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Yoo H.,Korea Institute of Nuclear Non proliferation and Control | Lee J.-H.,Korea Institute of Nuclear Non proliferation and Control
Annals of Nuclear Energy

A survey to evaluate awareness of the nuclear security culture of personnel at nuclear facilities was developed. The survey was made up of a series of questionnaires that were divided into four categories, beliefs and attitude, operating systems, leadership behaviors and staff behaviors. Each category contained six to 16 questions. The category on beliefs and attitude was composed of questions that asked plant workers on how much consideration facility personnel give to issues of security when doing his/her work. The section pertaining to operating systems for nuclear security consisted of questions on guidance documents, information security, and education and training. The questions on leadership behaviors were separated into two parts, one for managers and another for staff. These include questions relating to communication between management and staff, surveillance work related to nuclear security and the sharing of information. The last category of questions concerned staff behaviors. It consisted of questions on knowledge, procedures and implementation related to nuclear security. A survey was conducted on 858 people who worked at nuclear power plants using the questionnaire that was developed in this study. The survey was performed between October 7 to 17, 2014. The survey results were collected and analyzed. A numerical value was given to each question, so that the results of the survey were represented as a score. The data revealed that awareness of the nuclear security culture increased with age. This increase stopped when staff members entered their 50s. It is believed that a person in his/her 50s has a greater degree of experience and passion for their work than someone who is younger. As a result, the scores on nuclear security were higher for older personnel than for those who were younger. There was no direct relationship between the awareness score and length of service. The survey results on the working periods showed that there were no clear trends. This changed after an employee had worked for 9. years. After 9. years service, the scores gradually increased. Those who have worked more than 11. years were more aware of the importance of the security culture than those who worked less. On the subject of the awareness of the nuclear security culture between managers and staff, there were distinct differences. The results showed that managers were well aware of the importance of the nuclear security culture, and their scores for all categories were higher when compared to those of their staff. © 2015. Source

Yoo H.,Korea Institute of Nuclear Non proliferation and Control | Lee N.,Korea Institute of Nuclear Non proliferation and Control | Ham T.,Korea Institute of Nuclear Non proliferation and Control | Seo J.,Korea Institute of Nuclear Non proliferation and Control
Annals of Nuclear Energy

A methodology for evaluating risks at nuclear facilities is developed in this work. A series of measures is drawn from the analysis of factors that determine risks. Five measures are created to evaluate risks at nuclear facilities. These include the legal and institutional framework, material control, physical protection system effectiveness, human resources, and consequences. Evaluation attributes are developed for each measure and specific values are given in order to calculate the risk value quantitatively. Questionnaires are drawn up on whether or not a state has properly established a legal and regulatory framework (based on international standards). These questionnaires can be a useful measure for comparing the status of the physical protection regime between two countries. Analyzing an insider threat is not an easy task and no methodology has been developed for this purpose. In this study, attributes that could quantitatively evaluate an insider threat, in the case of an unauthorized removal of nuclear materials, are developed by adopting the Nuclear Material Accounting & Control (NMAC) system. The effectiveness of a physical protection system, P(E), could be analyzed by calculating the probability of interruption, P(I), and the probability of neutralization, P(N). In this study, the Tool for Evaluating Security System (TESS) code developed by KINAC is used to calculate P(I) and P(N). Consequence is an important measure used to analyze risks at nuclear facilities. This measure comprises radiological, economic, and social damage. Social and economic damages are difficult to evaluate. Therefore, radiation levels and theft of nuclear materials that could be quantified are adopted as attributes for analyzing the consequences. Awareness of the nuclear security culture and physical protection resources such as staffing, capabilities, and cost required to provide PP should be considered when evaluating risks. In this study, these attributes are included in the measure of human resources. Human resources include such factors as trustworthiness, degree of nuclear security culture awareness, and frequency of psychiatric testing of employees. A case study performed on hypothetical facilities demonstrates that the developed methodology could be used to analyze innovative nuclear systems as well as existing facilities. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Park S.,Korea Institute of Nuclear Non proliferation and Control | Kwak S.-W.,Korea Institute of Nuclear Non proliferation and Control | Kang H.-B.,Korea Institute of Nuclear Non proliferation and Control
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

Alpha particle spectrometry with collimation is a useful method for identifying nuclear materials among various nuclides. A mesh type collimator reduces the low energy tail and broadened energy distribution by cutting off particles with a low incidence angle. The relation between the resolution and the counting efficiency can be investigated by changing a ratio of the mesh hole diameter and the collimator thickness. Through collimation, a target particle can be distinguished by a PIPS® detector under a mixture of various nuclides. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Kwak S.-W.,Korea Institute of Nuclear Non proliferation and Control | Park S.,Korea Institute of Nuclear Non proliferation and Control | Kang H.-B.,Korea Institute of Nuclear Non proliferation and Control | Shin J.-K.,Korea Institute of Nuclear Non proliferation and Control | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Instrumentation

The detection of undeclared nuclear activities and the verification of declared nuclear facilities and materials are a matter of great concern worldwide. With the purpose of detecting and locating undeclared nuclear activities on site, a portable α-particle spectrometer was designed and built with a weight of 14 kg and a size of 30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm that can be operated at normal temperature and with a maximum pressure of 1.0 torr. A feasibility study of this new portable α-particle spectrometer was conducted. The experimental results were compared with results from a laboratory α-particle spectrometry system. The 235U/238U ratio determined by the portable spectrometer was about 3.86%, while the laboratory spectrometry system gave the ratio of 3.90%. Their detection efficiencies were nearly identical for those two spectrometers. To improve the energy resolution of the portable spectrometer, a hexagonal-type collimator was designed by using GEANT4 and employed. With this collimator, the average full width at half maximum (FWHM) was enhanced from 29 keV to 24 keV . This study showed that the newly developed portable α-particle spectrometer, employing a small vacuum pump and minimized electronics, can be used for on-site measurement to detect and locate undeclared nuclear facilities and activities in a timely manner. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl. Source

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