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Ko A.,Korea University | Kim J.,Korea University | Choi K.,Korea University | Myung C.-L.,Korea University | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering | Year: 2012

This investigation focused on the particle emission characteristics of a heavy-duty diesel engine and the effects of after-treatment systems such as diesel particulate filter and selective catalytic reduction. The test engine was operated on the worldwide harmonized transient cycle mode, which is a new transient cycle for Euro 6, and the conventional European transient cycle mode. Four combinations of after-treatment systems, engine-out, selective catalytic reduction, diesel particulate filter, and diesel particulate and nitrogen oxide reduction, were evaluated for the transient cycles, respectively. The whole test procedure, as part of the Korea particulate measurement programme and the inter laboratory correlation exercise for domestic heavy-duty diesel engines, complied with the recommended method of particulate measurement programme. The particles that were extracted through the golden particle measurement system the constant volume sampler tunnel consisted of solid particles like carbonaceous fraction, metal ash, etc. The particles emitted from the tail-pipe, as analyzed by the differential mobility spectrometer, included volatile or soluble particles like sulphate fraction, nitrate fraction, and organic fraction. The test results showed that the particle number and size distribution depended on the catalytic activity or filtration efficiency of the after-treatment system. Compared to the accumulation mode, the nucleation mode was easily caught or oxidized by the after-treatment system. Additionally, the nucleation mode was sharply increased by excessive ammonia injection because nitrogen dioxide-assisted diesel particulate filter regeneration resulted in reduced conversion efficiency of the selective catalytic reduction. © 2012 IMechE.


Kim J.-K.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Yim E.S.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Jeon C.H.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Jung C.-S.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Han B.H.,Chungnam National University
International Journal of Automotive Technology | Year: 2012

This study examines the cold performance of biodiesel blends in a passenger car and a light duty truck at -16 °C and -20 °C. Six different types of biodiesels derived from soybean oil, waste cooking oil, rapeseed oil, cottonseed oil, palm oil and jatropha oil were blended with different volume ratios (B5 (5 vol. % biodiesel - 95 vol. % diesel), B10 and B20). The cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and the cloud point had an effect on the startability and driveability of both the passenger car and the light duty truck. The startability and driveability of the passenger car with all biodiesel blends (B5) were generally good at -20 °C. In the light duty truck, biodiesel blends (B10 and B20) of soybean, waste cooking, rapeseed and jatropha tended to be good at -20 °C in the startability and driveability tests than the biodiesel blends (B10 and B20) of cottonseed and palm. In particular, the palm biodiesel blend (B10) failed at -20 °C, and the palm biodiesel blend (B20) also failed at -16 °C in the startability test. The cold flow properties of biodiesel dictate that the length of the hydrocarbon chains and the presence of unsaturated structures significantly affect the low temperature properties of biodiesel. © 2012 The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Choi K.,Korea University | Kim J.,Korea University | Myung C.-L.,Korea University | Lee M.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering | Year: 2012

Time-resolved nanoparticle number concentrations and size distribution characteristics were investigated in gasoline direct-injection vehicles, according to fuel preparation methods. Particle number emissions were measured using the golden particle measurement system recommended by the Particle Measurement Programme, and the particle size spectrum was determined using a DMS500 spectrometer installed at the tailpipe of the vehicles. The wall-guided gasoline direct-injection vehicle exhibited the most temperature-dependent nanoparticulate matter exhaust characteristics, owing to direct accumulation of fuel on the piston head and cylinder liner and a high concentration of accumulation mode particles. The air-guided gasoline direct-injection vehicle emitted particle emissions mostly during cold transient driving conditions and high acceleration, which had a weak trimodal characteristic with evenly distributed nucleation and accumulation mode particles. The spray-guided gasoline direct-injection vehicle continuously discharged 105 particles/cm3 during constant-speed driving segments, because of the ultra-lean-burn operation and bulk quenching; particulate matter from the spray-guided gasoline direct-injection vehicle demonstrated a strong bimodal characteristic, spreading over 10-100 nm. The particle number emissions for the gasoline direct-injection vehicles for the New European Driving Cycle test mode were 1.48 × 1012 particles/km, 6.03 × 1011 particles/km and 3.17 × 1012 particles/km for the wall-guided type, the air-guided type and the spray-guided type respectively, and none of these were able to satisfy the proposed particle number regulations for the Euro 6 standard. For gasoline direct-injection vehicles, it should be considered that engine hardware modifications, as well as energy management system calibrations and even the application of the particle filter, may be needed to meet the upcoming particulate matter number regulation. © 2012 IMechE.


Yu M.J.,University of Seoul | Jo Y.-B.,University of Seoul | Kim S.-G.,Korea Institute of Energy Research | Lim Y.-K.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | And 4 more authors.
Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2011

Biodiesel was produced from an oil fraction separated from food waste leachate, using a batch reactor system, to evaluate its potential as a renewable energy source for the first time. In order to reduce the free fatty acid content of the leachate oil fraction, three different acid catalysts, H2SO4, zeolite and Amberlyst-15, were used in the pretreatment process. The residual oil fraction after pretreatment was further treated over KOH as a base catalyst to produce a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The FAME content in the product was analyzed using GC/MS. A large number of different FAMEs were detected, which is characteristic of the food-waste-derived raw material used in this study. The FAME content of the product was highest when pretreated over Amberlyst-15, followed by trans-esterification. Additional refining and process optimization would be expected to further increase the FAME content. Therefore, it was concluded that the production of biodiesel from the oil fraction separated from food waste leachate is promising. © 2011 Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers, Seoul, Korea.


Song H.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Lee M.-H.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Kang H.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Kim K.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2012

We forced biodiesel to oxidize and heated biodiesel to accelerate its oxidation at about 110 °C for 10 days. Total particle number and size distribution were investigated in unoxidized and oxidized biodiesel blend fuels. To better understand the effect of biodiesel blends on nano particulate emissions, steady state tests were conducted on a heavy duty diesel engine. The engine was fueled with Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD), a blend of 10% biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil on volumetric basis, equipped with a common rail direct injection system and turbocharger, lives up to the requirements of EURO III. Particle number and size distribution of the diesel engine were obtained by using an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) and the dilution temperature was maintained around 150°C(±5) to avoid condensation of particles. The experimental results show that NOx increase and PM (Particulate Matter) decrease for unoxidized biodiesel blend fuel in comparison to ULSD. Also total particle number increase or decrease with depending on various test conditions. The oxidized biodiesel blend fuel, by and large, decreased NOx, PM and PN when compared with unoxidized biodiesel blend fuel. Copyright © 2012 SAE International.


Lim Y.-K.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Jeong C.-S.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Han K.-W.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management
Applied Chemistry for Engineering | Year: 2012

The significance of soil environment has been gradually increased because of petroleum leak accidents. Comparing with wastewater clean treatments and air pollutant controls, the soil purification requires a long-term process and it is very expensive. In this study, we analyzed the physicochemical properties of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated in soil. This could be applied to deciding the source of petroleum when a soil contamination accident occurs. © 2012 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. All rights reserved.


Lim Y.-K.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Lee J.-M.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Jung C.-S.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management
Applied Chemistry for Engineering | Year: 2012

In these days, there has been increased focus on global warming and the exhaustion of resources recently caused by the heavy consumption of fossil resources. In order to resolve these problems, biomass is increasingly gaining international attention as a renewable energy source. Biogas derived from various biomass is environmental friendly alternative fuel for power generation, heating and vehicle fuel. Large amounts of sewage sludge, food waste and manure are generated from human activity, but these organic wastes contain high levels of organic matter and thus they are potential substrates for producing methane of biogas. The biogas contains 60% of highly concentrated methane, which is expected to be used effectively as energy. In this paper, we investigate the status of biogas in Korea as an alternative energy.


Kim J.-K.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Soon Yim E.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Jung C.-S.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management
ACS National Meeting Book of Abstracts | Year: 2011

Gasoline, xylene, cleaning naphtha and many other pure and/or mixed hydrocarbon solvents are commonly available products that easily permeate polyethylene(PE) containers; such permeation results in pollution, safety and health problems. The "laminar-blend-blow-molding process" process forms a layered structure containing numerous discontinuous, overlapping platelets of barrier resins such as polyamide (PA), Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and/or ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) in a PE matrix, which is one of well proven barrier technologies to enhance the resistance of PE containers to hydrocarbon permeation. Recently, the gasoline in PE container showed below quality standard for research octane number(RON) in client test in Korea. In this study, we focused on quality characteristics for gasoline in various container same as steel, PE and Polyethylene terephthalate(PET) on storage for 4 months. We investigated the gasoline quality in vapor pressure, octane number, total compositions and oxidation stability. The gasoline of PE containers storage showed below quality standard for RON at indoor and outdoor, the gasoline of PE container just showed below quality standard for oxidation stability at outdoor. As gasoline in outdoor container with PE decreased the content of components of n-paraffins and olefins with high RON, it showed RON reduction during storage. After storage for 4 months, PE container of outdoor was measured Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The main melting endotherms with the peak temperature of around 135 ¢, f was found on the DSC thermogram compared with initial 137 ¢, f. We also analyzed surface of PE container at outdoor by scainning electron microscope (SEM) for gasoline permeation.


Lim Y.-K.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Kim J.-R.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Jung C.-S.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Lee J.M.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Yim E.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management
ASME-JSME-KSME 2011 Joint Fluids Engineering Conference, AJK 2011 | Year: 2011

In recent years, there have been increased concerns for the global warming and the exhaustion of resources caused by the heavy consumption of the fossil fuel. For this reason, biomass has been brought to great attention as a renewable source of energy to mitigate the situation. In this particular area, DME (dimethyl ether) fuel produced from biomass, biogas, and coal is expected to be useful as one of the eco-friendly synthetic fuel alternatives to petrodiesd. Diesel engine need fuel lubricity due to their severe condition (high pressure and temperature) but DME have low lubricity In this study, we developed the analytic system for DME lubricity test which is pnessumEd chambered tester. Also we synthesized various of biodiesd from 12 kinds of vegetable oil under base catalyst system. Oxygen compounds definitely contributed to the natural lubricity of fuel, biodiesd have ester group which is polar oxygenated functional group After prepared test system and biodiesd as lubricant, we analyzed the lubricity of neat DME, neat bio diesels and DME-lubricant blended (100 ppm to 2000 ppm) fuel. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.


Lim Y.-K.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Lee C.-H.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Jung C.-S.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management | Yim E.,Korea Institute of Petroleum Management
Applied Chemistry for Engineering | Year: 2010

Biodiesel is well known for an eco-friendly alternative fuel for petrodiesel. But biodiesel has a disadvantage since it is derived from expensive food resource. In this study, we synthesized the biodiesel from duck's oil which was food trash via transesterification under base catalyst. After analytic result of density, kinematic viscosity, cold temperature characteristics, lubricity and cetane number which were main fuel characteristics, this duck's biodiesel has enough potential to use as fuel except only domestic winter season.

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