | Nix W.D.,Stanford University
Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids | Year: 2011

We use a unique transmission electron microscope (TEM) technique to show that Si nanowires (NWs) with diameters in the range of a few hundred nanometers can be fully lithiated and delithiated without fracture, in spite of the large volume changes that occur in this process. By analyzing the stresses associated with lithiation and delithiation we conclude that the process does not occur by the growth of discrete crystalline phases; rather it occurs by amorphization of the Si NWs followed by diffusion of Li into the structure. By accounting for the large deformation associated with this process and by including the effects of pressure gradients on the diffusion of Li, we show that Si NWs with diameters less than about 300 nm could not fracture even if pre-existing cracks were present in the NW. These predictions appear to be in good agreement with the experiment. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Liu R.,University of Maryland University College | Duay J.,University of Maryland University College | Lee S.B.,University of Maryland University College | Lee S.B.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
ACS Nano | Year: 2011

The formation mechanism of a coaxial manganese oxide/poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (MnO2/PEDOT) nanowire is elucidated herein by performing electrodeposition of MnO2 and PEDOT on Au-sputtered nanoelectrodes with different shapes (ring and flat-top, respectively) within the 200 nm diameter pores of an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template. It is found that PEDOT prefers to grow on the sharp edge of the ring-shaped electrode, while MnO2 is more likely to deposit on the flat-top electrode due to its smooth surface. The formation of coaxial nanowires is shown to be a result of simultaneous growth of core MnO2 and shell PEDOT by an analysis of the current density resulting from electrochemical deposition. Furthermore, the structures of the MnO2/PEDOT coaxial nanowires were studied for their application as supercapacitors by modifying their coelectrodeposition potential. A potential of 0.70 V is found to be the most favorable condition for synthesis of MnO2/PEDOT coaxial nanowires, resulting in a high specific capacitance of 270 F/g. Additionally, other heterogeneous MnO2/PEDOT nanostructures are produced, such as nanowires consisting of MnO2 nanodomes with PEDOT crowns as well as segmented MnO2/PEDOT nanowires. This is accomplished by simply adjusting the parameters of the electrochemical deposition. Finally, in smaller diameter (50 nm) AAO channels, MnO2 and PEDOT are found to be partially assembled into coaxial nanowires due to the alternative depletion of Mn(II) ions and EDOT monomers in the smaller diameter pores. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Cho Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Computers and Fluids | Year: 2014

Although the pseudo-arclength continuation method is classical, this method has not been widely or effectively applied in the area of the numerical calculation of nonlinear waves in fluids. The author believes that the present study is the first work that provides detailed numerical procedures incorporating the pseudo-arclength continuation method with the computation of steady solutions of nonlinear model equations for both 2-D and 3-D viscous gravity-capillary waves on deep water generated by a moving pressure forcing. The basic mathematical concept of the pseudo-arclength continuation method, which originated from the study of solving a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE), is introduced, and the associated numerical procedure in solving the present partial differential equation (PDE) is subsequently presented. Numerical results are shown in terms of steady response diagrams and associated nonlinear wave solution profiles to understand the interrelated effect of forcing, nonlinearity, and viscous damping. In the steady response diagram, once an initial point is determined, then all of the possible nonlinear wave solutions are found, making a complex branch in the diagram. In particular, if the viscous effect is included, however small, then the branch shows a zig-zag pattern, i.e., several turning points, in which multiple steady wave solution profiles are possible for a certain forcing speed. The proposed method can also be applied to any types of PDEs or ODEs in other areas where nonlinearities cannot be neglected. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Lee J.-O.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Innate immune receptors respond to common structural patterns in microbial molecules and are called pattern recognition receptors. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in the innate immune system by recognizing microbial lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins. Precise definition of the ligand "pattern"of TLRs has been difficult to determine primarily owing to a lack of high-resolution structures. Recently, the structures of several TLR-ligand complexes and the intracellular signaling domains have been determined by X-ray crystallography. This new structural information, combined with extensive biochemical and immunological data accumulated over decades, sheds new light on ligand-recognition and -activation mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the TLR structures and discuss proposed ligand-recognition and -activation mechanisms. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Choo J.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Ryoo J.,Industrial Research Ltd.
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2014

This communication proposes a label tag and a radiator for both dielectric and metallic target objects in UHF radio frequency identification (UHF RFID). Good impedance matching is achieved by the use of a cross-shaped loop when it is placed on dielectric objects and the inserted radiator. The radiator is printed on plastic substrate with a finite ground plane. After optimization and fabrication based on a geometrical study, the manufactured tag shows the half-power bandwidth of 65 MHz (7.1%) and 17 MHz (1.9%), in free space and on the underlying radiator, respectively. A reading range over 6.2 m with a deviation of 5.1 m (6.2 m-11.3 m) is confirmed on various target objects under the condition of 36 dBm EIRP at 912 MHz in UHF RFID band. © 2013 IEEE.


Woo H.S.,Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials | Lee D.Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

It is well known that friction in haptic devices plays a key role in dissipating surplus energy to maintain passivity of the haptic system. This paper shows that the surplus energy can also be dissipated by careful exploitation of human operator's damping and analyzes the effects of the time-varying human arm impedance on the passivity of a haptic system. The human arm impedance is modeled as a second-order mass-damper-spring system. An impedance model is developed to describe the dynamic behavior of a haptic system that includes the human arm impedance. A new necessary and sufficient passivity condition of the haptic system is derived using an energy-based approach. The analytical results are experimentally validated using a one-degree-of-freedom haptic device. Experimental results show that the maximum achievable stiffness of the haptic system varies widely according to the degree of human arm impedance and is predictable more accurately using the newly derived passivity condition compared to the previous results in the literature. © 2009 IEEE.


Son K.,University of Southern California | Kim H.,Sogang University | Yi Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Krishnamachari B.,University of Southern California
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2011

Energy-efficiency, one of the major design goals in wireless cellular networks, has received much attention lately, due to increased awareness of environmental and economic issues for network operators. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework for BS energy saving that encompasses dynamic BS operation and the related problem of user association together. Specifically, we formulate a total cost minimization that allows for a flexible tradeoff between flow-level performance and energy consumption. For the user association problem, we propose an optimal energy-efficient user association policy and further present a distributed implementation with provable convergence. For the BS operation problem (i.e., BS switching on/off), which is a challenging combinatorial problem, we propose simple greedy-on and greedy-off algorithms that are inspired by the mathematical background of submodularity maximization problem. Moreover, we propose other heuristic algorithms based on the distances between BSs or the utilizations of BSs that do not impose any additional signaling overhead and thus are easy to implement in practice. Extensive simulations under various practical configurations demonstrate that the proposed user association and BS operation algorithms can significantly reduce energy consumption. © 2006 IEEE.


Lee H.-Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2015

Conspectus Several criteria for the measure of synthetic strategies toward "ideal synthesis" are available to guide the design and evaluation of the synthetic strategies toward the target molecules. One strategy toward "ideal synthesis" is developing a multistep reaction that involves dramatic change in complexity. Biogenesis of natural products and mechanistic investigation of complicated organic transformation provide good inspiration for design of new synthetic strategies. Trimethylenemethane diradical (TMM diyl), first introduced only as a theoretically interesting structure 60 years ago, gained interests of physical organic chemistry when it was first detected by Dowd. Study of characteristics and properties of TMM diyl was accelerated in a great deal when Koebrich observed dimeric hydrocarbon products from the reaction of 1,1-dibromo-2-methylhexa-1,5-diene with MeLi. Berson followed the mechanistic investigation of the reaction that involved 2-methylenecyclopentane-1,3-diyl, and thoroughly studied physical and chemical properties of the TMM diyl. This lead to the development of intramolecular [2 + 3] TMM diyl cycloaddition reaction for the construction of linearly fused triquinanes by Little.We envisioned that the generation of a TMM diyl through cycloaddition reaction discovered by Koebrich and [2 + 3] cycloaddition reaction of the TMM diyl could be combined together to form polyquinane structures. A cycloaddition reaction sequence of generating a TMM diyl from a alkylidene carbene of 2-methylhexa-1,5-diene structure in the presence of another olefin was designed and executed to produce linearly fused and angularly fused triquinanes depending on the connectivity of the second double bond. The successful transformation also inspired design of a tandem cycloaddition reaction strategy of using unprecedented tetrahydrocyclopentapyrazole to TMM diyl transformation. The new design involves two [2 + 3] cycloaddition reactions of 6-diazohexa-1,2-diene with an olefin attached at a proper position. When a diazo functionality is produced, the initial [2 + 3] cycloaddition reaction generates the TMM diyl, which undergoes the second [2 + 3] cycloaddition reaction to form triquinanes with high efficiency. The first tandem strategy involves a massive reorganization of molecular connectivity as one Ci=C double bond was cleaved and four C-C bonds were formed. The second tandem strategy connected two double bonds with one carbon center to form four C-C bonds without breaking any bond.The developed tandem strategies were readily applied to the total synthesis of natural products, especially triquinanes. Thus, the total syntheses of hirsutene, ceratopicanol, pentalenene and panaginsene with structural revision were achieved and the strategy was extended to the total synthesis of crinipellins (tetraquinane natural products).The newly designed tandem strategies not only demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of the process but also provided future opportunity of studying TMM diyl mediated reactions for designing variety of synthetic strategies. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Lee I.-O.,Samsung | Moon G.-W.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2014

The $k$-Q analysis of the resonant tank for an LLC series-resonant converter (SRC) is presented in this letter. In order to guarantee the LLC-SRC operating region, the $k$-Q design guideline of the resonant tank is proposed. © 2013 IEEE.


Jang J.Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Blood | Year: 2013

To unveil the organotypic role and vulnerability of lymphatic vessels, we generated a lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1)-Cre/iDTR double-transgenic mouse and ablated LYVE-1-expressing lymphatic vessels in adult mice in a diphtheria toxin (DT)-inducible manner based on selective expression of LYVE-1 in most lymphatic vessels. Strikingly, lymphatic vessels in the small intestine and lymph nodes were rapidly ablated, but lymphatic vessels in the other organs were relatively intact at 24 hours after DT administration. Unexpectedly, LYVE-1-Cre/iDTR mice died of sepsis without visible edema at 24 and 60 hours after DT administration. The cause of death appeared to be related to acute failure of immune surveillance systems in the small intestine and draining lymph nodes. Of note, acute loss of lymphatic lacteals in intestinal villi appeared to trigger distortion of blood capillaries and the whole architecture of the villi, whereas acute loss of lymphatic vessels in lymph nodes caused dysfunction of lymph drainage and abnormal distribution of dendritic cells and macrophages. Thus, intact lymphatic vessels are required for structural and functional maintenance of surrounding tissues in an organotypic manner, at least in the intestine and lymph nodes.


Liu Z.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Li J.,Tsinghua University | Woo S.I.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2012

Selective catalytic reduction of NOx by hydrogen (H 2-SCR) in the presence of oxygen has received much attention as a potential technology for reducing NOx emissions. A lot of research has been done in order to understand the reaction mechanism of H2-SCR and some possible mechanisms have been proposed. These mechanisms can be classified into two categories: NO adsorption/dissociation mechanisms and oxidation-reduction mechanisms. Based on the discussion of the reaction mechanism, the influence of the nature of the noble metal, catalyst support, catalyst preparation method, promoters and reaction conditions (including the presence of H2 and O2, water, sulfur, CO and CO 2) on the catalytic performance of some H2-SCR catalysts has been discussed. Finally, future research directions in the area of H 2-SCR have been proposed. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Jeong W.I.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) | Year: 2011

Activation of innate immunity (natural killer [NK] cell/interferon-γ [IFN-γ]) has been shown to play an important role in antiviral and antitumor defenses as well as antifibrogenesis. However, little is known about the regulation of innate immunity during chronic liver injury. Here, we compared the functions of NK cells in early and advanced liver fibrosis induced by a 2-week or a 10-week carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ) challenge, respectively. Injection of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or IFN-γ induced NK cell activation and NK cell killing of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in the 2-week CCl(4) model. Such activation was diminished in the 10-week CCl(4) model. Consistent with these findings, the inhibitory effect of poly I:C and IFN-γ on liver fibrosis was markedly reduced in the 10-week versus the 2-week CCl(4) model. In vitro coculture experiments demonstrated that 4-day cultured (early activated) HSCs induce NK cell activation via an NK group 2 member D/retinoic acid-induced early gene 1-dependent mechanism. Such activation was reduced when cocultured with 8-day cultured (intermediately activated) HSCs due to the production of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) by HSCs. Moreover, early activated HSCs were sensitive, whereas intermediately activated HSCs were resistant to IFN-γ-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation, likely due to elevated expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1). Disruption of the SOCS1 gene restored the IFN-γ inhibition of cell proliferation in intermediately activated HSCs. Production of retinol metabolites by HSCs contributed to SOCS1 induction and subsequently inhibited IFN-γ signaling and functioning, whereas production of TGF-β by HSCs inhibited NK cell function and cytotoxicity against HSCs. CONCLUSION: The antifibrogenic effects of NK cell/IFN-γ are suppressed during advanced liver injury, which is likely due to increased production of TGF-β and expression of SOCS1 in intermediately activated HSCs. 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.


Hybrid films of gold nanoparticles and graphene oxides (GOs) were prepared by directly growing gold nanoparticles on supported thin layers of GO films on a glass slide. The gold/GO nanohybrid films were thoroughly investigated using various analytical methods, including Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The hybrid film was then applied to laser desorption/ionization (LDI) of small molecules, which enabled mass spectrometric analysis of analytes. After a series of detailed mechanistic studies and systematic investigations, we found that the gold/GO hybrid films serve as a successful LDI platform for small-molecule analysis because of the high desorption efficiency of analytes from the hybrid films without inducing significant fragmentation of analytes. We suggest that the underlying GO films may effectively dissipate excess thermal energy generated by laser irradiation of Au to prevent undesirable analyte fragmentation. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Lin H.T.,National University of Singapore | Tai Y.-W.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Brown M.S.,National University of Singapore
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2011

This paper addresses the problem of matting motion blurred objects from a single image. Existing single image matting methods are designed to extract static objects that have fractional pixel occupancy. This arises because the physical scene object has a finer resolution than the discrete image pixel and therefore only occupies a fraction of the pixel. For a motion blurred object, however, fractional pixel occupancy is attributed to the object's motion over the exposure period. While conventional matting techniques can be used to matte motion blurred objects, they are not formulated in a manner that considers the object's motion and tend to work only when the object is on a homogeneous background. We show how to obtain better alpha mattes by introducing a regularization term in the matting formulation to account for the object's motion. In addition, we outline a method for estimating local object motion based on local gradient statistics from the original image. For the sake of completeness, we also discuss how user markup can be used to denote the local direction in lieu of motion estimation. Improvements to alpha mattes computed with our regularization are demonstrated on a variety of examples. © 2011 IEEE.


Belowich M.E.,Northwestern University | Stoddart J.F.,Northwestern University | Stoddart J.F.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Formation of an imine - from an amine and an aldehyde - is a reversible reaction which operates under thermodynamic control such that the formation of kinetically competitive intermediates are, in the fullness of time, replaced by the thermodynamically most stable product(s). For this fundamental reason, the imine bond has emerged as an extraordinarily diverse and useful one in the hands of synthetic chemists. Imine bond formation is one of a handful of reactions which define a discipline known as dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC), which is now employed widely in the construction of exotic molecules and extended structures on account of the inherent 'proof-reading' and 'error-checking' associated with these reversible reactions. While both supramolecular chemistry and DCC operate under the regime of reversibility, DCC has the added advantage of constructing robust molecules on account of the formation of covalent bonds rather than fragile supermolecules resulting from noncovalent bonding interactions. On the other hand, these products tend to require more time to form - sometimes days or even months - but their formation can often be catalysed. In this manner, highly symmetrical molecules and extended structures can be prepared from relatively simple precursors. When DCC is utilised in conjunction with template-directed protocols - which rely on the use of noncovalent bonding interactions between molecular building blocks in order to preorganise them into certain relative geometries as a prelude to the formation of covalent bonds under equilibrium control - an additional level of control of structure and topology arises which offers a disarmingly simple way of constructing mechanically-interlocked molecules, such as rotaxanes, catenanes, Borromean rings, and Solomon knots. This tutorial review focuses on the use of dynamic imine bonds in the construction of compounds and products formed with and without the aid of additional templates. While synthesis under thermodynamic control is giving the field of chemical topology a new lease of life, it is also providing access to an endless array of new materials that are, in many circumstances, simply not accessible using more traditional synthetic methodologies where kinetic control rules the roost. One of the most endearing qualities of chemistry is its ability to reinvent itself in order to create its own object, as Berthelot first pointed out a century and a half ago. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.


Lee J.K.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2015

The Internet has become a minefield of crime, fakes, and terror perpetuated by anonymous users on a global scale. The security burden of protecting organizations is becoming increasingly difficult and costly, and this burden cannot be lessened under the current Internet protocol. In order to fundamentally solve these side effects, the Council of the Association for Information Systems (AIS) has adopted a grand vision of an ICT-Enabled Bright Society (in short, the Bright ICT Initiative). With the goal of preventing undesirable activities on the Internet, diverse issues can be investigated using a bottom-up perspective. Scholars are beginning to examine the concept and various approaches with the support of the AIS conferences and the information system journals. However, a unique approach and fundamental solution must be identified in order to drastically eliminate the negative side effects of these adverse online activities. In order to achieve this, four principles are proposed that will provide the foundation of the framework for a new and safer Internet platform, the Bright Internet, while protecting users' privacy at an appropriate level. The proposed principles are origin responsibility, deliverer responsibility, rule-based digital search warrants, and traceable anonymity. This endeavor requires the investigation of technologies, policies, and international agreements on which new business models can be created. © 2015 The Authors.


Choi H.-L.,Dong - A University | Lim J.-T.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2010

We consider a problem of global regulation of a chain of integrators that has an unknown time-varying delay in the input. In contrast to the previous works in the literature, the upper bound of delay is not known. Moreover, there is no given information on the time-varying rate of delay, either. Using the dynamic gain approach inspired by the method in and the control structure of together, we construct an adaptive output feedback controller to solve the considered control problem. The only requirement is that the time-varying delay is bounded. © 2009 IEEE.


Lee M.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
BMC bioinformatics | Year: 2012

Reverse docking approaches have been explored in previous studies on drug discovery to overcome some problems in traditional virtual screening. However, current reverse docking approaches are problematic in that the target spaces of those studies were rather small, and their applications were limited to identifying new drug targets. In this study, we expanded the scope of target space to a set of all protein structures currently available and developed several new applications of reverse docking method. We generated 2D Matrix of docking scores among all the possible protein structures in yeast and human and 35 famous drugs. By clustering the docking profile data and then comparing them with fingerprint-based clustering of drugs, we first showed that our data contained accurate information on their chemical properties. Next, we showed that our method could be used to predict the druggability of target proteins. We also showed that a combination of sequence similarity and docking profile similarity could predict the enzyme EC numbers more accurately than sequence similarity alone. In two case studies, 5-fluorouracil and cycloheximide, we showed that our method can successfully find identifying target proteins. By using a large number of protein structures, we improved the sensitivity of reverse docking and showed that using as many protein structure as possible was important in finding real binding targets.


Nam W.,Samsung | Kong S.-H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2013

In this paper, we investigate the multipath resolution problem for direct sequence spread spectrum signals. To resolve multipath components arriving within a very short interval, we propose a new multipath super-resolution algorithm based on the iterative least-squares method. The proposed least-squares-based iterative multipath super-resolution (LIMS) algorithm exploits a triangular shaped auto-correlation function (ACF) of the pseudo-noise (PN) sequence and simplifies the least-squares parameter estimation procedure using iterative and algebraic operations. This results in an algorithm demanding low computational load with a high multipath resolution capability. It is also discussed that the LIMS algorithm can be applied for recursive multipath tracking of source localization systems, such as the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Simulation results show that the LIMS algorithm maintains its good performance even in a low {{C}\over {N{0}}} or severe multipath interference conditions. © 1991-2012 IEEE.


Choi H.-L.,Dong - A University | Lim J.-T.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Systems and Control Letters | Year: 2010

In this paper, we consider a stabilization problem of an input-delayed chain of integrators with nonlinearity. In this system, the nonlinear part cannot be directly canceled by the input due to time-delay. We design a stabilizing controller and show that the system stability is determined by the types of nonlinear functions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Kong S.-H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology | Year: 2013

In the cold start of a Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receiver, fast acquisition of the GNSS signal requires either an extensive usage of hardware resources for massive parallel correlators or a high computational complexity for fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse FFT operations. Because GNSS uses direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) signaling with binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) or with BPSK and binary offset carrier, any GNSS signal can have a sparse representation so that the concept of compressed sensing can be applied to detect GNSS signals. To achieve a fast acquisition of the GNSS signal with a reduced number of correlators and low computational complexity, we propose a two-stage deterministic compressed GNSS acquisition technique using the Walsh-Hadamard matrix. The proposed technique makes fast acquisition possible for a receiver using a much smaller number of correlators than the conventional parallel-correlator-based technique, which requires much less computational complexity than the FFT-based technique. We provide complexity analysis of the proposed technique and compare the statistical performance of the proposed technique with other techniques applicable to the fast GNSS acquisition. The proposed technique is easy to implement and is the first compressed-sensing-based GNSS acquisition technique. © 1967-2012 IEEE.


Hyun J.K.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Zhang S.,Indiana University Bloomington | Lauhon L.J.,Northwestern University
Annual Review of Materials Research | Year: 2013

The nanoscale diameter and high aspect ratio of nanowires are the foundation of fascinating structure-property relationships derived from confinement, interface effects, and mechanical degrees of freedom. When heterostructures are formed by high-quality growth of dissimilar materials on or within nanowires, the interactions of the low-dimensional components and their interfaces can give rise to electronic, photonic, magnetic, and thermal characteristics that are superior to those of (or unattainable in) planar geometries. This tutorial review provides a brief overview of heterostructures with a semiconductor nanowire as the central component, describes the properties of nanoscale components and interfaces, and distills the advantages that arise from the unique structure-property relationships. A select set of these concepts are further elaborated by highlighting electronic, optoelectronic, and energy-related applications that have successfully exploited these advantages. © Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Lee J.K.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Information Systems Research | Year: 2016

Since the advent of the AIS Grand Vision Project of ICT-enabled Bright Society (in short, Bright ICT), there has been significant excitement as well as confusion about the concept. To resolve ambiguities about the types of research that are consistent with this vision, the notions of Restorative Bright ICT Research and Enriching Bright ICT Research are defined. In addition, we propose three perspectives that can differentiate Bright ICT research from traditional research approaches to create a disruptive impact on society. To address societal problems that areoften global in scope, Bright ICT research recommends taking a holistic design of future society encompassing technologies and policies as well as business models driven by visionary principles. This paradigm can be an extension of design science for the scope of a Macro Information Society. © 2016 INFORMS.


Bang H.,Chosun University | Song H.,Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering | Joo S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

Hybrid friction stir butt welding of Al6061-T6 aluminum alloy plate to Ti-6%Al-4%V titanium alloy plate with satisfactory acceptable joint strength was successfully achieved using preceding gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) preheating heat source of the Ti alloy plate surface. Hybrid friction stir welding (HFSW) joints were welded completely without any unwelded zone resulting from smooth material flow by equally distributed temperature both in Al alloy side and Ti alloy side using GTAW assistance for preheating the Ti alloy plate unlike friction stir welding (FSW) joints. The ultimate tensile strength was approximately 91% in HFSW welds by that of the Al alloy base metal, which was 24% higher than that of FSW welds without GTAW under same welding condition. Notably, it was found that elongation in HFSW welds increased significantly compared with that of FSW welds, which resulted in improved joint strength. The ductile fracture was the main fracture mode in tensile test of HFSW welds. © 2013.


Fahrenbach A.C.,Northwestern University | Bruns C.J.,Northwestern University | Li H.,Northwestern University | Trabolsi A.,United Arab Emirates University | And 2 more authors.
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

The ability to design and confer control over the kinetics of theprocesses involved in the mechanisms of artificial molecular machines is at the heart of the challenge to create ones that can carry out useful work on their environment, just as Nature is wont to do. As one of the more promising forerunners of prototypical artificial molecular machines, chemists have developed bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) over the past couple of decades. These bistable MIMs generally come in the form of [2]rotaxanes, molecular compounds that constitute a ring mechanically interlocked around a dumbbell-shaped component, or [2]catenanes, which are composed of two mechanically interlocked rings. As a result of their interlocked nature, bistable MIMs possess the inherent propensity to express controllable intramolecular, large-amplitude, and reversible motions in response to redox stimuli. In this Account, we rationalize the kinetic behavior in the ground state for a large assortment of these types of bistable MIMs, including both rotaxanes and catenanes. These structures have proven useful in a variety of applications ranging from drug delivery to molecular electronic devices.These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs can switch between two different isomeric states. The favored isomer, known as the ground-state co-conformation (GSCC) is in equilibrium with the less favored metastable state co-conformation (MSCC). The forward (kf) and backward (kb) rate constants associated with this ground-state equilibrium are intimately connected to each other through the ground-state distribution constant, KGS. Knowing the rate constants that govern the kinetics and bring about the equilibration between the MSCC and GSCC, allows researchers to understand the operation of these bistable MIMs in a device setting and apply them toward the construction of artificial molecular machines.The three biggest influences on the ground-state rate constants arise from (i) ground-state effects, the energy required to breakup the noncovalent bonding interactions that stabilize either the GSCC or MSCC, (ii) spacer effects, where the structures overcome additional barriers, either steric or electrostatic or both, en route from one co-conformation to the other, and (iii) the physical environment of the bistable MIMs. By managing all three of these effects, chemists can vary these rate constants over many orders of magnitude. We also discuss progress toward achieving mechanostereoselective motion, a key principle in the design and realization of artificial molecular machines capable of doing work at the molecular level, by the strategic implementation of free energy barriers to intramolecular motion. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Chi W.-J.,Myongji University | Chang Y.-K.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Hong S.-K.,Myongji University
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Agar is a mixture of heterogeneous galactans, mainly composed of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactoses (or L-galactose- 6-sulfates) D-galactoses and L-galactoses (routinely in the forms of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactoses or L-galactose-6- sulfates) alternately linked by β-(1,4) and α-(1,3) linkages. It is a major component of the cell walls of red algae and has been used in a variety of laboratory and industrial applications, owing to its jellifying properties. Many microorganisms that can hydrolyze and metabolize agar as a carbon and energy source have been identified in seawater and marine sediments. Agarolytic microorganisms commonly produce agarases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of agar. Numerous agarases have been identified in microorganisms of various genera. They are classified according to their cleavage pattern into three types-α-agarase, β-agarase, and β-porphyranase. Although, in a broad sense, many other agarases are involved in complete hydrolysis of agar, most of those identified are β- agarases. In this article we review agarolytic microorganisms and their agar-hydrolyzing systems, covering β-agarases as well as α-agarases, α-neoagarobiose hydrolases, and β- porphyranases, with emphasis on the recent discoveries. We also present an overview of the biochemical and structural characteristics of the various types of agarases. Further, we summarize and compare the agar-hydrolyzing systems of two specific microorganisms: Gram-negative Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 and Gram-positive Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).We conclude with a brief discussion of the importance of agarases and their possible future application in producing oligosaccharides with various nutraceutical activities and in sustainably generating stock chemicals for biorefinement and bioenergy. © Springer-Verlag 2012.


Kim Y.A.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Ahmad M.A.,University of Minnesota
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2013

With the proliferation of online communities, the deployment of knowledge, skills, experiences and user generated content are generally facilitated among participant users. In online social media-sharing communities, the success of social interactions for content sharing and dissemination among completely unknown users depends on 'trust'. Therefore, providing a satisfactory trust model to evaluate the quality of content and to recommend personalized trustworthy content providers is vital for a successful online social media-sharing community. Current research on trust prediction strongly relies on a web of trust, which is directly collected from users. However, the web of trust is not always available in online communities and, even when it is available, it is often too sparse to accurately predict the trust value between two unacquainted people. Moreover, most of the extant trust research studies have not paid attention to the importance of distrust, even though distrust is a distinct concept from trust with different impacts on behavior. In this paper, we adopt the concepts of 'trust', 'distrust', and 'lack of confidence' in social relationships and propose a novel unifying framework to predict trust and distrust as well as to distinguish the confidently-made decisions (trust or distrust) from lack of confidence without a web of trust. This approach uses interaction histories among users including rating data that is available and much denser than explicit trust/distrust statements (i.e. a web of trust). © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Park J.Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Langmuir | Year: 2011

Nanoscale friction and adhesion on Pt colloid nanoparticles coated with different organic capping layers were probed with atomic/friction force microscopy. Platinum colloid nanoparticles with four types of capping layers have been synthesized and used as model lubricant systems: TTAB (tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide), HDA (hexadecylamine), HDT (hexadecylthiol), and PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)). Two-dimensional arrays of colloid nanoparticles were prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett method. We found that the friction and adhesion properties on colloid nanoparticles are lower than those on a silicon surface. The variation of friction when changing the capping layers is ∼30%, and it appears that the friction depends on the packing and ordering of the capping layers. Partial removal of the capping layers using ultraviolet light (UV)-ozone surface treatment resulted in increased friction. These results suggest a new method of tuning nanometer scale friction and adhesion by engineering organic capping layers on nanoparticles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Choi E.-B.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Oncogene | Year: 2016

The role of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in cancer has been extensively studied in the context of DNA repair, leading to clinical trials of PARP1 inhibitors in cancers defective in homologous recombination. However, the DNA repair-independent roles of PARP1 in carcinogenesis and metastasis, particularly in lung cancer metastasis, remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we report that PARP1 promotes lung adenocarcinoma relapse to the brain and bones by regulating several steps of the metastatic process in a DNA repair-independent manner. We find that PARP1 expression is associated with overall and distant metastasis-free survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Consistent with this, genetic knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 significantly attenuated the metastatic potential of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Further investigation revealed that PARP1 potentiates lung adenocarcinoma metastasis by promoting invasion, anoikis resistance, extravasation and self-renewal of lung adenocarcinoma cells and also by modifying the brain microenvironment. Finally, we identified S100A4 and CLDN7 as novel transcriptional targets and clinically relevant effectors of PARP1. Collectively, our study not only revealed previously unknown functions of PARP1 in lung adenocarcinoma metastasis but also delineated the molecular mechanisms underlying the pro-metastatic function of PARP1. Furthermore, these findings provide a foundation for the potential use of PARP1 inhibitors as a new treatment option for lung adenocarcinoma patients with elevated PARP1 expression.Oncogene advance online publication, 22 February 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.3. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited


Kang S.-T.,Korea Institute of Construction Technology | Kim J.-K.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Cement and Concrete Research | Year: 2011

In this study, the effect of the fiber orientation distribution on the tensile behavior of Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites (UHPFRCC) was investigated. The tensile behavior was explored separately in two stages; pre-cracking and post-cracking tensile behaviors. Pre-cracking tensile behavior is expressed using the mechanism of elastic shear transfer between the matrix and the fiber in the composites. Post-cracking tensile behavior was expressed as the combined behavior of the resistance by the fibers and the matrix, considering a probability density distribution for the fiber orientation distribution across crack surface and a pullout model of steel fiber. The effect of the fiber orientation distribution was found to be very small on pre-cracking behavior, but to be significant on post-cracking behavior of UHPFRCC. The predicted results were compared with the experimental results, and the comparison presented satisfactory agreement. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Liang C.,University of Southern California | Oh B.-H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Jung J.U.,University of Southern California
Nature Reviews Microbiology | Year: 2015

Cellular apoptosis is of major importance in the struggle between virus and host. Although many viruses use various strategies to control the cell death machinery by encoding anti-apoptotic virulence factors, it is now becoming clear that, in addition to their role in inhibiting apoptosis, these factors function in multiple immune and metabolic pathways to promote fitness and pathogenesis. In this Progress article, we discuss novel functions of viral anti-apoptotic factors in the regulation of autophagy, in the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κ B) pathway and in interferon signalling, with a focus on persistent and oncogenic gammaherpesviruses. If viral anti-apoptotic proteins are to be properly exploited as targets for antiviral drugs, their diverse and complex roles should be considered. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Chu K.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2015

The phase separation of multiple competing structural/ferroelectric phases has attracted particular attention owing to its excellent electromechanical properties. Little is known, however, about the strain-gradient-induced electronic phenomena at the interface of competing structural phases. Here, we investigate the polymorphic phase interface of bismuth ferrites using spatially resolved photocurrent measurements, present the observation of a large enhancement of the anisotropic interfacial photocurrent by two orders of magnitude, and discuss the possible mechanism on the basis of the flexoelectric effect. Nanoscale characterizations of the photosensitive area through position-sensitive angle-resolved piezoresponse force microscopy and electron holography techniques, in conjunction with phase field simulation, reveal that regularly ordered dipole-charged domain walls emerge. These findings offer practical implications for complex oxide optoelectronics. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group


Kim K.T.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Combustion and Flame | Year: 2016

Constructive interference between heat release rate and acoustic perturbation is responsible for the growth of acoustic pressure amplitudes, leading to high-amplitude combustion instabilities in combustion systems. This is referred to as the Rayleigh criterion. Even though the knowledge of the heat release-acoustic pressure coupling processes is critical in the description of self-excited combustion instabilities, little is known about how the unsteady coupling processes are determined in response to the variation of time and length scales of acoustic and convective waves present in turbulent reacting flow fields. To address this issue, we performed a large number of measurements of self-excited instabilities, using two different tunable gas turbine combustors, over a wide range of operating conditions. The initiation, evolution, and saturation of pressure disturbances in swirl-stabilized combustion systems were systematically investigated by integrated analyses of pressure-heat release-velocity feedback coupling processes. It was found that self-excited combustion instabilities are governed by the Rayleigh criterion over the entire parameter space. We also observed that at certain inlet conditions, high amplitude velocity and heat release fluctuations coexist even without pressure-heat release coupling, meaning that the Rayleigh criterion is not necessarily associated with the onset of the self-excited instability. The Rayleigh criterion, however, does play an essential role in the linear to nonlinear transition that is necessary for the system to evolve toward a final state of stable limit cycles. We also found that the presence of equivalence ratio nonuniformities exerts a profound influence on instability feedback mechanisms, and consequently the Rayleigh criterion becomes a weak necessary condition for the occurrence of self-excited instabilities. A feedback mechanism that controls the relationship between velocity and acoustic pressure fluctuations was investigated to understand the effect of swirl number on limit cycle behavior. Acoustic admittance analysis reveals that at sufficiently high disturbance amplitude, nonlinear gas dynamic processes become so significant that the nonlinear saturation behavior cannot be defined by the acoustic velocity amplitude normalized by mean flow velocity. © 2016 The Combustion Institute


Kim-Lohsoontorn P.,Mahidol University | Bae J.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2011

The SOEC electrodes during steam (H2O) electrolysis, carbon dioxide (CO2) electrolysis, and the coelectrolysis of H 2O/CO2 are investigated. The electrochemical performance of nickel-yttria stabilised zirconia (Ni-YSZ), Ni-Gd0.1Ce 0.9O1.95 (Ni-GDC), and Ni/Ruthenium-GDC (Ni/Ru-GDC) hydrogen electrodes and La0.8Sr0.2MnO3-δ- YSZ (LSM-YSZ), La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe 0.2O3-δ (LSCF), and La0.8Sr 0.2FeO3-δ (LSF) oxygen electrodes are studied to assess the losses of each electrode relative to a reference electrode. The study is performed over a range of operating conditions, including varying the ratio of H2O/H2 and CO2/CO (50/50 to 90/10), the operating temperature (550-800 °C), and the applied voltage. The activity of Ni-YSZ electrodes during H2O electrolysis is significantly lower than that for H2 oxidation. Comparable activity for operating between the SOEC and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) modes is observed for the Ni-GDC and Ni/Ru-GDC. The overpotential of H2 electrodes during CO2 reduction increases as the CO2/CO ratio is increased from 50/50 to 90/10 and further increases when the electrode is exposed to a 100% CO 2 (800 °C), corresponding to the increase in the area specific resistance. The electrodes exhibit comparable performance during H2O electrolysis and coelectrolysis, while the electrode performance is lower in the CO2-electrolysis mode. The activity of all the O2 electrodes as an SOFC cathode is higher than that as SOEC anodes. Among these O2 electrodes, LSM-YSZ exhibits the nearest to symmetrical behaviour. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lee H.M.,Korea Institute of Materials Science | Choi S.-Y.,Korea Institute of Materials Science | Jung A.,Korea Institute of Materials Science | Ko S.H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Light to wear: Aluminum coated fibrous materials with excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical endurance are fabricated at room temperature by a chemical solution process. The resulting aluminum-coated conductive papers and threads can be used in electric circuits for flexible and wearable electronics. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Lee J.Y.,Samsung | Park H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology | Year: 2012

The H.264/AVC video coding standard can achieve higher compression performance than previous video coding standards, such as MPEG-2, MPEG-4, and H.263. In order to improve the coding performance, the H.264/AVC encoder employs various modes and the rate-distortion (RD) optimization method for selection of an optimum mode. Since the encoder computes RD costs of all possible coding modes to decide the optimum mode, it induces high computational complexity. In this paper, we introduce a fast mode decision method for inter picture macroblocks to reduce the computational complexity. The proposed method significantly reduces the number of candidate modes for the RD optimization process by detecting spatially and temporally homogeneous regions and analyzing motion costs for inter modes and intra prediction costs for intra modes. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method drastically reduces the encoding time and the number of the RD cost calculation process while maintaining the high coding efficiency. © 2011 IEEE.


Son M.,CERN | Son M.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Urbano A.,CERN
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2016

Abstract: We interpret the recently observed excess in the diphoton invariant mass as a new spin-0 resonant particle. On theoretical grounds, an interesting question is whether this new scalar resonance belongs to a strongly coupled sector or a well-defined weakly coupled theory. A possible UV-completion that has been widely considered in literature is based on the existence of new vector-like fermions whose loop contributions — Yukawa-coupled to the new resonance — explain the observed signal rate. The large total width preliminarily suggested by data seems to favor a large Yukawa coupling, at the border of a healthy perturbative definition. This potential problem can be fixed by introducing multiple vector-like fermions or large electric charges, bringing back the theory to a weakly coupled regime. However, this solution risks to be only a low-energy mirage: large multiplicity or electric charge can dangerously reintroduce the strong regime by modifying the renormalization group running of the dimensionless couplings. This issue is also tightly related to the (in)stability of the scalar potential. First, we study — in the theoretical setup described above — the parametric behavior of the diphoton signal rate, total width, and one-loop β functions. Then, we numerically solve the renormalization group equations, taking into account the observed diphoton signal rate and total width, to investigate the fate of the weakly coupled theory. We find that — with the only exception of few fine-tuned directions — weakly coupled interpretations of the excess are brought back to a strongly coupled regime if the running is taken into account. © 2016, The Author(s).


Kim J.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
ChemPhysChem | Year: 2014

One small step: Various Monte Carlo moves are utilized to generate optimal, user-desired MTV-MOF structures during a single simulation run. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Kong S.-H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2015

Successful and fast Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning in indoor environments can enable many location based services (LBS). However, fast indoor GNSS positioning has been one of the biggest challenges for GNSS receivers due to the huge computational cost. To detect weak GNSS signals in indoor environments, a GNSS receiver should perform numerous correlations with a longer coherent integration interval for a denser Doppler frequency search, which is computationally too expensive. For a fast and low computational weak GNSS signal detection, we propose the synthesized Doppler frequency hypothesis testing (SDHT) technique that, utilizing the test results of only sparse Doppler frequency hypotheses, can estimate the test results of entire Doppler frequency hypotheses with small computations. We provide theoretical performance analysis of the proposed technique and demonstrate that the proposed technique reduces the computational cost for weak GNSS signal acquisition significantly and achieves faster signal acquisition than conventional techniques. © 1983-2012 IEEE.


Cho K.-H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
International Journal of Thermal Sciences | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study is to present a coupled electro-magnetic and thermal model for numerical analysis of an induction heating system including the workpieces moving relative to the inductors. In this paper, a finite element method-based numerical analysis of a low-frequency (60 Hz) induction heating system for the one-dimensional solution of a stationary circular billet and the two-dimensional solution considering the dynamic effect of circular billets moving along the skid rails with constant speed are presented and compared against each other. The non-linearities of both the electro-magnetic and thermal material properties are also taken into account in the model. The computational results have been compared with experimental data. As a result, it is suggested that the presented numerical model may be a very cost-effective tool in predicting the temperature of a workpiece in a variable flux field where the interested workpieces undergo an arbitrary change in the electro-magnetic fields. It is possible to obtain some preliminary results more accurate than those calculated from previous works using a stationary model on electro-magnetic field and temperature distribution of workpieces by applying the presented numerical model. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


Anand R.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Indian Journal of Marketing | Year: 2013

The purpose of the study is to present a literature review on the nation brand concept and to examine "Brand-lndia" - its image, associations, and the effect of age and education on brand salience of Korean consumers. 100 respondents were interviewed about their association with India, Indian firms, and 'Made in India' products they wished to buy. ANOVA of the number of responses was done to analyze the effect of age and education of the respondents contributing to the brand awareness of India. It was observed that Indians were perceived to be friendly,kind, and good in maths by the Korean respondents. A majority of the respondents expressed a desire to purchase clothes that are 'Made-in-lndia,' followed by Food and IT products. The Tata Group was the most well known Indian firm in Korea, and the study found a significant effect of age and education in brand awareness of Indian companies. This case study adds to the study of 'Brand India' as well as to the study of nation branding and country image.


Cho S.W.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Journal of the American Heart Association | Year: 2014

Cardiomyocytes that differentiate from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) provide a crucial cellular resource for cardiac regeneration. The mechanisms of mitochondrial metabolic and redox regulation for efficient cardiomyocyte differentiation are, however, still poorly understood. Here, we show that inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) by Cyclosporin A (CsA) promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation from PSCs. We induced cardiomyocyte differentiation from mouse and human PSCs and examined the effect of CsA on the differentiation process. The cardiomyogenic effect of CsA mainly resulted from mPTP inhibition rather than from calcineurin inhibition. The mPTP inhibitor NIM811, which does not have an inhibitory effect on calcineurin, promoted cardiomyocyte differentiation as much as CsA did, but calcineurin inhibitor FK506 only slightly increased cardiomyocyte differentiation. CsA-treated cells showed an increase in mitochondrial calcium, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption rate, ATP level, and expression of genes related to mitochondrial function. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism reduced the cardiomyogenic effect of CsA while antioxidant treatment augmented the cardiomyogenic effect of CsA. Our data show that mPTP inhibition by CsA alters mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and redox signaling, which leads to differentiation of functional cardiomyocytes from PSCs.


Jeong G.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

This paper investigates how Korean government support affects household adoption of renewable energy-based micro-generation systems by analyzing household preferences in relation to the costs and benefits of system installation and different kinds of government support. The research adopts a discrete choice experiment approach and focuses on two micro-generation technologies: solar voltaic and solar thermal. Our empirical analysis revealed firstly that households prefer micro-generation systems that have low installation costs but high energy saving benefits and long warranty periods; and secondly that households prefer direct subsidies to low-interest loans. However, we also found that households are reluctant to install photovoltaic or solar thermal systems in reality because they see the cost of system installation as being higher than the benefits they would receive from such installation. In short, while existing government supports are somewhat effective in promoting household adoption of micro-generation systems, there also exists the obstacle that the majority of households are unwilling to install such systems despite government support. Thus several policy improvements, which focus on increasing the benefits and decreasing the installation costs of micro-generation systems, are suggested in this paper. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Lee K.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Ocean Engineering | Year: 2013

An analysis is conducted to minimize the damage to tripod type offshore wind turbines substructure caused by collisions with boat. The impact of a wind turbine and a boat takes a complicated form. ANSYS LS-Dyna, a commercial FEM tool, is employed for the impact analysis. The FE model generated using equivalent beams for the blades which are verified the method through the results of static and dynamic analysis between full 3D blade model and equivalent beam model. The investigation is conducted in order to determine the influences of various boat speeds, which result in different loading conditions, and various rubber materials for the fender on strain energy, total deformation, plastic strain, internal energy, and permanent deformation. Natural rubber, composite rubber, and neoprene are modeled using Mooney-Rivlin constants, which are determined by material tests, and a time-marching analysis is conducted to account for their nonlinearity. Based on the analysis results, the minimum thickness of a rubber fender is suggested to decrease the effects of impact for the structures. This study provides relationship trends between the structure thickness and the rubber fender thickness, which may be useful in developing the structural design of a tripod type offshore structure. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Kim I.-D.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Rothschild A.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Tuller H.L.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Acta Materialia | Year: 2013

Gas sensors are employed in many applications including detection of toxic and combustible gases, monitoring emissions from vehicles and other combustion processes, breath analysis for medical diagnosis, and quality control in the chemicals, food and cosmetics industries. Many of these applications employ miniaturized solid-state devices, whose electrical properties change in response to the introduction of chemical analytes into the surrounding gas phase. Key challenges remain as to how to optimize sensor sensitivity, selectivity, speed of response and stability. The principles of operation of such devices vary and a brief review of operating principles based on potentiometric/amperometric, chemisorptive, redox, field effect and nanobalance approaches is presented. Due to simplicity of design and ability to stand up to harsh environments, metal oxide-based chemoresistive devices are commonly selected for these purposes and are therefore the focus of this review. While many studies have been published on the operation of such devices, an understanding of the underlying physicochemical principles behind their operation have trailed behind their technological development. In this article, a detailed review is provided which serves to update progress made along these lines. The introduction of nanodimensioned materials has had a particularly striking impact on the field over the past decade. Advances in materials processing has enabled the fabrication of tailored structures and morphologies offering, at times, orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity, while high-resolution analytical methods have enabled a much improved examination of the structure and chemistry of these materials. Selected examples, illustrating the type of nanostructured devices being fabricated and tested, are discussed. This review concludes by highlighting trends suggesting directions for future progress. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Akimoto H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Ocean Engineering | Year: 2013

In the planing of a high-speed boat, it is difficult to predict the complex geometry of spray and highly deformed free surface. The scale of spray is often larger than the length of the boat and its shape changes according to the speed and attitude of boat. In the situation, it is difficult to provide computational mesh with appropriate spatial resolution in both complex spray geometry and boundary layers around the hull. This paper presents a simulation procedure of the large spray formation around a high speed planing body. The method is based on Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method with modifications for ship hydrodynamics. They are surface tension, smooth body boundary, and efficient treatment of collision between free surfaces. The paper provides examples of two-dimensional falling wedge on the free surface and three-dimensional planing wedges. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Yu T.,Washington University in St. Louis | Kim D.Y.,Washington University in St. Louis | Kim D.Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Zhang H.,Washington University in St. Louis | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Many facets: A simple synthetic route, which is based on reduction in aqueous solution, results in Pt concave nanocubes (see picture) enclosed by high-index facets such as {510}, {720}, and {830}. The nanocrystals exhibit electrocatalytic activity (per unit surface area) that is 3.5 times higher than the commercial Pt/C catalyst in the oxygen reduction reaction. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Park S.H.,Argonne National Laboratory | Yoon S.H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Lee C.S.,Hanyang University
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

The main purpose of this study was to investigate how a narrow angle injector affects the combustion and exhaust emissions characteristics in a single-cylinder diesel engine fueled by diesel-bioethanol blends. This study focused on reducing HC and CO emissions in the exhaust emissions by the bioethanol blending of diesel. A narrow angle injector with an injection angle of 70° was used and compared with a conventional angle injector having a 156° injection angle. The bioethanol was blended with the conventional diesel up to 30% with 5% biodiesel. Experiments revealed that, in a narrow angle injector, the premixed combustion duration increased with bioethanol contents unlike the similar value of conventional injector. The premixed combustion phasing decreased with the increase of bioethanol in both injectors. The variation in the peak combustion pressure of the narrow angle injector was smaller than that of a conventional injector. In addition, the narrow angle injector induced a higher indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and a shorter ignition delay compared to the conventional injector. In terms of exhaust emissions characteristics, the low and stable ISHC and ISCO emissions can be achieved through the application of narrow angle injector to the diesel-bioethanol blends combustion. By the early injection combustion strategy, ISHC and ISCO emissions are significantly reduced. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Duchenne O.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris | Bach F.,French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation | Kweon I.-S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Ponce J.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2011

This paper addresses the problem of establishing correspondences between two sets of visual features using higher order constraints instead of the unary or pairwise ones used in classical methods. Concretely, the corresponding hypergraph matching problem is formulated as the maximization of a multilinear objective function over all permutations of the features. This function is defined by a tensor representing the affinity between feature tuples. It is maximized using a generalization of spectral techniques where a relaxed problem is first solved by a multidimensional power method and the solution is then projected onto the closest assignment matrix. The proposed approach has been implemented, and it is compared to state-of-the-art algorithms on both synthetic and real data. © 2011 IEEE.


Lee J.O.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Annales Henri Poincare | Year: 2013

We consider the semi-relativistic system of N gravitating Bosons with gravitation constant G. The time evolution of the system is described by the relativistic dispersion law, and we assume the mean-field scaling of the interaction where N → ∞ and G → 0 while GN = λ fixed. In the super-critical regime of large λ, we introduce the regularized interaction where the cutoff vanishes as N → ∞. We show that the difference between the many-body semi-relativistic Schrödinger dynamics and the corresponding semi-relativistic Hartree dynamics is at most of order N-1 for all λ, i. e., the result covers the sub-critical regime and the super-critical regime. The N dependence of the bound is optimal. © 2012 Springer Basel AG.


Kim K.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing | Year: 2011

Recently, one of the most critical issues in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is providing quality of service (QoS) through routing, access/admission control, resource reservation, and mobility management. However, most existing solutions do not provide QoS effectively due to the interference arising from mobility. In this paper, we refer to interference as a quasi-exposed node problem. To solve this problem, a new algorithm, named a distributed channel assignment control, is proposed that focuses on performance enhancements related to QoS and mathematical analysis techniques for the channel bandwidth. This novel algorithm uses channel assignment control with a power control to reduce the negative effects induced by the quasi-exposed node problem, and then the channels are adaptively negotiated to allow communication in the interference region. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated via extensive simulations, and the results show that it can successfully guarantee QoS by maintaining good throughput, reducing control message overhead, and enhancing delay. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Amini H.,University of California at Los Angeles | Amini H.,Illumina | Lee W.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Di Carlo D.,University of California at Los Angeles
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2014

Microfluidics has experienced massive growth in the past two decades, and especially with advances in rapid prototyping researchers have explored a multitude of channel structures, fluid and particle mixtures, and integration with electrical and optical systems towards solving problems in healthcare, biological and chemical analysis, materials synthesis, and other emerging areas that can benefit from the scale, automation, or the unique physics of these systems. Inertial microfluidics, which relies on the unconventional use of fluid inertia in microfluidic platforms, is one of the emerging fields that make use of unique physical phenomena that are accessible in microscale patterned channels. Channel shapes that focus, concentrate, order, separate, transfer, and mix particles and fluids have been demonstrated, however physical underpinnings guiding these channel designs have been limited and much of the development has been based on experimentally-derived intuition. Here we aim to provide a deeper understanding of mechanisms and underlying physics in these systems which can lead to more effective and reliable designs with less iteration. To place the inertial effects into context we also discuss related fluid-induced forces present in particulate flows including forces due to non-Newtonian fluids, particle asymmetry, and particle deformability. We then highlight the inverse situation and describe the effect of the suspended particles acting on the fluid in a channel flow. Finally, we discuss the importance of structured channels, i.e. channels with boundary conditions that vary in the streamwise direction, and their potential as a means to achieve unprecedented three-dimensional control over fluid and particles in microchannels. Ultimately, we hope that an improved fundamental and quantitative understanding of inertial fluid dynamic effects can lead to unprecedented capabilities to program fluid and particle flow towards automation of biomedicine, materials synthesis, and chemical process control. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Shin C.S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2012

We study the general effects of anomalous U(1)A gauge symmetry on soft supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking terms in large volume scenario, where the MSSM sector is localized on a small cycle whose volume is stabilized by the D-term potential of the U(1)A. Since it obtains SUSY breaking mass regardless of the detailed form of K̈ahler potential, the U(1)A vector superfield acts as a messenger mediating the SUSY breaking in the moduli sector to the MSSM sector. Then, through the loops of U(1)A vector superfield, there arise soft masses of the order of m 2 3/2/8π 2 for scalar mass squares, m 3/2/(8π 2) 2 for gaugino masses, and m 3/2/8π 2 for A-paramteres. In addition, the massive U(1) A vector superfield can have non-zero F and D-components through the moduli mixing in the K̈ahler potential, and this can result in larger soft masses depending upon the details of the moduli mixing. For instance, in the presence of one-loop induced moduli mixing between the visible sector modulus and the large volume modulus, the U(1) A D-term provides soft scalar mass squares of the order of m 2 3/2. However, if the visible sector modulus is mixed only with small cycle moduli, its effect on soft terms depends on how to stabilize the small cycle moduli. © SISSA 2012.


Bang J.-Y.,Samsung | Kim Y.-D.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2011

This paper focuses on a scheduling problem in a semiconductor wafer probing facility. In the probing facility, wafer lots with distinct ready times are processed on a series of workstations, each with identical parallel machines. We develop a heuristic algorithm for the problem with the objective of minimizing total tardiness of orders. The algorithm employs a bottleneck-focused scheduling method, in which a schedule at the bottleneck workstation is constructed first and then schedules for other workstations are constructed based on the schedule at the bottleneck. For scheduling wafer lots at the bottleneck workstation, we consider prospective tardiness of the lots as well as sequence-dependent setup times required between different types of wafer lots. We also present a rolling horizon method for implementation of the scheduling method on a dynamic situation. The suggested methods are evaluated through a series of computational experiments and results show that the methods work better than existing heuristic methods. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yoo J.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Journal of Statistical Physics | Year: 2010

Let X and Y be mixing shifts of finite type. Let π be a factor map from X to Y that is fiber-mixing, i. e., given x,x̄ ∈ X with π(x)=π(x̄) Y = y ∈ Y, there is z∈π-1(y) that is left asymptotic to x and right asymptotic to x̄. We show that any Markov measure on X projects to a Gibbs measure on Y under π (for a Hölder continuous potential). In other words, all hidden Markov chains (i. e. sofic measures) realized by π are Gibbs measures. In 2003, Chazottes and Ugalde gave a sufficient condition for a sofic measure to be a Gibbs measure. Our sufficient condition generalizes their condition and is invariant under conjugacy and time reversal. We provide examples demonstrating our result. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


O'Keeffe M.,Arizona State University | O'Keeffe M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Yaghi O.M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Yaghi O.M.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2012

The identification and description of the nets that describe the underlying topology of metal-organic frameworks (MOF) is presented. Alexandrov et al. discussed a crystal of linked paddle wheels reported by Chun. In this material, the four points of extension of the Zn 2(CO 2) 4 paddle wheel are linked to methyl isophthalic acid. A MOF formed by coordination of alkali metal ions by γ-cyclodextrin (CD), a symmetrical cyclic oligosaccharide consisting of a ring of eight C 6 monosaccharide units that is readily available in large quantities, is also studied. A structure discussed by Alexandrov et al. consists of CuN 6 octahedra linked by triazole/tetrazole linkers. The net is identified as a binodal (4,6)-c net with vertices corresponding to the Cu atoms, and the center of the linkers are considered as tetratopic.


Park C.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer | Year: 2012

A theoretical model describing the nonequilibrium processes occurring behind a normal shock wave in a hydrogen-helium mixture is developed by assembling the latest information on physical properties and by comparing the calculation with the two sets of shock-tube data obtained in the 1970s. The cross-section value of 4 × 10 -17 for electronic excitation of hydrogen atoms by the impacts of hydrogen and helium atoms derived earlier by Leibowitz is confirmed. The intensity of radiation in a nonequilibrium flow is typically twice that in an equilibrium flow. A sample calculation is made for an entry flight in the atmosphere of Neptune to show that the radiative heat load under nonequilibrium is more than twice that under equilibrium. Copyright © 2012 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.


Choi B.G.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Park H.S.,Kyung Hee University
ChemSusChem | Year: 2012

A facilitated electrochemical reaction at the surface of electrodes is crucial for highly efficient energy conversion and storage. Herein, various nanoparticles (NPs) including Au, Pt, Pd, Ru, and RuO 2, were synthesized in situ and directly deposited on the ionic liquid (IL)-functionalized reduced graphene oxides (RGOs) in a controlled manner. The size, amount, and crystalline structures of discrete NPs were readily controlled, giving rise to enhanced methanol oxidation and pseudocapacitance. The well-defined nanostructure of decorated NPs and the favorable interaction between ILs and RGOs (or NPs) facilitated the electrochemical reaction, where NPs acted as electrocatalysts for energy conversion and played the role of redox-active electrodes for energy storage. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH&Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Chung K.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Thin-Walled Structures | Year: 2010

The study of cyclic load-deformation relationships of columns in the post-peak region is essential to prevent the collapse of buildings under earthquake excitation. This paper provides an efficient method to predict the pre- and post-peak hysteretic behavior of concrete-filled circular steel tube columns under the combination of constant axial load and cyclic lateral load. A simplified nonlinear fiber element method is used to investigate uni-axial stress and strain relationship of materials in terms of the composite action between the steel tube and the concrete. The accuracy of the proposed computational technique is verified by comparing the results from this technique and experimental results. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Na C.W.,Korea University | Woo H.-S.,Korea University | Kim I.-D.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Lee J.-H.,Korea University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2011

The selective detection of two different gases, NO2 and C 2H5OH, has been achieved using a p-type Co 3O4-decorated n-type ZnO nanowire (NW) network sensor. The gas selectivity was explained by the catalytic effect of nanocrystalline Co3O4 and the extension of the electron depletion layer via the formation of p-n junctions. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Kong S.-H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems | Year: 2011

In urban environments one of the causes of pseudo-range measurement error in Global Positioning System (GPS) is short-delay multipaths due to the scatterers around the receiver. Therefore knowledge of the temporal distribution of GPS multipaths based on a statistical scatterer distribution in an urban environment is essential to estimating the positioning performance and to developing an efficient multipath mitigation technique for urban GPS applications. The work presented here introduces a scatterer distribution model for the urban environment, derives analytical expressions of the consequent time-of-arrival (TOA) probability density function (pdf) with respect to satellite elevation angles, and analyzes the effect of short-delay multipaths on the pseudo-range measurement errors. The expressions derived provide insights into the statistical properties of GPS multipaths and pseudo-range measurement errors in GPS code phase measurement functions due to the short-delay multipaths. © 2006 IEEE.


Sohn H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering | Year: 2011

A new paradigm for damage diagnosis is proposed by developing a damage detection technique that eliminates the need for initially collected baseline data. Traditional techniques often identify damage by comparing the current data set with the reference data collected from the pristine condition of the structure being monitored. However, this conventional pattern comparison approach is shown to be vulnerable to other changes such as temperature variation that may not be relevant to defects of interest. One of potential advantages of the proposed reference-free approach is that false-alarm due to these undesirable variations could be minimized particularly for field applications where varying structural and environmental conditions impose significant challenges for damage diagnosis. In this paper, the effect of varying temperature on the previously developed reference-free crack detection technique is investigated using an aluminum plate with an increasing crack depth. © 2011 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Park B.S.,Eulji University | Lee J.-O.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Experimental and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Minute amounts of LPS released from infecting pathogens can initiate potent innate immune responses that prime the immune system against further infection. However, when the LPS response is not properly controlled it can lead to fatal septic shock syndrome. The common structural pattern of LPS in diverse bacterial species is recognized by a cascade of LPS receptors and accessory proteins, LPS binding protein (LBP), CD14 and the Toll-like receptor4 (TLR4)-MD-2 complex. The structures of these proteins account for how our immune system differentiates LPS molecules from structurally similar host molecules. They also provide insights useful for discovery of anti-sepsis drugs. In this review, we summarize these structures and describe the structural basis of LPS recognition by LPS receptors and accessory proteins. © 2013 KSBMB.


Sohn H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Lee S.J.,Georgia Institute of Technology
Smart Materials and Structures | Year: 2010

Surface-bonded lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers have been widely used for guided wave generation and measurement. For selective actuation and sensing of Lamb wave modes, the sizes of the transducers and the driving frequency of the input waveform should be tuned. For this purpose, a theoretical Lamb wave tuning curve (LWTC) of a specific transducer size is generally obtained. Here, the LWTC plots each Lamb wave mode' amplitude as a function of the driving frequency. However, a discrepancy between experimental and existing theoretical LWTCs has been observed due to little consideration of the bonding layer and the energy distribution between Lamb wave modes. In this study, calibration techniques for theoretical LWTCs are proposed. First, a theoretical LWTC is developed when circular PZT transducers are used for both Lamb wave excitation and sensing. Then, the LWTC is calibrated by estimating the effective PZT size with PZT admittance measurement. Finally, the energy distributions among symmetric and antisymmetric modes are taken into account for better prediction of the relative amplitudes between Lamb wave modes. The effectiveness of the proposed calibration techniques is examined through numerical simulations and experimental estimation of the LWTC using the circular PZT transducers instrumented on an aluminum plate. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Sanders C.L.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Dose-Response | Year: 2012

Ultra-low doses and dose- rates of ionizing radiation are effective in preventing disease which suggests that they also may be effective in treating disease. Limited experimental and anecdotal evidence indicates that low radiation doses from radon in mines and spas, thorium-bearing monazite sands and enhanced radioactive uranium ore obtained from a natural geological reactor may be useful in treating many inflammatory conditions and proliferative disorders, including cancer. Optimal therapeutic applications were identified via a literature survey as dose-rates ranging from 7 to 11μGy/hr or 28 to 44 times world average background rates. Rocks from an abandoned uranium mine in Utah were considered for therapeutic application and were examined by γ-ray and laser-induced breakdown fluorescence spectroscopy. The rocks showed the presence of transuranics and fission products with a γ-ray energy profile similar to aged spent uranium nuclear fuel (93% dose due to β particles and 7% due to γ rays). Mud packs of pulverized uranium ore rock dust in sealed plastic bags delivering bag surface β,γ dose-rates of 10-450 μGy/h were used with apparent success to treat several inflammatory and proliferative conditions in humans. © 2012 University of Massachusetts.


Han B.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Lab on a chip | Year: 2012

Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a model organism widely utilized in various fundamental studies in developmental, neural and behavioural biology. The worm features four distinct larval stages, and many research questions are stage-specific; therefore, it is necessary to sort worms by their developmental stages, which are typically represented by different size ranges. However, manually synchronizing large populations of worms is time-consuming and labour-intensive, and the commercially available automated sorter is massive and expensive. Realizing the need for a cost-effective and simple micro-platform for sorting, we report an inexpensive and novel method to accomplish this goal. The proposed micro-platform features hexagonally arrayed microstructures with geometric dimensions optimized for the maximum motility of the worms based on their sizes. In each of the optimized micro-structured platforms, only the worms with the targeted size swim continuously with the maximum undulation frequency. Additionally, the persistent and directed movement of the worms can be achieved by applying an electric field along the channel. Based on the optimally spaced microstructures and the electrotaxis behaviour of the worms, we demonstrate the feasibility of a sorting strategy of C. elegans based on their size-dependent swimming behaviour. This micro-platform can also be used for other applications, such as behavioural studies of normal and locomotion-defective mutant worms in complex structures.


Lashgari S.,Cornell University | Avestimehr A.S.,University of Southern California | Suh C.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2014

We establish the degrees of freedom (DoF) of the two-user X-channel with delayed channel knowledge at transmitters [i.e., delayed channel state information at the transmitters (CSIT)], assuming linear coding strategies at the transmitters. We derive a new upper bound and characterize the linear DoF of this network to be 6/5. The converse builds upon our development of a general lemma that shows that, if two distributed transmitters employ linear strategies, the ratio of the dimensions of received linear subspaces at the two receivers cannot exceed 3/2, due to delayed CSIT. As a byproduct, we also apply this general lemma to the three-user interference channel with delayed CSIT, thereby deriving a new upper bound of 9/7 on its linear DoF. This is the first bound that captures the impact of delayed CSIT on the DoF of this network, under the assumption of linear encoding strategies. © 1963-2012 IEEE.


Lee N.,University of Texas at Austin | Chun J.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2014

This paper studies a network information flow problem for a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian wireless network with K users and a single intermediate relay having M antennas. In this network, each user sends a multicast message to all other users while receiving K-1 independent messages from the other users via an intermediate relay. This network information flow is termed a MIMO Gaussian K-way relay channel. For this channel, it is shown that the optimal sum degrees of freedom (sum-DoF) is KM/K-1, assuming that all nodes have global channel knowledge and operate in full-duplex. A converse argument is derived by cut-set bounds. The achievability is shown by a repetition coding scheme with random beamforming in encoding and a zero-forcing method combined with self-interference cancelation in decoding. Furthermore, under the premise that all nodes have local channel state information at the receiver only and operate in half-duplex mode, it is shown that a total K/2 DoF is achievable when M = K - 1. The key to showing this result is a novel encoding and decoding scheme, which creates a set of network code messages with a chain structure during the multiple access phase and performs successive interference cancelation using side-information for the broadcast phase. One major implication of the derived results is that efficient exploitation of the transmit message as side-information leads to an increase in the sum-DoF gain in a multiway relay channel with multicast messages. © 2014 IEEE.


Kim B.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Kim B.,Samsung
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2011

Given the extreme advances and large investments in social-networking services (SNS), it has become important to analyze users' decision-making processes in order to understand their continued use of SNS. This study attempted to develop an integrated model that incorporates subjective norm into the expectation-confirmation model. The research model was empirically tested within the context of Cyworld. The analysis revealed that the proposed theoretical model provided an in-depth understanding of user continuance behavior toward SNS. Theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed. © Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Chung S.-Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Choi S.-Y.,Korea Institute of Materials Science | Kim T.-H.,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute | Lee S.,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute
ACS Nano | Year: 2015

Atomic-scale exchange between two different cations of similar size in crystalline oxides is one of the major types of point defects when multiple cations in oxygen interstitials are arrayed in an ordered manner. Although a number of studies have been performed on a variety of Li-intercalation olivine phosphates to determine the distribution of exchange defects in bulk, understanding of the thermodynamic stability of the defects in subsurface regions and its dependency on the crystallographic orientation at the surface has remained elusive. Through a combination of small-angle neutron scattering, atomic-scale direct probing with scanning transmission electron microscopy, and theoretical ab initio calculations, we directly demonstrate that the antisite exchange defects are distributed in a highly anisotropic manner near the surfaces of LiFePO4 crystals. Moreover, a substantial amount of cation exchanges between Li and Fe sites is identified as an energetically favorable configuration in some surface regions, showing excellent agreement with the calculation results of negative defect formation energies. The findings in this study provide insight into developing better ways to avoid degradation of lithium mobility through the surface as well as scientifically notable features regarding the distribution of exchange defects in olivine phosphates. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Lee C.-Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Research Policy | Year: 2010

This paper focuses on the dual role of R&D - knowledge generation and the technological-competence-enhancing effect of R&D - and its implication for the endogenous evolution of R&D productivity and the pattern of firm growth. In particular, based on the evolution of firm-specific R&D productivity or technological competence, this paper derives a simple R&D-based model of firm growth capable of explaining various aspects of firm growth. The model proposes three prototype patterns of firm growth, depending on both firm- and industry-specific characteristics. The former includes firm-specific technological-competence-enhancing capability and the initial level of technological knowledge, and the latter includes industry-specific R&D appropriability. Specifically, firms with low technological-competence-enhancing capability tend to follow a convergent growth pattern in which firm growth gradually declines, while firms with high technological-competence-enhancing capability tend to exhibit either a sustained or a vicious growth pattern depending on the initial size of their technological knowledge stock. An empirical analysis of unique data on firm growth and technological capability provides supportive evidence for the role of technological-competence-enhancing capability in conditioning the pattern of firm growth. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lee J.H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems | Year: 2011

Three decades have passed since milestone publications by several industrialists spawned a flurry of research and industrial / commercial activities on model predictive control (MPC). This article reviews major developments and achievements during the three decades and attempts to put a perspective on them. The first decade is characterized by the fast-growing industrial adoption of the technology, primarily in the refining and petrochemical sectors, which sparked much interest and also confusion among the academicians. The second decade saw a number of significant advances in understanding the MPC from a control theoretician's viewpoint, which included state-space interpretations / formulations and stability proofs. These theoretical triumphs contributed to the makings of the second generation of commercial software, which was significantly enhanced in generality and rigor. The third decade's main focus has been on the development of "fast MPC," a term chosen to collectively describe the various efforts to bring orders-of-magnitude improvement in the efficiency of the on-line computation so that the technology can be applied to systems requiring very fast sampling rates. Throughout the three decades of the development, theory and practice supported each other quite effectively, a primary reason for the fast and steady rise of the technology. © ICROS, KIEE and Springer 2011.


So S.M.,Diaminopharm Inc. | Mui L.,University of Toronto | Kim H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Chin J.,University of Toronto
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2012

Chiral diamines are important building blocks for constructing stereoselective catalysts, including transition metal based catalysts and organocatalysts that facilitate oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, and C-C bond forming reactions. These molecules are also critical components in the synthesis of drugs, including antiviral agents such as Tamiflu and Relenza and anticancer agents such as oxaliplatin and nutlin-3. The diaza-Cope rearrangement reaction provides one of the most versatile methods for rapidly generating a wide variety of chiral diamines stereospecifically and under mild conditions. Weak forces such as hydrogen bonding, electronic, steric, oxyanionic, and conjugation effects can drive this equilibrium process to completion.In this Account, we examine the effect of these individual weak forces on the value of the equilibrium constant for the diaza-Cope rearrangement reaction using both computational and experimental methods. The availability of a wide variety of aldehydes and diamines allows for the facile synthesis of the diimines needed to study the weak forces. Furthermore, because the reaction generally takes place cleanly at ambient temperature, we can easily measure equilibrium constants for rearrangement of the diimines. We use the Hammett equation to further examine the electronic and oxyanionic effects. In addition, computations and experiments provide us with new insights into the origin and extent of stereospecificity for this rearrangement reaction.The diaza-Cope rearrangement, with its unusual interplay between weak forces and the equilibrium constant of the reaction, provides a rare opportunity to study the effects of the fundamental weak forces on a chemical reaction. Among these many weak forces that affect the diaza-Cope rearrangement, the anion effect is the strongest (10.9 kcal/mol) followed by the resonance-assisted hydrogen-bond effect (7.1 kcal/mol), the steric effect (5.7 kcal/mol), the conjugation effect (5.5 kcal/mol), and the electronic effect (3.2 kcal/mol). Based on both computation and experimental data, the effects of these weak forces are additive. Understanding the interplay of the weak forces in the [3,3]-sigmatropic reaction is interesting in its own right and also provides valuable insights for the synthesis of chiral diamine based drugs and catalysts in excellent yield and enantiopurity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Yu K.,University of California at Berkeley | Yu K.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Lakhani A.,University of California at Berkeley | Wu M.C.,University of California at Berkeley
Optics Express | Year: 2010

We report on near infrared semiconductor nanopatch lasers with subwavelength-scale physical dimensions (0.019 cubic wavelengths) and effective mode volumes (0.0017 cubic wavelengths We observe lasing in the two most fundamental optical modes which resemble oscillating electrical and magnetic dipoles. The ultra-small laser volume is achieved with the presence of nanoscale metal patches which suppress electromagnetic radiation into free-space and convert a leaky cavity into a highly-confined subwavelength optical resonator. Such ultra-small lasers with metallodielectric cavities will enable broad applications in data storage, biological sensing, and on-chip optical communication. © 2010 Optical Society of America.


Kim J.S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
European Journal of Combinatorics | Year: 2010

Using growth diagrams, we define a skew domino Schensted correspondence which is a domino analogue of the skew Robinson-Schensted correspondence due to Sagan and Stanley. The color-to-spin property of Shimozono and White is extended. As an application, we give a simple generating function for the weighted sum of skew domino tableaux, which is a generalization of Stanley's sign-imbalance formula. The generating function gives a method to calculate the generalized sign-imbalance formula. We also extend Sjöstrand's theorems on sign-imbalance of skew shapes. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lee S.W.,Stanford University | McDowell M.T.,Stanford University | Choi J.W.,Stanford University | Choi J.W.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Cui Y.,Stanford University
Nano Letters | Year: 2011

Silicon is one of the most attractive anode materials for use in Li-ion batteries due to its ∼10 times higher specific capacity than existing graphite anodes. However, up to 400% volume expansion during reaction with Li causes particle pulverization and fracture, which results in rapid capacity fading. Although Si nanomaterials have shown improvements in electrochemical performance, there is limited understanding of how volume expansion takes place. Here, we study the shape and volume changes of crystalline Si nanopillars with different orientations upon first lithiation and discover anomalous behavior. Upon lithiation, the initially circular cross sections of nanopillars with 〈100〉, 〈110〉, and 〈111〉 axial orientations expand into cross, ellipse, and hexagonal shapes, respectively. We explain this by identifying a high-speed lithium ion diffusion channel along the 〈110〉 direction, which causes preferential volume expansion along this direction. Surprisingly, the 〈111〉 and 〈100〉 nanopillars shrink in height after partial lithiation, while 〈110〉 nanopillars increase in height. The length contraction is suggested to be due to a collapse of the {111} planes early in the lithiation process. These results give new insight into the Si volume change process and could help in designing better battery anodes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Ju Y.S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Current Opinion in Genetics and Development | Year: 2016

Genome instability is a well-known hallmark of cancer cells. With the revolution of high-throughput sequencing technologies, our knowledge of somatically acquired genome structural variation (SV) has greatly improved over the last decade. Remarkably, surveys of thousands of human whole-cancer genomes have shown that chromosomal rearrangements are frequently combined with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments somatically transferred to the nucleus. The high transfer rate and features of integration breakpoints provide clues for understanding the potential mechanisms underlying these events and provide insights into the role of mtDNA segments transferred into the nucleus. In this review, I discuss our current understanding of somatic nuclear transfer of mitochondrial DNA into the nuclear genome of human cancer cells. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Gather M.C.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Gather M.C.,Harvard University | Yun S.H.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Yun S.H.,Harvard University | And 2 more authors.
Nature Photonics | Year: 2011

Since their invention some 50 years ago, lasers have made a tremendous impact on modern science and technology. Nevertheless, lasing has so far relied on artificial or engineered optical gain materials, such as doped crystals, semiconductors, synthetic dyes and purified gases. Here, we show that fluorescent proteins in cells are a viable gain medium for optical amplification, and report the first successful realization of biological cell lasers based on green fluorescent protein (GFP). We demonstrate in vitro protein lasers using recombinant GFP solutions and introduce a laser based on single live cells expressing GFP. On optical pumping with nanojoule/nanosecond pulses, individual cells in a high-Q microcavity produce bright, directional and narrowband laser emission, with characteristic longitudinal and transverse modes. Lasing cells remained alive even after prolonged lasing action. Light amplification and lasing from and within biological systems pave the way to new forms of intracellular sensing, cytometry and imaging. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Kang S.-T.,Daegu University | Kim J.-K.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Cement and Concrete Composites | Year: 2012

In this paper, the variation of the fiber orientation distribution along the flow of fresh UHPCC was studied. In order to describe the rotational motion of a single fiber, Jeffery's equation was adopted, in which the interaction among fibers is neglected. Two cases of flow patterns were considered: shear flow and radial flow. Starting with a three-dimensional random distribution of fibers, the fiber orientation distribution along the flow distance was simulated. These results reveal that fibers gradually become more parallel (in the case of shear flow) and perpendicular (in the case of radial flow) to the flow direction as the flow distance increases. This approach will be useful to predict flow-dependent tensile behavior considering the change of fiber orientation distribution. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Park J.,Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute | Chun J.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2012

Lattice reduction (LR) and successive interference cancellation (SIC) are two well-known techniques that can be used to improve detection performance over linear detectors for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. However, the LR technique and the SIC technique usually need perfect knowledge on the channel at the receiver, and the use of these techniques with an erroneous channel matrix even worsens the detection performance compared to linear detectors. In this correspondence, we shall show how to modify these techniques to make them robust under imperfect channel estimation. Information needed for the proposed algorithm is moderate; the variance of channel estimation error is the only requirement. Furthermore, our algorithm is not sensitive to the error in the variance of channel estimation error. © 2012 IEEE.


Lee K.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2013

A cellular-level study of the pathophysiology is crucial for understanding the mechanisms behind human diseases. Recent advances in quantitative phase imaging (QPI) techniques show promises for the cellular-level understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases. To provide important insight on how the QPI techniques potentially improve the study of cell pathophysiology, here we present the principles of QPI and highlight some of the recent applications of QPI ranging from cell homeostasis to infectious diseases and cancer.


Kang S.-T.,Daegu University | Kim J.-K.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

This study aims to investigate the effect of fiber orientation distribution on the flexural behavior of ultra high performance cementitious composites (UHPCC) and to propose an analytical approach which enables to predict the flexural behavior considering probabilistic fiber orientation distribution. A three-point bending test with the notched beams was carried out and the fiber orientation distribution was quantitatively estimated by the help of image analysis process. The measured fiber orientation distributions for two different flexural performances confirmed that the fiber orientation distribution has a strong impact on the deflection hardening behavior in bending. Finite element analyses were performed to predict flexural behavior of UHPCC considering the difference in fiber bridging behavior depending on the fiber orientation distribution. The analytical results were in good agreement with the experimental results. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Jo M.R.,Dongguk University | Jung Y.S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Kang Y.-M.,Dongguk University
Nanoscale | Year: 2012

We report on the synthesis of one-dimensional (1D) Li4Ti 5O12 nanofibers through electrospinning and their outstanding electrochemical performances. Li4Ti5O 12 with a spinel structure is a promising candidate anode material for lithium rechargeable batteries due to its well-known zero-strain merits. In order to improve the electronic properties of spinel Li4Ti 5O12, which are intrinsically poor, we processed the material into a nanofiber type of architecture to shorten the Li+ and electron transport distance using a versatile electrospinning approach. The electrospun Li4Ti5O12 nanofiber showed significantly enhanced discharging/charging properties, even at high rates that exceeded 10 C, demonstrating that the nanofiber offers an attractive architecture for enhanced kinetics. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Korkmaz N.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2013

Bacteriophages are nano-sized virion particles infecting bacteria. In this study, it is shown that metal binding properties of filamentous fd-bacteriophages can be enhanced by genetic engineering. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) analyses, UV-vis absorption spectra measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging revealed that expression of MMM short amino acid sequence on major coat protein p8 facilitates recombinant MMM-phage binding to Au surfaces and nanoparticles (NPs) via gold-sulfur (AuS) interaction. Electroless deposition of Au particles on phage assemblies was investigated upon chemical reduction reaction with NaBH4 at different HAuCl4 precursor concentrations. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements confirmed the presence of Au on both AuNP decorated and chemically metallized phage structures. Further studies on patterning and controlled immobilization of recombinant bacteriophages on specific surfaces may contribute to bio-templated nanowire development field and biosensor application studies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Park B.H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Lab on a chip | Year: 2012

In this work, we demonstrate a novel rotary microsystem for simple, rapid and automatic influenza viral RNA purification. The microdevice consists of a silica sol-gel matrix for RNA capture, and three reservoirs for a RNA sample (R(S)), a washing solution (R(W)) and an elution buffer (R(E)) that were connected with different dimensional microfluidic channels (120 μm for R(S), 40 μm for R(W), and 20 μm for R(E)). The hydrophobic property of PDMS and the narrow microchannel served as a passive capillary microvalve, and the loading of the solutions were controlled by centrifugal force. 5 μL of a lysate sample of influenza A H1N1 virus, a washing solution and an elution buffer were injected in each designated reservoir, and the virus sample, the washing solution, and the elution buffer were sequentially loaded into the sol-gel chamber at 1600, 2000, and 2500 RPM, enabling the viral RNA to be captured in the sol-gel solid phase, purified, and eluted in 5 min. The RNA capture yield was measured as ~80%, and the H1 and M gene were successfully amplified from the recovered purified H1N1 viral RNA by reverse-transcriptase PCR. Such a novel rotary sample preparation system eliminates any complicated hardware and human intervention, and performs the RNA extraction with high speed and high fidelity.


Kim C.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Lab on a chip | Year: 2012

This paper proposes a new cytotoxicity assay in a microfluidic device with microwells and a distributive microfluidic channel network for the formation of cancer cell spheroids. The assay can generate rapid and uniform cell clusters in microwells and test in situ cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs including sequential drug treatments, long term culture of spheroids and cell viability assays. Inlet ports are connected to the microwells by a hydraulic resistance network. This uniform distribution of cell suspensions results in regular spheroid dimensions. Injected cancer cells were trapped in microwells, and aggregated into tumor spheroids within 3 days. A cytotoxicity test of the spheroids in microwells was subsequently processed in the same device without the extraction of cells. The in situ cytotoxicity assay of tumor spheroids in microwells was comparable with the MTT assay on hanging drop spheroids using a conventional 96-well plate. It was observed that the inhibition rate of the spheroids was less than that in the 2D culture dish and the effect on tumor spheroids was different depending on the anticancer drug. This device could provide a convenient in situ assay tool to assess the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs on tumor spheroids, offering more information than the conventional 2D culture plate.


Lee C.-Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Technovation | Year: 2011

This paper aims to evaluate the effects of various forms of public research and development (R&D) support on firms' incentives to invest in R&D. First, in order to identify potential channels through which public R&D support influences firm R&D, a formal model of firm R&D with public R&D support is developed and analyzed. Four potential channels are identified: the technological-competence-enhancing effect, the demand-creating effect, the R&D-cost-reducing effect and the (project) overlap (or duplication) effect. These multiple channels indicate that it is difficult to evaluate the aggregate effect of public R&D support and that there are differential effects of public R&D support on firm R&D, depending on various firm- or industry-specific characteristics. Second, the differential effects of public R&D support are empirically tested using unique firm-level data for nine industries across six countries. Public support tends to have a complementarity effect on private R&D for firms with low technological competence, for firms in industries with high technological opportunities and for firms facing intense market competition. In contrast, firms with high technological competence and firms that have enjoyed fast demand growth in recent years show a crowding-out effect, and firm size and age do not show any discernible differential effect. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-05-21

A magnetic resonance imaging apparatus and a diffusion-weighted image acquiring method form a radial k-space through a radial sampling and acquire a diffusion-weighted image from the radial k-space, with the diffusion-weighted image acquiring including receiving an echo signal generated from the subject, and forming a k-space having a plurality of sampling lines by sampling the echo signal that is received, wherein the directions of the diffusion gradient magnetic fields applied at the time of forming the sampling lines that compose the k-space to cross each other at two adjacent sampling lines.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-05-07

A method for a parallel image reconstruction is disclosed. The method includes (a) acquiring image information by channel via parallel coils in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner; (b) extracting low-frequency signals from the image information; (c) reconstructing low-frequency images from the low-frequency signals; (d) generating filter banks by using the low-frequency images; and (f) reconstructing a final image by using the filter banks. The generating of the filter banks includes separately generating low-frequency image information for reconstruction of magnitude information and low-frequency image information for reconstruction of phase information, and then separately generating a filter for reconstruction of the magnitude information and a filter for reconstruction of the phase information.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2014-10-17

A method for generating an image by using a medical imaging apparatus includes acquiring first slab data which relates to a first imaging slab, acquiring second slab data which relates to a second imaging slab at a position which is different from a position of the first imaging slab, and generating a restored image by using data from among the acquired first slab data and data from among the acquired second slab data in slices which correspond to a same position on an object.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2014-10-24

A method of reconstructing a tomographic image in a medical imaging apparatus includes: acquiring a first image of an object and a second image of the object corresponding to an image to be reconstructed; determining, in the first image, a reference region corresponding to a unit region in the second image; and updating data in the unit region based on data contained in the reference region. Thus, a medical image having both high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution is reconstructed to have substantially reduced artifacts.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-12-12

The present invention provides a transmission line for a capacitive coil. The transmission line may include: a plurality of first cylindrical conductors; a plurality of second cylindrical conductors arranged alternately with the first cylindrical conductors in a layered structure; and dielectrics arranged between the first cylindrical conductors and the second cylindrical conductors. According to the present invention, a coaxial cable having multi-layered pairs of cylindrical conductors and dielectrics inserted between the cylindrical conductors or a cable having one or more layers of conductors separated by dielectrics is provided to thereby minimize current loss in a transmission line by compensating for line voltage drop due to self-inductance L of the line.


The present disclosure relates to a pre-5


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-11-07

A data transmission and/or reception method of a base station in a wireless communication system is provided. The data transmission/reception method includes receiving information on interference measured by a terminal, allocating a downlink resource to a terminal based on the received interference information, determining per-subband transmit power distributions of the downlink resource allocation, and transmitting the per-subband transmit power distributions of the downlink resource allocation to neighbor base stations.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-05-10

A method for controlling the charging of segments for an online electric vehicle is described. In some situations, the method comprises: (a) receiving, from segments, information on the speed and position of the vehicle entering the range of the power-supplying device; and (b) controlling the charging/discharging timing of the current segment from which the vehicle is leaving and the next segment into the range of which the vehicle is to enter, in accordance with the information on the speed and position of the vehicle. The charging/discharging response delay characteristics of the segments may be considered.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-09-17

Provided are a novel UDP-glycosyltransferase (uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase) protein having glycosyltransfer activity for glucose linked by a glycosidic bond at the C-20 position of PPD (protopanaxadiol)-type or PPT (protopanaxatriol)-type ginsenoside, and use thereof.


Provided is a composition for controlling pluripotency of stem cells including an LIN28A methylation inhibitor and a screening method of the LIN28A methylation inhibitor, and more particularly, a composition for controlling pluripotency of stem cells including an inhibitor controlling methylation of 135


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-11-18

A plasma generation apparatus includes a vacuum container, dielectrics connected to through-holes formed in the vacuum container, RF coils of the same structure disposed in the vicinity of the respective dielectrics and electrically connected in parallel, an RF power source to supply power to the RF coils, an impedance matching circuit disposed between the RF power source and the RF coils, and a power distribution unit disposed between the impedance matching circuit and one ends of the RF coils to distribute the power of the RF power source to the RF coils. The power distribution unit includes a power distribution line and a conductive outer cover enclosing the power distribution line. Distance between an input end of the power distribution unit and the RF coils are equal to each other, and the other ends of the RF coils are connected to the conductive outer cover to be grounded.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-12-09

A wireless communication system provides an antenna apparatus for the wireless communication system. The antenna apparatus includes a base, a plurality of Yagi-Uda antenna modules disposed in a specific arrangement, a plurality of floating metal modules correspondingly installed in upper portions of the Yagi-Uda antenna modules and selectively connected to a corresponding Yagi-Uda module among the plurality of Yagi-Uda antenna modules, a switching element for selectively switching the floating metal module and the Yagi-Uda antenna module, and a controller for controlling the Yagi-Uda antenna module to comprise a directivity in a desired direction by selectively switching the switching element.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-07-01

Provided is a sensing apparatus for a user terminal including a camera, including: an image analyzing unit analyzing an image variable of an object taken by the camera; and a touch determining unit determining whether the object touches the user terminal and an intensity of the touch according to the image variable analyzed by the image analyzing unit. According to the present disclosure, without adding additional hardware devices or changing hardware devices, the touch pressure, rotational angle, and the like of the object regarding the user terminal may be sensed by using the camera already provided in the user terminal.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-04-01

A device may include an image sensor configured to capture an image of an object in front of the image sensor, an image analyzer configured to analyze the captured image to calculate a transmittance of a light that is transmitted from outside of the object to the image sensor via the object, a command mapper configured to translate the transmittance into a command, and an executor configured to execute the command.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-12-11

A control method using a touch shield to be performed by a touch sensing display, and an electronic apparatus are provided. The control method using the touch shield may include determining a touch area of a touched point in a normal state, switching to a touch shield state when the touch area is greater than or equal to a threshold value, and executing an instruction in response to a movement of the touched point in the touch shield state.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2015-04-27

A piezoelectric actuator and a method of measuring a motion by using the piezoelectric actuator are provided. The piezoelectric actuator includes: a movable member that is disposed to face the fixed member; a piezoelectric element that is disposed between the fixed member and the movable member, and configured to operate in a shear mode based on input voltages applied to the piezoelectric element and move the movable member relative to the fixed member; and a position sensor that is disposed between the piezoelectric element and the movable member, and configured to measure a motion of the movable member.


Patent
Sk Innovation Co., Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-04-22

This invention relates to a hydrogen spillover-based catalyst and use thereof, wherein a hydrogen activation metal cluster is dispersed in the form of being encapsulated in a crystalline or amorphous aluminosilicate matrix which is partially or fully structurally collapsed zeolite, thereby exhibiting high hydroprocessing or dehydrogenation activity and suppressed CC hydrogenolysis activity.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-10-03

The present invention relates to a mutant microorganism, which is selected from the group consisting of genus


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-02-28

Provided is an LNG refueling system which can deliver LNG to an LNG-fueled ship and an LNG-refueled ship or can introduce the LNG from an LNG carrier, and more particularly, an LNG refueling system which separately has a low-temperature LNG tank and a high-temperature LNG tank such that both a low-temperature LNG and a high-temperature LNG can be handled, prevents an increase in pressure in the low-temperature LNG tank, and increases stability, and includes a flashing drum to change a high-temperature LNG to a low-temperature LNG such that both the high-temperature LNG and the low-temperature LNG can be supplied. Further, the present invention relates to an LNG refueling system including a boil-off gas treatment system to facilitate treatment of boil-off gas and a boil-off gas treatment method.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-01-08

Provided are a dye-sensitized solar cell and a method for manufacturing the dye-sensitized solar cell using a carbon nanotube (CN


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-12-20

An apparatus for manipulating surface near-field light resulting from light emitted from a light source that passes through a scattering layer is disclosed. Also, a method of finding a phase of incident light to cause constructive interference at a target spot using light scattering to manipulate the surface near-field.


Provided are a method of decoding an LDPC code for producing several different decoders using a parity-check matrix of the LDPC code, and an LDPC code system including the same. The system includes: an LDPC encoder outputting an LDPC codeword through a channel; a first LDPC decoder decoding the LDPC codeword received through the channel, and when the decoding has failed in a second LDPC decoder, decoding the LDPC codeword according to original parity check matrix of the LDPC codeword, using soft information newly generated after the decoding is ended in the second LDPC decoder; and the second LDPC decoder, when the decoding has failed in the first LDPC decoder, receiving the soft information on each bit from the first LDPC, and decoding the LDPC codeword according to a new parity-check matrix produced from the parity-check matrix of the LDPC codeword using the received soft information on each bit.


A foldable transparent composite cover window, a manufacturing method therefore, and a display device including the foldable transparent composite cover window are provided.


Disclosure relates to an apparatus, system, and method for related recommendation of TV program contents and web contents that enable plentiful information acquisition and effective TV watching by discovering and recommending Internet web contents having a high association with the TV program contents when a TV is watched using a TV terminal connected to the Internet, and to a computer-readable recording medium having a program recorded thereon for executing the method. The apparatus includes: an user profile unit that produces and updates an user profile of a smart TV; a first information collection unit that collects first information that is TV program contents metadata from a smart TV network; a second information collection unit that collects second information that is web contents information from a web; and an integrated content database that stores third integrated information structured with correlation discovered between the first information and the second information.


Patent
Samsung, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-09-03

A touch sensing device for measuring a contact position of an object by measuring a change in capacitance caused by contact of an object is provided. The touch sensing device includes a touch screen panel on which channel electrodes functioning as a transmission antenna or a reception antenna are disposed to form a plurality of electrode patterns, a transmission circuit connected to the channel electrodes to apply an electrical signal to the touch screen panel, a reception circuit connected to the channel electrodes to sense a varying capacitance from the plurality of electrode patterns, and a controller configured to control the touch screen panel, the transmission circuit and the reception circuit.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-01-16

An end device may include a touch screen; a touch screen manager configured to: determine a first area and a second area on the touch screen, and determine at least one of a display property or a touch sensing property of the first area to be different from that of the second area; and a processor configured to: display an image on the first area and the second area.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-02-28

A method of reconstructing a tomography image of an object from a plurality of projection images generated by scanning the object in a plurality of projection directions includes: determining whether a truncated portion of the object exists in the plurality of projection images; reconstructing a first reconstruction image; calculating projection data for the first reconstruction image; and reconstructing a tomography image of the object by using the calculated projection data.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-02-06

A method and system for detecting motion are provided. The method includes: generating a time domain matrix including vectors corresponding to variation of pixel values as elements of the time domain matrix, of a video image including a plurality of frames; generating a motion matrix from which a low frequency area of the video image is removed by multiplying the time domain matrix by a low rank matrix; and generating a result image including a plurality of frames in which vectors, which are elements of the motion matrix, are included as variation of motion pixel values.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-02-23

Provided is a photo-curable transparent resin in which an oxetane monomer for promotion of photo-curing, control of viscosity, and improvement of physical properties is mixed with a photo-cationically polymerizable cyclo-aliphatic epoxy group-containing oligosiloxane resin prepared by a sol-gel reaction. The photo-cationically polymerizable photo-curable transparent resin added with the oxetane monomer provides a cured product having high curing density and retaining excellent mechanical properties, thermal-mechanical properties, and electrical properties.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-02-05

A method and apparatus for deciding a network coding method based on link utilization are disclosed herein. The method may include a step of setting up an output link utilization reference value of a network intermediate node, a step of calculating an average utilization of output links for each network intermediate node, a step of deciding a network coding method in accordance with the average utilization of the output link for each network intermediate node, a step of consistently updating the average utilization of the output link for each network intermediate node, and a step of changing the network coding method, when a value of the average utilization value is changed.


Patent
Samsung, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-12-30

A power supply device may include a switching unit receiving and switching direct current power to provide power, a converting unit converting primary power into secondary power having a voltage level depending on a preset turns ratio according to the switching of the switching unit and outputting the converted secondary power, a light emitting diode which is driven by the secondary power provided from the converting unit, and a controlling unit generating a control signal of the switching unit based on voltage information of the secondary power and current information from the light emitting diode.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.1.7 | Award Amount: 1.31M | Year: 2013

The main target at which SMARTFIRE aims is the design and implementation of a shared experimental facility spanning different islands located in Europe (EU) and South Korea (KR). This large scaled facility will promote joint experimentation among EU and KR experimenters, encouraging them to conceive and implement innovative protocols, able to take advantage of the current leading network technologies. Existing testbed infrastructures in EU and KR, already featuring WiFi enabled nodes, wireless sensors and supporting WiMax, LTE and OpenFlow technologies, are going to be extended and federated in the experimental, as well as the control plane. These two directions are going to be supported by the leading experimental frameworks adapted by most EU testbeds, the cOntrol and Management Framework (OMF) and the Slice Federation Architecture (SFA). The OMF framework, currently supporting control and experimentation in wireless islands, is going to be expanded, in order to support experimentation with OpenFlow switches, thus integrating wireless with\nOpenFlow testbeds. Moreover, unique features, only existing in the KR testbeds will be integrated into OMF, in order to unleash the hidden potential of experimenting with heterogeneous resources. The federation in the control plane that allows assignment of multiple heterogeneous resources under a single slice is going to be developed through the extensions of SFA. Interconnection of the aforementioned islands will take advantage of the GEANT network, in the case of the EU research sites, while the respective KOREN/KREONET will be utilized by the KR sites. The two currently disjoint networks are going to be interconnected via the Trans-Eurasia Information Network (TEIN3/TEIN4) and the Global Ring Network for Advanced Application Development (GLORIAD). Finally, SMARTFIRE aims at the implementation of various pilot use cases, designed to demonstrate the power of the EU-KR shared Future Internet experimental facility.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-10-09

A sound reproducing apparatus is provided to include a control device configured to receive first and second sound source signals, controls magnitudes and phases of the received first and second sound source signals to be heard as if sound is reproduced at a pre-determined position within a listening space, and to output first and second controlled sound source signals; a first speaker configured to receive the first controlled sound source signal and to reproduce sound; a second speaker configured to receive the second controlled sound source signal and to reproduce sound; and an input device with which a user can draw the listening space and mark the pre-determined position and the users position in the drawn listening space, wherein the pre-determined position is distant from the user, wherein the input device is made of a touch panel and the user can draw the listening space with his/her finger or a pen and mark the pre-determined position and the users position through the touch panel, and wherein the control device controls the magnitudes and phases of the first and second sound source signals to be heard as if sound is reproduced at an actual pre-determined position within the listening space corresponding to the pre-determined position marked on the input device, and outputs the first and second controlled sound source signals.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-06-29

The present invention relates to a method of manufacturing a heterogeneous catalyst using space specificity, comprising: depositing a metal in a core of micelles provided on a substrate; depositing an oxide around a shell of the micelles after the deposition of the metal in the core of the micelle; and reducing the metal in the core of the micelles after the deposition of the oxide, then, removing the micelles, and a method for generation of hydrogen through decomposing water in the presence of the heterogeneous catalyst prepared according to the aforesaid method under a light source.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute | Date: 2013-02-06

A terminal and method for recognizing a communication target within a visible range. The method of a terminal to recognize a communication target includes obtaining location information of a communication target whose identification information is unknown within a visible range of a terminal user; and recognizing a relative location of the communication target with respect to the terminal based on the obtained location information and displaying the recognized relative location of the communication target.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and LG Corp | Date: 2013-05-13

The present invention relates to a hairpin-type probe for detecting a target substance and a method for detecting a target substance using the probe. The hairpin-type probe comprises a loop comprising a target substance recognition site, and a stem comprising an aptamer having an electrochemical signaling material bound thereto. The hairpin structure is broken when it is hybridized to the target substance, and thus the signaling material is separated from the aptamer and can freely move to the electrode. Based on the change in the electrochemical signal generated from the signaling material, the amount of the target substance can be accurately detected in real-time.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-09-17

Disclosed herein is supporting structure for an offshore wind power generator. The supporting structure includes lower support part and main body part. The lower support part includes lower concrete part which is provided on a base installed on the sea floor and is reduced in width from the bottom thereto to the top, at least one lower hollow space which is formed in the lower concrete part, and a lower inner-pipe which is attached to the inner surface of the lower hollow space. The main body part is coupled to an upper end of the lower support part. The main body part includes a main-body concrete part, at least one main-body hollow space which is formed in the main-body concrete part and communicates with the lower hollow space, and a main-body inner-pipe which is attached to a circumferential inner surface of the main-body hollow space.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-03-15

There are provided a power module in which a bias voltage is varied and supplied to a control circuit controlling power conversion when an idle mode is switched to a normal mode, and a distributed power supply apparatus having the same. The power module includes: a power factor correction stage; a DC/DC conversion stage switching power to convert the power into pre-set DC power in a powering mode in which normal power is output; a standby stage converting the power into pre-set standby power in a cold standby mode in which the DC/DC conversion stage outputs power having a level lower than that of normal power; and a variable bias supply unit varying a voltage level of bias power for controlling DC/DC power conversion and supplying the same to the DC/DC conversion stage in the cold standby mode and the powering mode.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-05-20

A tomographic image generation apparatus includes a light source unit configured to emit light to be used for scanning an object; an optical control unit configured to control a direction of propagation of light; an optical coupler configured to divide and combine incident light; a plurality of optical systems optically connected to the optical coupler; and a modulation and correction device configured to modulate and correct the light to be used for scanning the object. The modulation and correction device may be disposed between the optical control unit and the optical coupler, or may be included in an optical system that irradiates light onto the object among the plurality of optical systems. The modulation and correction device may only modulate light that is reflected to the object.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-06-04

Provided are a meta-photoresist capable of transferring mask patterns on which fine patterns having a diffraction limit or less are formed, on a substrate, and a lithography method using the same, wherein the meta-photoresist contains a photosensitive resin layer and a metal particle layer which is a layer of metal particles arranged so as to be spaced apart from each other.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute | Date: 2012-03-15

An analysis algorithm generation apparatus of an electromagnetic field generator includes: a value inputting unit for receiving information on a TEM cell or GTEM cell; and an algorithm generating unit for generating an algorithm to analyze a TEM mode in a cross sectional structure of the GTEM cell or a tapered section of the TEM cell by using an associated Legendre function and a mode-matching method based on the information transmitted from the value inputting unit. The algorithm generating unit analyzes the TEM mode by dividing a space into four (left, right, upper and lower) regions, the space existing between an inner electrode and an outer wall of the cross sectional structure of the GTEM cell or the tapered section of the TEM cell.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-08-03

The present invention provides a method for updating betweenness centrality of a graph, which obtains the betweenness centrality of an unweighted graph, which is updated when edges are updated, the method comprising the steps of: obtaining a minimum union cycle (an MUC, a subset of edges of the graph in which every vertex of the graph is incident to an even number of edges) of the updated graph; extracting an MUC (i.e., an MUC


Provided is a display apparatus for receiving millimeter waves or terahertz waves from a transmitter under a non-line-of-sight condition, the apparatus including: a plurality of diversity boards that are installed in a bezel of the display apparatus, receive millimeter waves or terahertz waves having different paths, convert the received waves into a plurality of baseband signals, and sense output powers of the plurality of baseband signals; a controller to output a control signal for selecting a diversity board of a maximum output power from the output powers sensed by the plurality of diversity boards; a selector to connect the diversity board of the maximum output power among the plurality of diversity boards to an image converter by the control signal; and the image converter to convert an output of the selector into image data for displaying.


Provided are a scanner for two-dimensional optical scanning capable of implementing two-dimensional driving by one input signal without an additional structure for modulating a resonance frequency using modulation of the resonance frequency through asymmetry of the scanner itself, and a manufacturing method thereof. In addition, there is provided a manufacturing method of a scanner for two-dimensional optical scanning capable of implementing compact packaging through a micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) process to miniaturize the scanner, such that it may be used in a micro-miniature system such as an endoscope and capable of increasing precision of the scanner and manufacturing the scanner in various shapes and at a low cost. Further, there is provided a medical imaging apparatus using a scanner for two-dimensional optical scanning capable of providing a medical image having improved quality without crosstalk between axes through separation of resonance frequencies.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-12-22

A single-channel phase conjugation apparatus includes a spatial light modulator and a single-channel optical sensing and generating unit. The spatial light modulator receives a light having a wavefront scattered by a scattering object. The single-channel optical sensing and generating unit senses a phase control wavefront of an output light focused by the spatial light modulator and outputs a light having a phase conjugation wavefront by changing a direction of the output light in a reverse direction depending on the phase control wavefront.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-03-05

According to the embodiment of the present invention, an infrared sensor chip may be provided that includes: a CMOS circuit board comprised of an active matrix, a row line selector and an output multiplexer; and a bolometer which is stacked on the CMOS circuit board and is comprised of an active cell and a reference cell, wherein, for the purpose of a parametric test for the bolometer at a wafer or chip state, the row line selector selects a cell to which a voltage is applied in the bolometer, and wherein the output multiplexer outputs current characteristics according to the voltage application.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-12-14

A condensing-type portable fluorescence detection system which detects antigens using fluorescence includes: a light source generating light to excite a fluorescent substance; a first filter selecting a proper wavelength range from the light generated from the light source; a spherical mirror including two hemispherical mirrors having different curvature radiuses and connected to each other, and condensing the light excited and emitted from the light source; a second filter selecting a proper wavelength range of the light condensed by the spherical mirror; and a photodetector detecting fluorescence from the light condensed by the spherical mirror and passing through the second filter.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.4.3 | Award Amount: 9.93M | Year: 2010

Over the last 3 years, the semantic web activity has gained momentum with the widespread publishing of structured data as RDF. The Linked Data paradigm has therefore evolved from a practical research idea into a very promising candidate for addressing one of the biggest challenges in the area of intelligent information management: the exploitation of the Web as a platform for data and information integration in addition to document search. To translate this initial success into a world-scale disruptive reality, encompassing the Web 2.0 world and enterprise data alike, the following research challenges need to be addressed: improve coherence and quality of data published on the Web, close the performance gap between relational and RDF data management, establish trust on the Linked Data Web and generally lower the entrance barrier for data publishers and users. With partners among those who initiated and strongly supported the Linked Open Data initiative, the LOD2 project aims at tackling these challenges by developing:\n1. enterprise-ready tools and methodologies for exposing and managing very large amounts of structured information on the Data Web,\n2. a testbed and bootstrap network of high-quality multi-domain, multi-lingual ontologies from sources such as Wikipedia and OpenStreetMap.\n3. machine learning algorithms for automatically enriching, repairing, interlinking and fusing data from the Web.\n4. standards and methods for reliably tracking provenance, ensuring privacy and data security as well as for assessing the quality of information.\n5. adaptive tools for searching, browsing, and authoring of Linked Data.\nWe will integrate and syndicate linked data with large-scale, existing applications and showcase the benefits in the three application scenarios media & publishing, corporate data intranets and e-government.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-06-22

A Positron Emission Tomography (PET)-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) convergence system may be provided that includes: a magnet bore having a cylindrical shape, an outer wall and an inner wall; a gradient coil disposed to contact with the inner wall of the magnet bore; a body coil which is disposed to contact with the inner wall of the gradient coil, emits an RF pulse signal, and has a first through-hole formed therein; and an MRI RF receiving coil detecting MRI data corresponding to the RF pulse signal. The PET detector includes a second through-hole formed therein and contacts with one end of the body coil such that the first through-hole is connected to the second through-hole. The examinee transporter is transportable through the first through-hole and the second through-hole.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-05-30

There are provided a method and an apparatus for generating a depth map of a stereoscopic image that are capable of representing the depth perception of an image more finely by considering not only vanishing points but also fine lines formed within an image. The method includes: generating multiple line segments by grouping multiple edge pixels within an input image based on an intensity gradient direction; merging the multiple line segments based on similarity and thereafter detecting at least one vanishing point in consideration of a result of the merging; and generating an energy depth function on which correlation between the line segments and the vanishing point is reflected and generating a depth map by decoding the energy depth function.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-05-30

Provided are an apparatus and a method for manipulating depth of a stereoscopic image that enable a user to manipulate depth of a stereoscopic image easily and intuitively. The apparatus may include: a histogram analyzing unit acquiring a depth distribution chart by performing histogram analysis of a disparity map corresponding to an input image; a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) fitting unit acquiring multiple depth layers by performing GMM fitting of the depth distribution chart; a disparity adjusting unit adjusting at least one of a position and a volume of at least one of the multiple depth layers and calculating a disparity mapping function on which a result of the adjustment is reflected in response to a user request; and a disparity map recalculating unit calculating a new disparity map by optimizing the disparity mapping function.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-11-08

A data transmission and reception method and apparatus in a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) system. The transmission method includes selecting at least one antenna for use in transmission among a plurality of antennas based on transmission data and transmitting the transmission data through the selected antenna. The data transmission and reception method and apparatus are advantageous in increasing the throughput of the MIMO communication system. Also, the data transmission and reception method and apparatus are capable of making it possible to design a superior transceiver in complexity and performance. Also, the data transmission and reception method and apparatus are capable of acquiring extra Degree of Freedom (DOF) and thus increasing the number of symbols that can be transmitted at a time. Furthermore, the data transmission and reception method and apparatus are applicable to conventional MIMO communication systems to obtain extra performance gain without being restricted to certain conditions.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-08-27

An apparatus and a method relieve intercell interference in a wireless communication system. In a method for operating a transmission node, a first private message encoding a portion of transmission data of a neighbor transmission node is received. Weight for canceling the first private message of the neighbor transmission node received in a intended reception node is determined. The first private message of the neighbor transmission node multiplied by the weight, a common message encoding a portion of data to be transmitted to the intended reception node, and a second private message encoding the rest of the data are transmitted.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-06-26

Disclosed herein are a nanopreparation having a micelle structure for diagnosis or treatment of cancer diseases, and a method of preparing the same, and more particularly, a nanopreparation having a micelle structure available for diagonosis or treatment of cancer diseases and a method for preparing the same, wherein the nanopreparation is prepared by encapsulating a photosensitizer by forming micelle with polymeric lipid DSPE-mPEG. The nanopreparation having the micelle structure according to the present invention has a size of 12 nm or less by encapsulating hypericin, which is a photosensitizer, by forming micelle with polymeric lipid DSPE-mPEG having a molecular weight of 1500 to 2500. Resultingly, the nanopreparation easily overcomes a blood-tumor barrier (BTB) and an interstitial fluid pressure and has light induced cytotoxicity efficiency that is about more than 2.5 times higher than that of the case where hypericin is used alone.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-03-05

An electrode catalyst for a fuel cell, the electrode catalyst including a catalyst particle including palladium, gallium, and cerium.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-03-28

An apparatus for measuring blood flow includes a detection part and a signal processing part. The detection part includes a blood flow detector for measuring a blood flow of a measured portion of an object, which makes contact with the measured portion, and a force detector for detecting a contact force between the blood flow detector and the measured portion. The signal processing part produces a corrected blood flow in reflection of an error of the blood flow due to the contact force.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-08-07

The present invention prepared insulin-producing endocrine cells by inducing the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells into definitive endoderm (DE), pancreatic endoderm (PE), endocrine progenitors (EP), and endocrine cells (EC) stepwise in that order. Particularly, the present invention established the conditions for the formation of an insulin producing endocrine aggregate (EA) from the endocrine cells. Especially in this invention, it was confirmed that the endocrine aggregate has the cell proliferation potential at a significant level and has the increased insulin productivity as well as the activity of inhibiting cell necrosis and apoptosis. Therefore, the method for preparing the endocrine aggregate of insulin-producing beta cells from human pluripotent stem cells can be effectively used for the examination of the medicinal effect of the conventional antidiabetic agents and of the novel antidiabetic drugs.


Patent
Samsung, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-05-08

The present disclosure relates to an apparatus and method supportive of distributed turbo coding based on relay network utilizing a noisy network coding scheme. For this, included is a relay node operating as a component encoder to relay a signal from a source node to a next node in a distributed turbo coding scheme. The relay node quantizes the signal transmitted from the source node and then interleaves the quantized signal using a predetermined pattern to distinguish the signal transmitted from the source node from a signal to be output from an opposing node, so that the signal transmitted from the source node is relayed to the next node based on a noisy network coding scheme.


Provided is a hydrogen measurement sensor capable of monitoring a content of hydrogen within molten metal in real-time using an aluminum or magnesium alloy casting method, and, more particularly, a hydrogen measurement sensor having a junction structure of a solid oxygen ion conductor and a solid hydrogen ion conductor in molten metal capable of measuring a content of hydrogen within aluminum-magnesium alloy-molten metal using a new method which generates a fixed concentration of oxygen gas from a solid reference material at a high temperature by replacing a reference material of a standard gas method which is difficult to handle with a solid reference material or external air which is easy to handle or has the same effect as that of the gas reference material by using a feature in which the external air contains a predetermined pressure (0.21 atm) of oxygen.


Use of a metabolic network model for analyzing metabolic characteristics of microorganisms for producing a metabolic product, such as 3HP enabling estimation of productivity and cell growth speed of microorganisms, optimizing new metabolic pathway, and providing transformed microorganisms that may produce a specific metabolic product with high efficiency.


The inventive concepts relate to a member for a gas sensor, a gas sensor using the same and a manufacturing method thereof, and more particularly, to a member for a gas sensor using a one-dimensional metal oxide nanofiber complex material containing hetero nanoparticle catalysts synthesized using apo-ferritins, a gas sensor using the same, and a manufacturing method thereof. According to embodiments of the inventive concepts, apo-ferritins containing hetero nanoparticle catalysts are mixed with an electrospinning solution, the mixture solution is electrospun to form complex nanofibers, and then a high-temperature thermal treatment process is performed to remove the apo-ferritins. Thus, the hetero nanoparticle catalysts are uniformly fastened to an inside and a surface of one-dimensional metal oxide nanofibers to form a member for a gas sensor. As a result, the member for a gas sensor has a high-sensitivity characteristic capable of sensing a very small amount of a gas and excellent selectivity capable of sensing various gases. In addition, a catalyst effect is maximized by the hetero nanoparticle catalysts uniformly distributed without aggregation. Furthermore, the member for a gas sensor and the gas sensor using the same can be mass-produced by a process method capable of effectively forming pores and of fastening high-performance catalysts.


Disclosed is a technique for fabricating a bio-photovoltaic cell which includes coupling graminoids extracted from natural grasses to a semiconductor electron acceptor, on which plasmonic silver nanoparticles are aligned, by using an organic ligand material. More particularly, disclosed is a technique for fabricating a new renewable energy generation device useable for fabrication of high efficiency bio-photovoltaic cells by improving a photo-electron generation rate of graminoids through a surface plasmon effect of silver nanoparticles and increasing an effective photo-electron amount transferred to the electron acceptor due to optimized bonding between a photo sensitizer and an electron acceptor


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-08-30

A memory controller controls operation of a nonvolatile memory device comprising a memory area comprising a plurality of multi-level cells (MLCs). The memory controller receives an address of the memory area and data to be programmed to the memory area, analyzes access history information regarding the memory area based on the address, generates first mapping data corresponding to the data or second mapping data based on the data and previous mapping data that has been programmed to the MLCs according to a result of the analysis, and transmits a program command comprising one of the first mapping data and the second mapping data to the nonvolatile memory device.


Disclosed is a method of manufacturing a colorless transparent polyimide film having impregnated glass fabric, wherein the surface of the polyimide film substrate having impregnated glass fabric is flattened by two flattening steps using a roll-to-roll process, thereby solving problems with an increase in surface roughness of the polyimide substrate when manufacturing the polyimide film having impregnated glass fabric in order to enhance thermal and mechanical properties of a film for use in flexible display substrates and in cover windows for flat panel displays and mobile phones. As the surface roughness of the polyimide film having impregnated glass fabric is flattened to the level of ones of nm from the level ranging of tens of nm to ones of m, a thin film transistor process can be performed on the polyimide film substrate and the polyimide film is increased in optical transmittance and transparency and can thus be utilized as flexible display substrates and cover windows for flat panel displays and mobile phones.


Patent
Samsung, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-09-17

An organometallic complex represented by Formula 1-1 or Formula 1-2 is provided: wherein in Formulae 1-1 and 1-2, descriptions of R


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-11-23

An image-based super-resolution method using a cone-beam-based line-of-response (LOR) reconfiguration in a positron emission tomography (PET) image is provided. That is, an apparatus and method for reconfiguring a super-resolution PET image using a cone-beam-based LOR reconfiguration is provided.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-03-14

The present invention relates to a method of producing a phosphorylated protein using a SepRS (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA synthetase) mutant and an EF-Tu mutant, which have increased activity. More specifically, the invention relates to a method of producing a phosphorylated protein by incorporating phosphoserine into the specific position of a target protein or polypeptide using tRNA According to the invention, a phosphorylated protein can be produced in an amount of mg per liter using the SepRS and EF-Tu mutants. Thus, the invention is useful for the production of various phosphorylated proteins, including phosphorylated enzymes, the production of antibodies, the fabrication of protein chips, and cell-based screening for new drug development.


Patent
Samsung, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-07-22

A flexible display panel includes a bending area and a surrounding area adjacent to the bending area. The barrier layer includes first silicon nitride layers and first silicon oxide layers which are overlapped with the bending area. The first silicon nitride layers and the first silicon oxide layers are stacked alternately. Each of the first silicon nitride layers may have a thickness less than or equal to about 400 , and each of the first silicon oxide layers may have a thickness less than or equal to about 650 .


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-04-23

The present invention relates to a method of preparing a material having a superhydrophobic region and a hydrophobic region, and more particularly to a method of preparing a material having a superhydrophobic region and a hydrophobic region by preparing a superhydrophobic surface body and hydrolyzing one surface of the prepared superhydrophobic surface body using a strong base. The preparation method according to the invention is simpler than conventional preparation methods and is capable of preparing a material having opposite surface characteristics at low costs.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-09-03

A ranging method and apparatus in a wireless communication system are provided. The ranging method of a Mobile Station (MS) includes selecting at least one Base Station (BS) for performing ranging, transmitting a ranging signal by using a common ranging region shared by a plurality of BSs, and receiving a response signal, including a ranging result of at least one BS which received the ranging signal, from a central controller.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-06-18

A fiber scanning optical probe including: an optical fiber; an actuator that drives the optical fiber in two directions; and an asymmetric structure that is disposed at one end of the optical fiber.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-06-25

Disclosed is a MEMS variable capacitor including: a first electrode; a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode; a third electrode floating above the first electrode; and an actuator including a fourth electrode facing the second electrode, a connector connecting the third electrode and the fourth electrode, and a support supporting a portion of the connector, wherein the third electrode and the connector are integrally formed with each other, and wherein a capacitance is changed by applying a voltage to the second electrode and by adjusting a gap between the first electrode and the third electrode.


Patent
Samsung, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-03-21

An image sensor includes a light-electron conversion unit, a signal generation unit, and a selection unit. The light-electron conversion unit generates photo-charges from incident light. The signal generation unit accumulates photo-charges from the converter in a storage node during a detection period, and then generates a first analog signal and a second analog signal during an output period. The analog signals are generated based on an amount of photo-charges accumulated in the storage node. The selection unit generates an image signal based on one of the first analog signal and the second analog signal.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-11-06

A display apparatus may include an optical element having thereon an information area; an eye tracker configured to detect an activity of at least one pupil within eyes; a processor configured to change a display property of the information area based at least in part on the activity of the at least one pupil.


Patent
LG Corp, Chonnam National University, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-09-04

Provided is a secondary battery comprising a positive electrode active material represented by the following Chemical Formula 1,


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2015-07-15

An apparatus and a job scheduling method are provided. For example, the apparatus is a multi-core processing apparatus. The apparatus and method minimize performance degradation of a core caused by sharing resources by dynamically managing a maximum number of jobs assigned to each core of the apparatus. The apparatus includes at least one core including an active cycle counting unit configured to store a number of active cycles and a stall cycle counting unit configured to store a number of stall cycles and a job scheduler configured to assign at least one job to each of the at least one core, based on the number of active cycles and the number of stall cycles. When the ratio of the number of stall cycles to a number of active cycles for a core is too great, the job scheduler assigns fewer jobs to that core to improve performance.


Patent
California Institute of Technology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-07-30

Described herein are mixed matrix filtration membranes and related, compositions, methods and systems and in particular mixed matrix filtration membranes with an embedded polymer network and/or embedded polymeric micro/nanoparticles functionalized with a functionalization polymer covalently and/or non covalently linked to the micro/nanoparticles and related compositions, methods, and systems.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2014-08-20

An electro-conductive hydrogel composite material that may be suitable as an artificial skin satisfies all four requirements of artificial skin, namely, flexibility, electrical conductivity, healing property, and biocompatibility. The electro-conductive hydrogel composite material includes a hydrogel composition including water and a cross-linkable polymer which reversibly forms cross-linkage by hydrogen bonding; and an electro-conductive material dispersed in the hydrogen bond-based hydrogel.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2014-09-26

An X-ray imaging apparatus includes an X-ray generator configured to transmit X-rays to an object, an X-ray detector configured to detect the X-rays transmitted through the object and convert the detected X-rays into electrical signals, a gantry in which the X-ray generator and the X-ray detector are installed so as to be opposite to each other, the gantry being rotatable about a bore, a controller configured to control a rotation of the gantry during bio-signal cycles of the object so that the gantry is rotated from different start positions whenever one of the bio-signal cycles is started, and an image processor configured to generate a 4D image of the object by applying a prior image-based compressed sensing image reconstruction algorithm to plural 2D projection images acquired from the electrical signals generated by converting the X-rays detected during the rotation of the gantry.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-09-28

To efficiently analyze interaction and function between proteins, the present invention relates to a method for forming a light-induced protein nanocluster, comprising: an expression vector preparation step of preparing a first expression vector including polynucleotides coding a first fusion protein including a light-induced heterodimer-forming protein and a first self-assembly protein, and a second expression vector including polynucleotides coding a couple protein that forms a homodimer with said light-induced heterodimer-forming protein, or a second fusion protein including said couple protein and a second self-assembly protein; a transformed cell, tissue or individual preparation step of transforming cells, tissues or individuals using said first expression vector and second expression vector; and a light radiation step of radiating light having a wavelength for inducing the formation of heterodimer between said light-induced heterodimer-forming protein and said couple protein, to said transformed cells, tissue or individuals.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-04-13

The present invention relates to a ferrite core structure for a power supply device of an electric vehicle which changes the structure of a ferrite core module according to a related art to improve output and limits a reduction in strength due to warpage in a traveling direction of the vehicle to prevent cracks generated in a surface of an intermediate portion of a power supply road from occurring. For this, the ferrite core structure for a power supply device of the electric vehicle includes: a plurality of horizontal core parts arranged spaced apart from each other to prevent a magnetic flux from leaking into the ground; a plurality of first vertical core parts extending upward from both ends of the horizontal core parts to prevent the magnetic flux from leaking into an outer surface; a second vertical core part having at least two rows extending upward from an intermediate portion of each of the horizontal core parts, the second vertical core part being arranged in a direction parallel to the first vertical core parts; and a first support part connecting the plurality of first vertical core parts to each other to support the first vertical core parts.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-05-06

A convergence guaranteed image reconstruction method and apparatus that may compute an initial reconstruction image based on a plurality of sinograms, generate a patch-based low rank regularization image based on the initial reconstruction image, and generate a desired reconstruction image by updating the initial reconstruction image based on the patch-based low rank regularization image and an intensity lookup table.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-06-17

Provided is a system and method for monitoring a student behavior in a field trip. The system may include: a plurality of member terminals held respectively by a plurality of members conducting a group activity and provided with a plurality of sensors, an imaging device, and a data storage device to collect and store behavior information of the members to match time information, the behavior information including location information, orientation information, view information, and motion information; at least one leader terminal held by a leader and configured to receive and store the behavior information of the members collected by the plurality of member terminals; and an analysis terminal configured to receive the behavior information from the at least one leader terminal and the plurality of member terminals.


Patent
Samsung, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-04-29

A method for performing communication in a multi-stage beam forming system includes determining statistical channel information which indicates a priority of analog beams transmitted by a base station, configuring an adaptive code book for digital beam forming, based on the statistical channel information and analog beams which the base station uses in actual communication among the analog beams, and performing communication with the base station through the digital beam forming based on the adaptive code book. A terminal includes a channel estimator configured to perform channel estimation for analog beams transmitted from a base station, a controller configure to determine statistical channel information indicating a priority of the analog beams, and configure an adaptive code book for digital beam forming based on the statistical channel information and analog beams that the base station uses in actual communication among the analog beams, and a communication unit.


Patent
Samsung, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-09-22

Sensor coupled to the ultrasound probe provides position information related to an ultrasound imaging position in the object. A processor performs first registration between the medical image and the ultrasound image based on the anatomical feature in the ultrasound image and a medical image of the object acquired by imaging modality different from the ultrasound apparatus, obtains first registration information which provides a relationship between a coordinate system of the medical image and a coordinate system of the ultrasound image based on the first registration, performs second registration between the sensor and the medical image based on the position information and the first registration information, and obtains second registration information based on the second registration. A display may display a portion of the medical image corresponding to the ultrasound imaging position based on the second registration information.


Patent
Samsung, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-08-28

The present disclosure relates to a pre-5th-Generation (5G) or 5G communication system to be provided for supporting higher data rates Beyond 4th-Generation (4G) communication system such as Long Term Evolution (LTE). Provided is a method for setting a beam in a mobile communication system. The method includes determining at least one of a beam width and a beam direction in consideration of a criteria value in response to a failure of a random access attempt, and retransmitting a beam based on the determined at least one of the beam width or the beam direction. The criteria value includes at least one of a beam gain history of a candidate beam combination and a previous transmission failure history.


An optical nanoantenna includes a single-crystalline silver (Ag) nanowire. The single-crystalline silver nanowire is configured to output an optical antenna radiation pattern based on incident lights. The optical antenna radiation pattern includes multilobe radiation patterns, and each multilobe radiation pattern has a plurality of lobes that are radially disposed centered on the single-crystalline silver nanowire. The incident lights are visible lights in entire visible wavelength bands. Accordingly, the optical nanoantenna according to example embodiments operates at multiple resonances in the full visible range.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-05-07

The present invention relates to a black organic light-emitting diode that implements a resonant absorbing configuration, the black organic light-emitting diode comprising: a glass substrate; a first metal layer formed on the glass substrate; a first electrode formed on the first metal layer; an organic light-emitting layer formed on the first electrode; a second electrode formed on the organic light-emitting layer, opposite the first electrode; a first interlayer formed on the second electrode; a second metal layer formed on the first interlayer; and a second interlayer formed on the second metal layer, wherein by controlling the thickness of the first interlayer and the second interlayer, external light reflected by the first metal layer and the second electrode destructively interferes with light reflected by the second metal layer.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2012-05-06

An apparatus for capturing a radiation image of a subject including at least two materials includes a radiation irradiating unit configured to irradiate multi-energy radiation including at least two energy bands to a calibration model including a plurality of thicknesses of each of the at least two materials; an attenuation-coefficient estimating unit configured to estimate attenuation coefficients for each of the at least two materials for each of the at least two energy bands based on values obtained by passing the multi-energy radiation through the calibration model; and an energy-band determining unit configured to determine an optimal combination of at least two energy bands to be included in multi-energy radiation to be irradiated to the subject from a plurality of different combinations of at least two energy bands based on the estimated attenuation coefficients and the values obtained by passing the multi-energy radiation through the calibration model.


Provided are a scheduling method in a multiprocessor apparatus and a method of assigning priorities to tasks using pseudo-deadlines in a multiprocessor apparatus. The scheduling method includes releasing tasks (


Patent
Institute For Basic Science, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-08-06

Provided are a graphene hydrogel, graphene hydrogel nanocomposite materials, and a preparation method thereof, wherein the graphene hydrogel includes pores between laminated graphene sheets, and the pores contain moisture. In addition, the graphene hydrogel nanocomposite materials include nanoparticles and porous pores between laminated graphene sheets, and the pores contain water.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-05-19

A foldable vehicle which has a vehicle body divided into two sections of a front section and a rear section and has a size reduced by rotating the rear section of the divided vehicle body to be folded with respect to the front section thereof. The foldable vehicle includes a front vehicle body having a front wheel; a rear vehicle body having a rear wheel and having a lower front end rotatably connected to a lower rear end of the front vehicle body through a rotating shaft to rotate around the rotating shaft in a vertical direction, thereby being folded to overlap with the front vehicle body or unfolded; a folding drive unit for folding or unfolding the vehicle bodies by rotating the rear vehicle body with respect to the front vehicle body; and a control unit for controlling the operation of the folding drive unit.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-03-02

Provided is a batch fabrication method of three-dimensional photonic microstructures including a support structure fabricating step, a variable structure fabricating step, a thermal reflow step, and a three-dimensional photonic microstructure forming step. The batch fabrication method of three-dimensional photonic microstructures fabricates three-dimensional photonic microstructures having several shapes depending on a demand of a user through these steps.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-12-27

A method and apparatus configures a beamforming coefficient based on the signal strength information without collecting channel information by adjusting the phase of the antennas through random perturbation. An antenna control method of a base station in a wireless communication system using a beamforming technique includes measuring n


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and LG Corp | Date: 2013-12-20

A slot antenna and an information terminal apparatus using the same are provided. The slot antenna comprises: a conductive housing; and at least one slot formed on the corner and edge of the conductive housing.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-11-08

Provided is an X-beam structure including: a plurality of beams extending in X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis directions and formed in a lattice pattern and a plurality of cross intersections at which an X-axis beam, a Y-axis beam, and a Z-axis beam meet one another, wherein in the X-beam structure in which a cross section of each beam has the geometry of a right-angled X, and the beam intersections are formed with one continuous beam and the two other joining beams are attached and welded onto the continuous beam.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-01-11

Provided is single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber production via a multi-vacuum filtration method, and more particularly, single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber production via a multi-vacuum filtration method, capable of depositing a carbon nanotube thin film on a filter using a vacuum chamber and a membrane filter, etching the filter using an etchant so as to be transferred to an upper surface of the polymer, coating the polymer on the carbon nanotube to thereby produce a carbon nanotube saturable absorber, as a method of producing a carbon nanotube thin film to transfer the thin film to the polymer using a multi-filtration method in order to produce a passive saturable absorber to be used in laser oscillation.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-11-12

The present application describes an isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding a polypeptide capable of synchronously binding VEGF polypeptide and TNF polypeptide comprising: (a) a nucleotide sequence encoding a TNFR2 component and VEGFR1 component operatively linked to (b) a nucleotide sequence encoding a multimerizing component, wherein the TNFR2 component consists essentially of a nucleotide sequence encoding the amino acid sequences of cystein rich domain 1, cystein rich domain 2, cystein rich domain 3, and cystein rich domain 4 of the extracellular domain of TNFR2, and wherein the VEGFR1 component consists essentially of a nucleotide sequence encoding the amino acid sequences of Ig-like domain 2 of the extracellular domain of VEGFR1.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Kepco E&C | Date: 2014-04-17

Disclosed is a burnable absorber-integrated control rod guide thimble that guides an up-and-down motion of a control rod provided to control reactivity of a reactor core. The control rod guide thimble includes burnable absorbers.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Institute For Basic Science | Date: 2014-12-26

Provided is a nanoscale patterning method using self-assembly, wherein nanoscale patterns having desirable shapes such as a lamella shape, a cylinder shape, and the like, may be formed by using a self-assembly property of a block copolymer, and low segment interaction caused in a structure of 10 nm or less which is a disadvantage of the block copolymer may be prevented. In addition, even though single photolithography is used, pattern density may double as that of the existing nano patterns, and pitch and cycle of the patterns may be controlled to thereby be largely utilized for electronic apparatuses requiring high integration of circuits such as a semiconductor device, and the like.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-12-06

Disclosed are a method and system for providing a user interface for an interactive broadcast program using a mobile instant messenger. The method for providing a user interface for an interactive broadcast program comprises the steps of: executing a chat room capable of participating in a broadcast program using a program ID, which is a buddy ID generated on a mobile instant messenger (IM), for the broadcast program; and displaying messages with regard to the broadcast program sent to or received from a user via the chat room. The step of displaying messages may provide a plurality of input buttons as a user interface (UI) for inputting messages from the user on the screen of the chat room, the input buttons enabling messages to be inputted for each participation objective in the broadcast program.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2012-10-19

A wireless power receiver for wirelessly receiving power from a wireless power supplier includes a power receiver for receiving wireless power from the wireless power supplier and storing the wireless power for a first time period, a rectifier connected to the power receiver for rectifying the wireless power, a power adjuster connected to the rectifier and an output end, for adjusting a magnitude of the wireless power by enabling the power receiver to store the wireless power for the first time period and delivering the wireless power to the output end for a second time period, and a controller for determining the first and second time periods.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2012-10-24

Provided is a received power conversion device for a resonant wireless charging system, including a wireless power receiver for receiving wireless power from a wireless power transmission device, a rectifier for rectifying power in an Alternating Current (AC) form received in the wireless power receiver into a Direct Current (DC), a free-wheeling switching unit for switching according to a switching control signal to form a path for free-wheeling the power in the AC form, a feedback circuit fed back with an output signal of a corresponding power conversion device to detect a level of the output signal, and a controller for controlling switching of the free-wheeling switching unit according to the output level detected by the feedback circuit.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-02-27

The present invention relates to a public acceptable simple water-cooled reactor system for generating electricity and, more particularly, to a public acceptable simple water-cooled reactor system for generating electricity, which includes: a water-cooled reactor that uses water as a coolant and a moderator and generates thermal energy through nuclear fission; a power conversion system that is connected to the water-cooled reactor so as to indirectly receive the thermal energy generated by the reactor core of the water-cooled reactor via a heat exchanger in a containment and generate electricity; a in-containment refueling water storage tank that is used when the water-cooled reactor is refueled with a nuclear fuel; and a containment that surrounds the entire reactor system including the water-cooled reactor and the in-containment refueling water storage tank.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-10-16

Disclosed are a method of manufacturing a graphene-carbon nanotube nanostructure which includes mixing graphite, a catalytic metal, and an ionic liquid, and then radiating microwaves on the mixture, and a graphene-carbon nanotube nanostructure manufactured using the method.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-12-05

An apparatus and a method for reserved transmission of non-real-time content in a heterogeneous network environment are disclosed. According to the present disclosure, a method for performing reserved transmission of non-real-time content in a heterogeneous network environment comprises receiving a transmission reservation option from either a mobile terminal user or a server, collecting information on networks accessible by the mobile terminal and data transmission rate on a regular basis, performing scheduling of whether to transmit data over a currently accessible network, based on the received transmission reservation option and the collected information on the accessible networks and the data transmission rate, and repeating data transmission according to the scheduling until transmission of the content is completed.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2014-12-22

Disclosed is a motion vector smoothing method. The motion vector smoothing method includes acquiring motion vectors of at least one block of a current image by using a reference image, acquiring a candidate motion vector of a current block, based on a motion vector of the current block, and at least one motion vector of at least one block adjacent to the current block, determining a threshold value of the current block according to gradient values of pixels included in the current block, and determining the motion vector of the current block according to the threshold value.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2012-12-26

Provided is a method in which a Digital Pre-Distorter (DPD) performs digital pre-distortion on a received In-phase (I) signal, a received Quadrature-phase (Q) signal, a feedback I signal, and a feedback Q signal; a mixer mixes a signal output from the DPD with a frequency signal output from an oscillator; each of n phase shifters phase-shifts a signal output from the mixer according to a preset beamforming pattern; each of n Power Amplifiers (PAs) amplifies a signal output from an associated phase shifter according to a gain, the PAs connected to the associated phase shifter on a one-to-one basis; each of n envelope detectors detects an envelope signal from a signal output from an associated PA, the envelope detector connected to the associated PA on a one-to-one basis; and a control unit determines whether the n PAs operate normally, using the envelope signals output from the n envelope detectors.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2012-12-26

Provided is a beamforming apparatus in a receiver in a mobile communication system. The beamforming apparatus includes a Local Oscillator (LO) signal generator for generating an LO signal; a phase shifter for generating a predetermined number of phase-shifted LO signals with respect to the generated LO signal; a switching network for mapping the phase-shifted LO signals to RF signals received via a plurality of receive paths; and a mixer for mixing the RF signals with the mapped LO signals to down-convert a frequency of the RF signals.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-12-13

A parallel imaging (PI) method has been frequently used as a method for shortening an image acquisition time in the MRI field. The PI technique is a method for acquiring data using multi-channel coils, that is, several coils, when acquiring the data in MRI. According to this technique, data, the amount of which is smaller than that when the data is obtained using only one coil, is acquired, and then an image is obtained using coil information. According to an embodiment, a new image reconstruction method is proposed which adopts an expectation maximization (EM) technique that is different from the existing GRAPPA or SENSE technique when an image is obtained using PI data acquired through the radial trajectory.


A sensing material for a gas sensor, a gas sensor including the sensing material, a method of preparing the sensing material, and a method of manufacturing a gas sensor using the sensing material are provided.


Provided is a system for implementing 3D information of contents includes: a main display device that outputs 2D planar information; and a tangible interface device that reference position, which are 2D coordinate values on a display panel of the main display device, to the basis display device, receiving 3D contents according to height information for the reference position from the main display device or a specific storage device and outputs the 3D contents to a content display unit, and adjust the height of the content display unit to be matched with the height information.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2012-08-17

A wireless power receiver for wirelessly receiving a supply of power from a wireless power supplier is disclosed. The wireless power receiver includes a power reception unit for wirelessly receiving wireless power from the wireless power supplier; a rectifier for rectifying the wireless power into power including a DC waveform; a power adjustor for configuring a closed loop with the power reception unit for a first period and transferring the wireless power to the rectifier for a second period to adjust a size of the wireless power; and a controller for determining the first period and the second period, wherein the power adjustor is electrically connected to the power reception unit and the rectifier.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-02-12

This invention is related to a wireless communication system for giga bit data rate and low power consumption, comprising a mobile communication terminal that transmits massive data to a display apparatus using a millimeter wave or terahertz wave band, a display apparatus that plays received massive data and a low speed wireless controller that controls the operation of the mobile communication terminal and the transmission of massive data from the mobile communication terminal into the display apparatus.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-08-06

A method for forming a three-dimensional holographic image includes identifying a transmission matrix of a scattering material, calculating an incident wave-front corresponding to wave-front information for forming a three-dimensional holographic image, using the identified transmission matrix, and forming the calculated incident wave-front by controlling a wave-front control to modulate a light projected from a light source and forming a three-dimensional holographic image.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2014-11-26

A tomography apparatus includes a data acquirer acquiring a first image and a second image that are partial images, by using data acquired in a first angular section corresponding to a first time point and a second angular section corresponding to a second time and facing the first angular section, by performing a tomography scan on an object that is moving, and acquiring first information indicating a motion amount of the object by using the first image and the second image, and an image reconstructor reconstructing a target image indicating the object at a target time, based on the first information.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2015-02-23

A tomography apparatus includes a data acquirer which acquires a first image which corresponds to a first time point and a second image which corresponds to a second time point by performing a tomography scan on an object; an image reconstructor which acquires first information which relates to a relationship between a motion amount of the object and the time based on a motion amount between the first image and the second image, predicts a third image which corresponds to a third time point between the first and second time points based on the first information, corrects the first information by using the predicted third image and measured data which corresponds to the third time point, and reconstructs the third image by using the corrected first information; and a display which displays the reconstructed third image.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2012-08-15

A switching circuit, a charge sense amplifier, and a photon counting device are provided. The switching circuit configured to close and open a connection between a first terminal and a second terminal of a predetermined circuit element, includes: a first transistor comprising a source connected to the first terminal, a drain connected to the second terminal, and a gate; a second transistor comprising a drain, a source, and a gate connected to the drain of the second transistor; a current source configured to supply a current flowing through the drain and the source of the second transistor, to generate a gate voltage of the gate of the second transistor; and a multiplexer configured to receive the gate voltage, a reference voltage, and a control signal, and selectively apply the gate voltage or the reference voltage to the gate of the first transistor based on the control signal.


A mobile terminal includes an acceleration sensor, and a wireless network system includes the mobile terminal including a sensor for generating a signal corresponding to a movement of the mobile terminal; a status management module for detecting a moving status of the mobile terminal by using the signal from the sensor, and for sensing a strength of a signal provided from a base station to which the mobile terminal is connected; a scanning module for performing a scanning operation with respect to adjacent base stations according to a result of the detecting and a result of the sensing; and a memory for storing information collected via the scanning operation.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-03-21

A method and a system for a multiband, dual polarization, and switch mode beamforming antenna for a small cell base station are disclosed. The disclosed system for a multiband, dual polarization, and switch mode beamforming antenna for a small cell base station may include: a dielectric substrate comprising a ground plane on which an antenna is disposed; a vertically polarized antenna reflector disposed on the dielectric substrate to be vertical thereto, and configured to induce forming of a vertically polarized beam; a vertically polarized antenna parasitic reflector that is a reconfigurable frequency selective reflector provided in a polyhedral structure for forming the vertically polarized beam; a horizontally polarized antenna reflector disposed on the dielectric substrate to be horizontal thereto and configured to induce forming of a horizontally polarized beam; and a plurality of switches configured to adjust a radiation mode of the vertically polarized beam and a radiation mode of the horizontally polarized beam.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-06-27

Disclosed herein are a printed circuit board and a method for manufacturing the same. The printed circuit board including an adhesive promoter interposed between an insulating layer and a circuit layer on a substrate in order to improve adhesion therebetween; and a first metal layer formed between the adhesive promoter and the circuit layer has high adhesion between an insulating layer such as a resin and a circuit while having low roughness by including a polymer adhesive promoter, easily forms a fine circuit and has low signal transmission loss due to low roughness, and has high reliability due to the high adhesion.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-10-18

Provided are a subsea storage tank for fluids and a method for building and installing the same. An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a subsea storage tank, including: a body having a storage space therein and formed of light weight concrete inner and outer sides of which are watertight coated or plated; a ballast placed on the body of the subsea tank; and a separation unit disposed inside the body and partitioning the storage space upper and lower, the separation unit being movable vertically in the storage space in accordance with the degree of storage fluid filling.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-03-20

Provided are a method of removing a perchlorate ion (ClO


Patent
Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-03-09

There is provided a recombinant microorganism having producibility of poly(lactate-co-glycolate) from glucose, and more particularly, a recombinant microorganism having producibility of poly(lactate-co-glycolate) without adding an exogenous glycolate precursor, and a method of preparing [poly(preparing lactate-co-glycolate)] using the same. According to the present invention, the poly(lactate-co-glycolate) in which the concentration of the glycolate fraction is high may be prepared at a high concentration without supplying exogenous glyoxylate. Therefore, the present invention may be effectively used for treatment.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-11-04

A direction of arrival (DOA) estimation device and method are provided, in which the DOA estimation device includes a sensor unit configured to detect a signal and comprising two or more sensors to output sensor signals as a detect signal in response to the detected signal, and a controller configured to calculate statistical distribution data indicative of statistical distribution of each of the sensor signals outputted from the two or more sensors, respectively, retrieve statistical distribution data indicative of statistical distribution of source signal which is non-stationary signal entrained in the signal of the calculated statistical distribution data, and estimate DOA of the source signal based on the retrieved statistical distribution data.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-06-29

The present invention relates to mutant microorganisms having the ability to produce propanol in high concentration and high yield, and to a method of producing propanol using the same. More particularly, the invention relates to mutant microorganisms having the ability to produce propanol in high concentration and high yield, which have introduced therein genes that encodes enzymes which are involved in the biosynthesis of propanol from threonine, and to a method of producing propanol using the same


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-02-17

An access point and a method for controlling an IoT (Internet of Things) device, using the access point. The method includes receiving a request for a service list from a user terminal through a smart access point communication with one or more IoT devices provided in one space; providing a list of virtual objects which are able to be provided out of virtual objects corresponding to the one or more IoT devices to the user terminal as the service list; receiving a control service request generated from the service list of the user terminal; identifying an IoT device corresponding to the control service request and requesting the identified IoT device for IoT control; and renewing a state of a virtual object corresponding to the identified IoT device based on a response of the identified IoT device and transmitting information on the state renewal to the user terminal.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-07-24

A method for invoking an application in a Screen Lock screen is disclosed herein. The method for invoking an application in a user equipment includes the steps of selecting at least one unlock application that is to be displayed on a Screen Lock screen among multiple applications, and displaying an unlock application icon respective to each of the select at least one unlock application on the Screen Lock screen.


A continuous phonetic recognition method using semi-Markov model, a system for processing the method, and a recording medium for storing the method. In and embodiment of the phonetic recognition method of recognizing phones using a speech recognition system, a phonetic data recognition device receives speech, and a phonetic data processing device recognizes phones from the received speech using a semi-Markov model.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-10-14

Exemplary embodiments of the present invention relate to electronic dispersion compensation (EDC). The interaction between the frequency chirp and the fiber dispersion is newly analyzed. The linear and nonlinear properties of the chirp-dispersion are separately analyzed. A pre-compensating transmitter may consist of a phase interpolator (PI), a 2 tap data generator, a pulse widening CLK generator, a rising pattern detector, 4:1 Mux and an output driver. A post-compensating receiver may consist of linear equalizer for the rabbit ear compensation, nonlinear equalizer for tilting compensation, typical high frequency boosting equalizer (EQ) and limiting amp (LA).


Patent
SK hynix, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-09-26

A method for arranging a plurality of message blocks in a lattice form and generating a message matrix includes deciding lengths of rows of the message matrix such that a length difference is equal to or less than a first critical point, deciding lengths of the message blocks such that a length difference is equal to or less than a second critical point, and arranging the message blocks in each row of the message matrix such that a length difference of columns of the message matrix is equal to or less than a third critical point.


Disclosed herein is a method of processing images based on image segmentation using higher-order correlation clustering. In an image segmentation method according to an embodiment of the present invention, an input image is segmented into superpixels. A hypergraph is constructed by connecting two or more adjacent superpixels, among the superpixels, to one another. A joint feature map is created by extracting feature vectors from respective edges of the hypergraph, and partitioning the hypergraph based on higher-order correlation clustering in consideration of specific constraints.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-02-29

There is provided a novel use of ramalin for preventing or treating liver diseases, and more specifically, a pharmaceutical composition for preventing or treating hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis containing ramalin or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a functional food containing the same. It was confirmed that at the time of applying ramalin, which is a compound derived from


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-05-19

A steering apparatus of an in-wheel motor-driven electric vehicle capable of steering the vehicle by controlling torques applied to in-wheel motors mounted in road wheels. The steering apparatus of an in-wheel motor-driven vehicle includes a rigid tie rod having both ends rotatably connected to the in-wheel motors of the left and right wheels through hinge pins; a steering information detecting sensor for detecting a steering operation angle and torque according to users steering operation; and a controller for calculating torque outputs to be applied to the in-wheel motor of the left wheel and the in-wheel motor of the right wheel based on information on the steering operation angle and torque detected by the steering information detecting sensor and vehicle speed information and controlling operation of the in-wheel motor of the left wheel and the in-wheel motor of the right wheel.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-03-04

Disclosed is an endo-microscopic probe based on a non-resonant scanning method using an optical fiber which includes a housing configured to have a specific size, an optical fiber placed within the housing and configured to transfer a light source, a tubular piezoelectric element configured to surround the optical fiber within the housing, include a guide unit for guiding a movement of the optical fiber at the end of the tubular piezoelectric element, and provide a deformation value according to a deformation amount to the optical fiber through the guide unit using an external power source, and a lens unit placed within the tubular piezoelectric element, fixed to an end of the housing, and configured to transfer light output from an end of the optical fiber to a sample.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-06-13

A method for forming a functional pattern such as an electrode or the like on a substrate is provided. The method includes a) coating a polymer layer on an upper surface of the substrate, b) forming a pattern having an opening in the polymer layer, c) coating a functional fluid on the upper surface of the substrate through the opening of the pattern, d) removing the functional fluid coated on the polymer layer using a scraping process, e) curing the functional fluid through a heat treatment, and f) dissolving and removing the polymer layer using a solvent. The present method is capable of forming a functional pattern having a small line width and a clear shape.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-02-22

The present invention provides a method for manufacturing a large-area film, the method comprising the steps of: dispersing various fine particles in a polar solvent to prepare a dispersion; adding water to the dispersion to prepare a mixture; and adding an organic solvent capable of generating Rayleigh-Benard convection to the mixture to induce the interfacial assembly of the fine particles, thereby forming the film. The invention also provides a large-area film manufactured by the method. According to the invention, a large-area, high-purity film can be quickly manufactured by a simple solution process, and the manufactured large-area film has excellent physical and electrical properties, and thus can be used in various applications.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-12-18

A service method and system using an instance interface of a virtualization object in an Internet of Things (IoT) environment is disclosed. A service method in an IoT environment may include: displaying a message to another instance using a feeder interface among interfaces included in an instance of a virtualization object about a thing; receiving a message displayed from a feeder interface of the other instance or the thing using a subscriber interface among the interfaces; transferring a message to the other instance or the thing using a controller interface among the interfaces; receiving a message transferred from a controller interface of the other instance using a receiver interface among the interfaces; and interacting with a 3rd party service using an authentication interface among the interfaces.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-03-19

In a method for manufacturing a fine metal electrode, the method includes coating an organometallic ink on a first base substrate to form a solution layer. The first base substrate on which the solution layer is formed is pre-baked, to self-produce a nanoparticle in the solution layer. The first base substrate on which the solution layer is formed is aligned with a photomask. A laser is irradiated on the photomask. The photomask is detached from the base substrate on which the solution layer is formed. The solution layer is cleaned.


Patent
Electronics, Telecommunications Research Institute, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-12-11

Provided is a system and method that may encode various formats of contents to a single format and thereby manage the contents, and may transform the contents to a format corresponding to a request of a third party or an end user to distribute the content. A media mediator system of managing various formats of contents may include: a service manager to receive a content and metadata of the content from a content provider; a metadata manager to register the content using the metadata, and to store the metadata of the registered content; a database manager to store and manage information associated with the content; and an encoding manager to schedule an encoding sequence of the content, and to sequentially encode the content based on a scheduling result.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-05-03

A particle processing device includes a chamber including an input portion and an output portion and providing a space for flowing of a fluid having a particle, at least two deformable membrane structures sequentially arranged in the chamber and controlling a sectional area of a fluid path through which the fluid flows, and at least two membrane control lines respectively applying pressure to the deformable membrane structures.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-04-22

The present invention relates to a flexible thermoelectric device and a manufacturing method thereof, and a thermoelectric material is formed on a mesh type substrate made of a glass fabric, and the like. According to the present invention, since the thermoelectric material is supported by a mesh type substrate without a substrate made of alumina, and the like, the thermoelectric device has a high flexibility and a light weight, and thermal loss is minimized by the substrate to maximize thermoelectric efficiency.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-09-28

The present invention provides metal-porphyrin carbon nanostructures, which have excellent oxygen reduction performance and are useful as materials for fuel cell electrodes.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-02-28

An apparatus and a method for transmitting and receiving a reference signal in a wireless communication system are provided. The method includes determining a cluster-specific reference signal configuration according a cluster configuration, transmitting information about the cluster-specific reference signal configuration, and transmitting cluster-specific reference signals of at least one cluster according to the cluster-specific reference signal configuration.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-06-18

A medical diagnostic apparatus includes a data obtainer, which obtains an image frame included in a region to be imaged; and a data processor, which processes the obtained frame and obtains a medical image. The data obtainer includes a composite image generator, which generates a composite image by using the image frame; and a medical image obtainer, which compensates the composite image by using the image frame and boundary conditions corresponding to image signals included in the composite image and obtains the medical image by using the compensated composite image.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-05-16

Disclosed are a method for fabricating a GaN LED array device for optogenetics and a GaN LED array device fabricated thereby.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-07-31

A CAD file converting device for applying CAD files created in a CAD system for machines to a CAD system for ships maps modeling units that the CAD files created in the CAD system for machines and those applied in the CAD system for ships, and converts parameter values determining feature shapes in the mapped modeling units into parameter values proper to the CAD files of the CAD system for ship design. Accordingly, CAD files of a CAD system for machines can be accurately converted into CAD files of a CAD system for ships.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-07-31

A rotational PCR apparatus, a PCR chip for the same and a rotational PCR method using the same. The rotational PCR apparatus includes: a PCR chip where PCR is performed; a rotating means connected to the PCR chip and rotating the PCR chip; and a temperature zone forming means spaced apart from the PCR chip, capable of applying thermal energy to the PCR chip and allowing the rotating PCR chip to pass through different temperature zones. The rotational PCR apparatus and method allow performance of PCR with wanted temperature condition and cycles by rotating the chip containing the target substance. Accordingly, a high-efficiency PCR process may be accomplished at low cost. Further, since the target substance can be effectively separated and purified utilizing the centrifugal force resulting from the rotating platform, separation and purification may be achieved economically without requiring additional equipments.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-09-18

Provided is an image sensing device that includes a detector configured to detect a terahertz wave signal received by a receiving antenna, a voltage-controlled oscillator configured to output an oscillation frequency according to an output voltage of the detector, and a frequency digital converter configured to convert the oscillation frequency output from the voltage-controlled oscillator to a digital signal.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-02-13

In the present invention, a nanoporous membrane having a columnar structure is manufactured through a deposition technology used in a semiconductor process, and the size of a nanopore is adjusted by etching the lower surface of the manufactured nanoporous membrane or using a seed layer and a nanobead layer so that scaling up is available at a lowered process temperature and the size of the nanopore can be easily adjusted when manufacturing the nanoporous membrane having a columnar structure.


Patent
SK hynix, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-11-18

An encoding method includes generating a plurality of parity blocks by encoding a plurality of messages through an external code; generating a plurality of message data by combining the plurality of messages and the plurality of parity blocks; and generating a plurality of symbols by encoding each of the plurality of message data through an internal code.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-03-07

The present invention relates to a fusion protein for reversibly activating RTK signal transmission by means of light and relates to a use thereof, and the invention provides a fusion protein in which a light induced dimer forming protein is coupled to the C-terminal of a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) protein or a modified RTK protein which has been modified so as to eliminate a ligand binding site of the RTK protein or ensure that the ligand does not bind.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-06-27

An optical signal quality monitoring apparatus includes an optical detector for directly receiving an optical signal modulated in an optical path and converting the optical signal to an electric signal, an asynchronous sampling unit for asynchronously sampling the electric signal of the optical detector at a reduced speed, and a digital signal processor for monitoring an optical signal quality by finding a synchronized amplitude histogram of data sampled in the asynchronous sampling unit. An optical signal quality monitoring method includes (a) a step of allowing an optical detector to directly receive a modulated optical signal and to convert the optical signal to an electric signal; (b) a step of allowing an asynchronous sampling unit to asynchronously sample the electric signal; and (c) a step of allowing a digital signal processor to monitor an optical signal quality by generating a synchronized amplitude histogram of sampled data.


Patent
Academia Sinica, China, Institute For Basic Science, Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and The Asan Foundation | Date: 2015-11-04

The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for treating autism spectrum disorders, which includes clioquinol or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In addition, the present invention relates to a food composition for treating autism spectrum disorders, which includes clioquinol or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-02-09

Disclosed are a nanocrater catalyst in metal nanoparticles with a nanocrater form of hole structure in center of the catalyst which is useful for manufacturing nano-sized materials and/or articles with desired structure and characteristics, a preparation method thereof including a plasma etching and chemical etching process (PTCE process), and nano-sized materials and/or articles manufactured by using the nanocrater catalyst in metal nanoparticles.


Patent
SK hynix, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-10-01

An encoding device includes a first encoder that generates a message matrix including a plurality of message blocks and a parity block having parity information of the plurality of message blocks, and a second encoder that adds row parity information and column parity information to the message matrix.


Patent
Hyundai Motor Company, Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Kia Motors | Date: 2012-07-31

The present invention provides an apparatus and method for manufacturing a metal separator for a fuel cell, which can manufacture large-sized metal separators in large quantities using metal plates such as stainless steel by thermoplastic deformation using an incremental and synchronized rubber molding process.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-04-29

Provided are a dye-sensitized solar cell and a method for manufacturing the dye-sensitized solar cell using a carbon nanotube (CN


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-03-13

System and method for for superheating and/or supercooling of liquids and use of the system and/or method, wherein the liquid is within a capillary tube, wherein there is at least one heating and/or cooling means for heating the liquid above boiling point of the liquid at ambient pressure or cooling the liquid below freezing point of the liquid at ambient pressure, wherein the at least one heating and/or cooling means is in thermal contact with the capillary tube in an area, in which there is liquid inside the capillary tube, and wherein the capillary tube is scratch-free at its inner surface.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-12-18

This invention relates to a method and board for forming a graphene layer, and more particularly, to a method of forming a high-quality graphene layer using high pressure annealing and to a board used therein. The method of forming the graphene layer includes forming a reaction barrier layer on a substrate layer, forming a metal catalyst layer which functions as a catalyst for forming the graphene layer on the reaction barrier layer, subjecting a board including a stack of the layers to high pressure annealing, and growing the graphene layer on the metal catalyst layer. This board is subjected to high pressure annealing before growth of the graphene layer, and the reaction barrier layer is formed using a material having high adhesion energy to the metal catalyst layer so as to suppress migration of metal catalyst atoms.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-07-11

The present invention relates to a method for recovering methane gas from natural gas hydrates. In particular, it includes the step of adding a gas mixture containing air and carbon dioxide to an NGH of deep sea and the step of replacing the methane gas with gas mixture and the step of decomposition-replacement of methane hydrate. In accordance with the present invention, the invention is possible use as a technique for recovery of methane gas in the all-weather to induce replacement reaction using a gas mixture when the temperature of the technology applied is low and to induce degradation of solid methane hydrate by mixing gas when the temperature of the region technique is applied is high. Further, the method makes it possible to reduce costs than using conventional methods because the air is collected directly from the NGH reservoirs and compressed and is injected as a mixture with carbon dioxide and, there is no need to transport the infusion another gas. The invention may be widely used in the production of natural gas more effectively.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-10-22

In accordance with an optical modulator using waveguides of the present invention, the reflection phenomenon of light is used, so that the optical modulator is neither sensitive to the wavelength, mode, polarization, intensity, beam size, etc. of light, nor sensitive to the temperature, the waveguide size, the uniformity of a refractive index, carrier doping concentration, changes in control voltage/current, etc., thus obtaining stable optical modulation characteristics. An optical modulator using waveguides includes a first waveguide (


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2014-01-27

A catalyst slurry including a catalyst material, a polymer binder, a plurality of inorganic particles, wherein each particle includes an ionic group, a hydrophilic oligomer, and a solvent.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-01-21

A service providing method and system for instance hosting is disclosed. A service providing system including an instance hosting gateway may include: a network adaptor configured to receive data by connecting to at least one physical node over a wired/wireless network; and an instance manager configured to manage at least one process and a profile provided with respect to at least one of a process node deployed in a process form and the physical node, and to connect the received data or data transferred from the process node to at least one instance using the profile and the at least one process.


A transceiver using resonant coupling and nonlinear effect by plasma wave may include a split ring resonator transmitter and a split ring resonator receiver. The split ring resonator transmitter is formed by a split ring resonator antenna that transmits a clock signal. The split ring resonator receiver receives the clock signal by a resonant coupling, and the split ring resonator receiver is separated from the split ring resonator transmitter by a first distance.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-03-14

An antenna device in a wireless communication includes antenna wires of four sides which include three feeding points and have a loop structure and four main switches which are located among the antenna wires of the four sides, wherein the antenna device operates as a loop antenna when the antenna wires of the four sides are connected according to operations of the main switches and wherein the antenna device operates as dipole antennas when the antenna wires of the four sides are disconnected according to operations of the main switches.


The present invention relates to a carbon nanomaterial, a carbon nanomaterial-polymer composite material and a carbon fiber-carbon nanomaterial-polymer composite material including the carbon nanomaterial, and methods of preparing the same, and more particularly, to a carbon nanomaterial functionalized by a functional molecule including both an aromatic hydrocarbon ring and a polar group through mechanical milling, a carbon nanomaterial-polymer composite material and a carbon fiber-carbon nanomaterial-polymer composite material including the carbon nanomaterial, and methods of preparing the same.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-02-01

A method for determining a transmission power in a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system based on a cooperative transmission is provided. The method includes setting a power constraint condition of a transmitter and target quality information of a receiver. The method further includes determining the transmission power to be allocated to the transmitter to transmit the data to the receiver based on the power constraint condition and the target quality information.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-02-13

A wireless mesh network (WMN) scheduling method based on a bio-inspired algorithm is provided. The WMN scheduling method includes updating statistic information about channel occupancy statuses and statistic information about channel assignment determination maximum values through an ant packet, assigning a channel, which meets secondary interference constraint, using the channel assignment determination maximum values and assigning a link activation time, and repeatedly performing the processing from the updating of the statistic information until the channel is assigned to all links of a node.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and LG Corp | Date: 2013-06-10

An apparatus for processing a video signal and method thereof are disclosed. The present invention includes receiving prediction mode information, interpolating information and a residual of a current block, reconstructing an interpolating pixel using the interpolating information and a neighbor block, and reconstructing the current block using the interpolating pixel, the prediction mode information and the residual, wherein the interpolating information is generated based on a location of the current block. According to an apparatus and method for processing a video signal, high reconstruction rate can be obtained by improving the related art method having limited intra prediction modes available for a current block located on a boundary area of a picture in encoding in a manner of reconstructing and using an interpolating pixel based on interpolating information.


Patent
TeraSquare, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-03-15

Exemplary embodiments of the present invention relate to a low-power highly-accurate passive multiphase clock generation scheme by using polyphase filters. An exemplary embodiment of the present invention may be low power phase-rotator-based 25 GB/s CDR architecture in case that half-rate reference clock is provided. It may be suitable for multi-lane scheme and incorporate phase interpolator with improved phase accuracy to make Nyquist-sampling clock phase. To improve the phase accuracy, poly phase filter may be used for converting 4-phase to 8-phase and interpolate adjacent 45 degree different phases. The linearity of phase rotator may be improved by proposed harmonic rejection poly phase filter (HRPPF) using the characteristic of notch filter response.


Patent
Samsung, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-07-17

There are provided a printed circuit board and a manufacturing method thereof. The printed circuit board (PCB) includes an adhesive film disposed between an insulating layer and a circuit pattern, wherein the adhesive film includes poly(glycidyl methacrylate). The printed circuit board may include the adhesive film between the circuit pattern and the insulating layer, and thus, adhesive strength may be increased, while having a low roughness value, a fine circuit pattern may be formed, and reliability thereof may be enhanced.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-06-05

Provided are a sub-particle scale turbulence simulation method for SPH fluid, and a system and recording medium for the method. In the present disclosure, by combining a multi Eulerian grid with a SPH system, various Eulerian grids are combined with the SPH system while the vorticity of particles is efficiently calculated, which allows firm detection of a deformation region. For this reason, along with the flexibility and simplicity of the multiple grids system, the present disclosure may be easily expanded to a broad spectrum in aspects of time and space. Moreover, the present disclosure may express multi-level vorticity, which could not be expressed by an existing SPH system, and give a stable and visually satisfactory result.


Patent
Hyundai Motor Company, Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Kia Motors | Date: 2013-03-25

The present invention features a fuel cell stack that preferably includes an electricity generating assembly having a plurality of unit cells that are suitably disposed one after another; a pair of end plates pressedly disposed respectively at upper and lower ends of the electricity generating assembly; and a joining device suitably engaging the end plates by a rope, where pressure is applied to the electricity generating assembly by means of tension of the rope, and the length and tension of the rope is suitably controlled.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and California Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-01-30

Described herein are filtration membranes and related, compositions, methods and systems and in particular filtration membranes with embedded polymeric micro/nanoparticles and related compositions, methods, and systems.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-01-22

The embodiments described herein pertain generally to graphene/ceramic nanocomposite powder including a matrix ceramic; and graphene dispersed in the matrix ceramic and a preparation method thereof, and a graphene/ceramic nanocomposite material including the graphene/ceramic nanocomposite powder and a preparation method thereof.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-07-06

A computer-aided simulation method for an atomic-resolution scanning Seebeck microscope (SSM) image is provided. In the computer-aided simulation method, a computer may calculate a local thermoelectric voltage for a position of a voltage probe, to acquire an SSM image corresponding to the position, using the following equation: in which V(r) denotes the local thermoelectric voltage, V denotes a volume integral of a temperature profile.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-12-11

The present application relates to a hard-coating resin composition including a siloxane resin, a preparing method of a siloxane cured hard-coating article using same and an optical film including the siloxane cured hard-coating article.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2013-09-19

An apparatus for estimating a malignant tumor includes: a segmentor configured to segment a first medical image of an object into a first ROI including a mass and a second medical image of the object into a second ROI including a mass; an interest region determiner configured to acquire a first matched ROI and a second matched ROI, which is matched to the first matched ROI based on location information of the first ROI and the second ROI, respectively; a feature extractor configured to extract a similar feature indicating a degree of similarity between the first matched ROI and the second matched ROI, from the first matched ROI and the second matched ROI; and a classifier configured to generate malignant tumor information indicating whether the mass included in the first matched ROI and the second matched ROI is the malignant tumor, based on the extracted similar feature.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science, Technology and Samsung | Date: 2014-03-18

A non-linear gamma compensation current mode digital-analog converter includes: a first digital-analog converter block configured to: receive a digital signal, a first reference voltage, and a gamma adjustment voltage, and provide a reference current to a ground, wherein a first current flowing to a first current output terminal is determined according to the digital signal and the gamma adjustment voltage; and a second digital-analog converter block configured to: receive the digital signal, a second reference voltage, and a ground voltage, and provide the first current to the first digital-analog converter, wherein a second current flowing to a second current output terminal is determined according to the digital signal and the first current.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-09-29

An envelope tracking power transmitter includes an envelope amplifier, a common-gate power modulation linearizer and a power amplifier. The envelope amplifier may receive a first envelope voltage to generate a power supply voltage that is amplified in proportion to change of the first envelope voltage. The common-gate power modulation linearizer may receive a second envelope voltage to amplify the second envelope voltage according to change of the second envelop voltage. The power amplifier may receive a first output of the envelope amplifier as a power supply voltage and a drain bias voltage, may receive a second output of the common-gate power modulation linearizer as a common gate bias voltage, and may amplify a radio frequency (RF) input signal to provide a RF output signal by maintaining an output capacitance according to an envelope of the RF input signal.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2015-06-10

The present invention relates to a method for preparing a double-sided film containing the step of forming a film in the interface between air and the mixture of a polymer comprising amine group (NH) and a compound containing phenol or catechol by exposing the mixture on the air. Particularly, the double-sided film of the present invention is a separation membrane that can separate the interface of liquid phase and gas phase and at the same time can be used as a biomaterial such as a haemostatic and also an waterproof agent. When the film is prepared in a moderate condition by using an enzyme, the film can include proteins and cells, resulting in the multi-functional versatility film that can be useful as a biocatalyst. The versatility film of the present invention, thus, is not expensive and the production method thereof is simple and eco-friendly. Therefore, the film of the invention has a high added-value as a novel separation membrane that can replace the conventional separation membrane.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2014-02-18

An image-based super-resolution method using a cone-beam-based line-of-response (LOR) reconfiguration in a positron emission tomography (PET) image is provided. That is, an apparatus and method for reconfiguring a super-resolution PET image using a cone-beam-based LOR reconfiguration is provided.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2013-10-30

The present disclosure relates to a method and system for creating a dynamic floating window for stereoscopic contents, and more particularly, to a method and system for automatically creating a dynamic floating window for stereoscopic contents based on feature points.


Patent
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Date: 2012-03-30

A transmission device for application to a vehicle is disclosed. The transmission device includes a planetary gear including means for restricting degrees of freedom and a gearbox having two input axles. The root axle of the gearbox is functionally connected to the planetary shaft of carrier or to the planetary shaft of the ring gear. An end portion of the first axle of the gearbox is functionally connected to the root axle via a synchronizing device and the other end portion to the driving axle of the vehicle or to the internal combustion engine. An end portion of the second axle is a free end and the other end portion is connected to the root axle. The second axle has a direction of rotation opposite to that of the root axle and the third axle a direction of rotation opposite to that of the connected planetary shaft.