Behera S.K.,The Clean Tech Center |
Kim J.-H.,Korea Industrial Complex Corporation |
Lee S.-Y.,Korea Industrial Complex Corporation |
Suh S.,University of California at Santa Barbara |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2012
Eco-Industrial Parks (EIPs) cultivate symbiotic relationships by developing waste and by-product networks among companies in a mutual and systematic manner. In the past, the development of self-organized symbioses has been demonstrated to be more successful and beneficial. However, in the absence of effective communication channels among companies, efforts to transform the conventional industrial complexes into EIPs need to stimulate the development of symbioses with a systematic design approach. To develop and implement such symbioses (described as 'designed' networks), the Ulsan EIP center devised a 'research and development into business' (R&DB) framework for the effective expansion of symbioses in the industrial complexes. Based on this framework, the Ulsan EIP center has so far facilitated forty symbioses, out of which thirteen networks are currently in operation, twenty are under negotiation and/or design, and seven are under feasibility investigation/evaluation. This paper might serve as an "out of experience" guideline for other worldwide EIP initiatives, wherein we demonstrate the viability of 'designed' symbiosis networks using policy instruments like national EIP programs, the presence of facilitators such as an EIP center, and an enabling framework such as the R&DB framework that are observed to be critical factors for retro-fitting the conventional industrial complexes into EIPs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park H.-S.,The Clean Tech Center |
Park H.-S.,Korea Industrial Complex Corporation |
Behera S.K.,The Clean Tech Center |
Behera S.K.,Institute of Chemical Technology
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014
In this study, we proposed eco-efficiency indicator as an integral parameter for simultaneously quantifying the economic and environmental performance of industrial symbiosis (IS) networks. Based on the World Business Council for Sustainable Development definition of eco-efficiency, the eco-efficiency indicators proposed include one economic indicator, and three generally applicable simplified environmental indicators (raw material consumption, energy consumption, and CO2 emission). Three eco-efficiencies corresponding to three environmental indicators are assessed using seven IS networks that were developed between 2007 and 2012, which are currently operational in Ulsan Eco-Industrial Park (EIP), South Korea. Our results indicate that the eco-efficiency of individual IS networks improved up to 28.7%. Besides, the evolution of seven IS networks comprising 21 companies resulted in an overall eco-efficiency enhancement of about 10%. The proposed eco-efficiency indicators for IS networks can be easily utilized to communicate with decision makers at any level to assist in transforming conventional industrial complexes to EIP. The implications of the study and limitations of the methodology are delineated. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kashihara M.,Mori Seiki Co. |
Suzuki S.,Osaka University |
Suzuki S.,Waseda University |
Kawamura Y.,Osaka University |
And 5 more authors.
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science | Year: 2010
Lotus-type porous carbon steel slabs with long cylindrical pores aligned in one direction were fabricated by the continuous casting technique in a mixture gas of N2 0.8 MPa and Ar 1.7 MPa or in N2 2.5 MPa at various transfer velocities from 2.5 mm•min-1 to 20 mm•min-1. The pore size in lotus carbon steel fabricated in the mixture gas of nitrogen and argon was small and homogeneous, whereas the pore size in nitrogen had bimodal distribution depending on the transfer velocity. The large pores were observed mainly at the edge of the slab, which are considered to be merged of several inclined pores. The porosity depended on nitrogen partial pressure, which is explained by Sieverts' law. The hardness of lotus carbon steel matrix increased, which was attributed to the solid-solution of nitrogen. © 2010 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.
Jung S.,University of Tokyo |
Dodbiba G.,University of Tokyo |
Chae S.H.,Korea Industrial Complex Corporation |
Fujita T.,University of Tokyo
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013
This paper presents a novel approach using discounted cash flow (DCF) and multi-attribute global inference of quality (MAGIQ) methods to evaluate the economic, environmental, and social performances of eco-industrial park (EIP) pilot projects. As a test case, we evaluated South Korean EIP pilot projects that primarily focus on the development of industrial symbiosis networks in existing industrial complexes. The results demonstrated that networks with high initial investment or higher value-added products tend to have high economic performance. Additionally, several projects involving energy networks have resulted in high positive environmental performance through greenhouse gas emissions mitigation. Waste acid/alkali solution recycling projects also showed remarkable social outcomes on account of the variety of networks formed and active participation from enterprises. The present approach incorporating the DCF and MAGIQ methods provides a simple and promising decision-making tool for quantitative performance evaluation of EIP pilot projects. Furthermore, valuable lessons from the evaluation considering economic, environmental, and social performances will provide the basis for future EIP establishment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jung S.C.,Sunchon National University |
Cho H.C.,Sunchon National University |
Ra D.G.,Sunchon National University |
Park S.H.,Sunchon National University |
And 3 more authors.
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2011
In this study, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was produced using iron oxide that is a by-product of a pickling line at a steel works. The reaction activity of the produced ZVI was evaluated through a series of decomposition experiments of Orange II aqueous solution. The size of ZVI particles increased with reduction temperature due to coalescence. Correspondingly, the specific surface area of ZVI decreased with increasing reduction temperature. The decomposition efficiency of synthesized ZVI particles was higher at a lower pH. In particular, no significant decomposition reaction was observed at pH of 4 and higher. The rate of the ZVI-assisted decomposition of Orange II was increased by addition of H 2O 2 at pH of 3, whereas it was reduced by addition of H 2O 2 at a higher pH of 6. Nevertheless, simultaneous use of ZVI, UV and H 2O 2 led to a considerable increase in the decomposition rate even at a high pH condition (pH = 6). © IWA Publishing 2011.
Lee H.,Sunchon National University |
Park S.H.,Sunchon National University |
Kim S.J.,Sejong University |
Kim B.H.,Chosun University |
And 3 more authors.
Progress in Organic Coatings | Year: 2012
The preparation of TiO 2 photo-catalyst films on alumina balls via low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition using titanium tetraisopropoxide and their photo-catalytic activity in bromothymol blue (BTB) decomposition using a microwave/UV/TiO 2 photo-catalyst combined process system were investigated. The results indicate that the film structure strongly depended on the reaction temperature. Among the grown TiO 2 films, anatase and rutile showed high photo-catalytic activities, whereas amorphous TiO 2 films showed lower activities. The BTB decomposition rate increased with the microwave intensity and ozone injection rate. A significant synergistic effect was observed when hydrogen peroxide addition was combined with other elemental techniques. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Kim S.,Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction |
Kim J.,Korea Industrial Complex Corporation |
Seo G.,Changwon National University
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2013
A novel powder-activated carbon (PAC) by surface modification with iron oxide nanoparticles was applied to microfilter (MF) membrane system for stable operation and removal of natural organic matter (NOM) in water. Two types of PAC (wood-based and coal-based) were used for the preparation of the iron oxide nanoparticle-impregnated PAC (IPAC). The impregnation of the iron oxide nanoparticles played a role to increase the pHPZC of the PACs which means that the IPAC has higher basicity and larger adsorption capacity than the virgin PAC. From the experimental results of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and SUVA254, there was no specific selectivity in adsorption of NOM on the IPAC. The saturated magnetization value of the IPAC was in the range of 6.75-8.04 emu/g that was enough to separate the IPAC particle from aqueous solution by magnetic force. An IPAC column followed by MF membrane system was operated to investigate NOM removal and membrane fouling control. A magnetic ring on the column above the IPAC bed surface could effectively hold the overflowing discrete IPAC particles. The system performance was compared with other similar MF membrane systems (PAC column-MF, high concentration PAC-MF (HCPAC-MF),and single MF) in terms of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) increase and NOM removal. For a 30-day operation, TMP of the MF membrane system could be maintained stably at 13 kPa with the IPAC column pretreatment, while the TMP of other membrane systems increased to the operation limit (40 kPa). Dissolved organic compound (DOC) and UV254 removal by the IPAC-MF system were 85.3 and 79.6%, respectively. And the removal efficiency of turbidity was more than 80%. With similar removal efficiency of DOC and UV254, the IPAC-MF process showed much more stable operation for longer periods compared to the other hybrid MF membrane systems (HCPAC-MF and PAC column-MF). © 2013 Copyright Balaban Desalination Publications.
Cha S.-H.,University of Ulsan |
Son J.-H.,University of Ulsan |
Jamal Y.,University of Ulsan |
Jamal Y.,National University of Sciences and Technology |
And 4 more authors.
Biochemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2016
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bioplastics that naturally accumulate in the microbial cells while performing organic substrate metabolism. PHAs bioconversion in microbial cells is affected by both growth environments (aerobic and anaerobic) and feeding systems (carbon and nutrient limitations). Sequential batch reactors (SBRs) were used in this research for producing PHAs; studies showed on an average 42% with a maximum of 63% PHAs yield under anaerobic-oxic conditions quantified by gas chromatography. Produced PHAs from phase 4 were thermally and physically characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed strong presence of carbonyl peaks at 1720 cm-1 in all PHAs. Gel permeation chromatography reported polydipersity index values in range of 2.4-3.6 showing non-uniformity of molecular weights in the slice of PHAs and differential scanning calorimetry reported melting point temperatures of 146-154 °C, confirming usefulness of produced PHAs in industrial applications. X-Ray Diffraction confirmed crystal structure in all PHAs with the most crystalline from SBR3. Thermogravimetric analysis further confirmed highest thermal degradation temperature of 283 °C for PHAs from SBR3. Different blends of wastewater fed to mixed sodium acetate acclimatized biomass further showed the importance of substrate carbon source for PHAs production in various growth environments. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Kim J.-H.,Korea Industrial Complex Corporation |
Behera S.K.,University of Ulsan |
Oh S.-Y.,University of Ulsan |
Park H.-S.,University of Ulsan
Water and Environment Journal | Year: 2010
Effluent qualities of five municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTFs) in Ulsan were evaluated to examine their reuse potential. Effluent from Yongyeon (Y) MWWTF, Onsan (O) MWWTF and Bangeojin (B) MWWTFs can be used as cooling water without further treatment. As evident from Langelier saturation index and Ryzner index values, reuse of treated effluent from OMWWTF and BMWWTFs is recommended by controlling the pH to reduce the scale-forming potential of effluent. However, effluents from these MWWTFs need additional treatment to remove residual dissolved constituents before reuse as boiler water. Besides, effluent from Hoiya (H) MWWTF and Unyang (U) MWWTFs can be reused for agricultural irrigation without any additional treatment. Based on the scientific results obtained from this investigation, proper application of technology and promotion of public awareness to change the traditional mindset for treated effluent reuse could immensely contribute towards conserving local water resources and addressing global environmental problems on a regional basis. © 2009 The Authors. Water and Environment Journal © 2009 CIWEM.
Park J.M.,University of Ulsan |
Park J.Y.,Yale University |
Park J.Y.,University of Los Andes, Colombia |
Park H.-S.,University of Ulsan |
Park H.-S.,Korea Industrial Complex Corporation
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015
This paper provides a comprehensive review of the first phase of the Korean National Eco-Industrial Park (EIP) Development Program from 2005 to 2010. The main objectives of this review are to introduce how Korea established its own approach to nationwide eco-industrial development and to examine the program's successes and limiting factors to draw lessons about how industrial symbiosis can be developed successfully elsewhere. The Korean EIP program emerged from a context of 50 years of industrial development to transform traditional industrial structures into EIPs using cleaner production at the industrial park level. During the first five years, regional EIP centers established at five pilot sites developed and implemented 47 resource-sharing projects, which generated considerable economic and environmental benefits. This was possible due to an institutional system that effectively combined top-down and bottom-up approaches and to the mediating role of regional EIP centers, which bring together local stakeholders from businesses, governments, and research organizations. By learning during the first phase, Korea has established its own model for eco-industrial development that will continue to develop during the second and third phases. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.