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The leaf extract of guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and diabetes in East Asia and other countries. Recently, the leaf extract has been employed in the therapy of cancer, bacterial infections, and inflammation in experimental models. However, the exact mechanisms of how guava leaf extract inhibits tumor metastasis and invasion are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated in detail the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for the potential antimetastatic and antiinvasive effects of the butanol fraction of guava leaf extract (GBF). Interestingly, we observed for the first time that GBF suppressed both matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 expression and activity in part through the downregulation of the ERK1/2 activation in lung cancer cells. Also, importantly, the major components of the GBF were identified as d-glucuronic acid, quercetin 3-glucuronide, loganin, and xanthyletin by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Collectively, our data indicate that the guava leaf could reduce the metastasis of lung cancer cells and therefore suggest that it could be advantageously used to control the metastatic process. Source

Lee M.S.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Ernst E.,University of Exeter
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2012

Several systematic reviews (SRs) have assessed the effectiveness of t'ai chi for many conditions including hypertension, osteoarthritis and fall prevention; however, their conclusions have been contradictory. The aim of this overview was to critically evaluate the SRs of t'ai chi for any improvement of medical conditions or clinical symptoms. English, Chinese and Korean electronic databases were searched for relevant articles, and data were extracted according to predefi ned criteria; 35 SRs met our inclusion criteria. They were related to the following conditions: cancer, older people, Parkinson's disease, musculoskeletal pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), muscle strength and fl exibility, improving aerobic capacity, cardiovascular disease and risk factors, lowering resting blood pressure, osteoporosis or bone mineral density, type 2 diabetes, psychological health, fall prevention and improving balance, and any chronic conditions. In several instances, the conclusions of these articles were contradictory. Relatively clear evidence emerged to suggest that t'ai chi is effective for fall prevention and improving psychological health and was associated with general health benefi ts for older people. However, t'ai chi seems to be ineffective for the symptomatic treatment of cancer and RA. In conclusion, many SRs of t'ai chi have recently been published; however, the evidence is convincingly positive only for fall prevention and for improvement of psychological health. Source

Song K.-H.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010

The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 (NR4A1) has been reported to play a crucial role in the modulation of diverse metabolic processes in liver. Here, we reported the identification of human apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5), which implicated in lowering plasma triglyceride levels, as a novel target gene of Nur77. Nur77 induced the human ApoA5 promoter activity. Using 5′-deletion and mutagenesis of human ApoA5 promoter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, it was shown that Nur77 directly regulated human ApoA5 gene expression by binding to a Nur77 response element (AAAGGTCA) located in the proximal human ApoA5 promoter region. In addition, we demonstrated that blocking of Nur77 transcriptional activity via overexpression of dominant negative Nur77 suppressed human ApoA5 promoter activity and mRNA expression in human hepatoma cells, HepG2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Nur77 is a novel regulator of human ApoA5 gene expression and provide a new insight into the role of this orphan nuclear receptor in lipoprotein metabolism and triglyceride homeostasis. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Cho I.-H.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2012

Ginseng, the root of the Panax ginseng, has been a popular and widely-used traditional herbal medicine in Korea, China, and Japan for thousands of years. Now it has become popular as a functional health food and is used globally as a natural medicine. Evidence is accumulating in the literature on the physiological and pharmacological effects of P. ginseng on neurodegenerative diseases. Possible ginseng- or ginsenosides-mediated neuroprotective mechanisms mainly involve maintaining homeostasis, and anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, and immune-stimulatory activities. This review considers publications dealing with the various actions of P. ginseng that are indicative of possible neurotherapeutic efficacies in neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. © The Korean Society of Ginseng. Source

Chae S.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine
BMC complementary and alternative medicine | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: The fermented leaves and stems of Cyclopia intermedia are used to brew honeybush tea, an herbal tea indigenous to South Africa with reported anti-wrinkle effects. Wrinkle formation caused by photoaging clearly involves changes in extracellular matrix components and mechanical properties of the skin.METHODS: The inhibitory effects of honeybush extract and fermented honeybush on wrinkle formation were determined by analyzing skin replicas, histologically examining epidermal thickness, and identifying damage to collagen fibers.RESULTS: Honeybush extract and fermented honeybush reduced the length and depth of skin winkles caused by UV irradiation and inhibited thickening of the epidermal layer, in addition to suppressing collagen tissue breakdown reactions, indicating its potential use as a skin wrinkle prevention agent.CONCLUSIONS: This in vivo study demonstrates that honeybush produces significant anti-wrinkle effects and is therefore of interest in anti-aging skin care products. Source

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