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Lee H.-S.,Korea Health Industry Development Institute | Duffey K.J.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Popkin B.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Korea has undergone a major opening of its food markets and economy in the past decade. Little is understood about the impact of these shifts on the diet of Koreans. This analysis studies the shifts in consumption of foods between 1998 and 2009 to provide a thorough understanding of the transition and insights into directions in the next decades in Korea. Data are from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The sample used was a nationally representative sample of individuals age ≥2 in 1998 and 2009 (n=10,267 and 9,264, respectively). The data was corrected for seasonality, and the original raw food data was regrouped into 53 food groups. SAS was used to adjust for design effects and weight. Despite a decade of efforts to increase whole grains intake, and fruit and vegetable intake, the mean intake of whole grains increased only a small amount (16 kcal/person/day); however, the proportion consuming any whole grains doubled from 24% to 46.3%. Rice declined significantly, and several important less healthful food trends emerged: total alcohol intake increased from 39 kcal/person/day to 82 kcal/person/day. Also, energy from sugar-sweetened beverages increased among teens and energy from tea and coffee increased among adults. Remarkably, compared to other Asian countries and a general worldwide trend, vegetable intake remained relative high in South Korea during this last decade while fat energy increased modestly from relative low levels. Dynamic causes of these trends and the government's response are discussed.

Lee H.-S.,Korea Health Industry Development Institute | Duffey K.J.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Popkin B.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Journal of Human Hypertension | Year: 2013

We examined major trends and patterns regarding sodium and potassium intake and the ratio of sodium and potassium in the diets of South Koreans. We used data from 24-h dietary recall data from 10 267, 8819 and 9264 subjects ages ≥2 years in the 1998, 2005 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, respectively. Mean sodium intake did not change significantly between 1998 and 2009 (4.6 vs 4.7 g per day), while potassium intake increased significantly (2.6 vs 2.9 g per day (P<0.001)). The major dietary sodium sources were kimchi, salt, soy sauce and soybean paste, and most potassium came from unprocessed foods (white rice, vegetables, kimchi and fruits). About 50% of the participants consumed ≥4 g of sodium per capita per day. The proportion of respondents consuming four to six grams of potassium per capita per day increased from 10.3% in 1998 to 14.3% in 2009 (P<0.001), and the sodium-potassium ratio decreased from 1.88 to 1.71 (P<0.001). One major implication is that efforts to reduce sodium in processed foods will be ineffective and future efforts must focus on both education to reduce use of sodium in food preparation and sodium replacement in salt, possibly with potassium. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Song H.J.,Hallym University | Song H.J.,Harvard University | Cho Y.G.,Inje University | Lee H.-J.,Korea Health Industry Development Institute
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2013

Objective There has been no convincing evidence for a direct relation between sodium intake and being overweight. Therefore, we investigated the independent relationship between overweight and sodium intake in human subjects. Methods Of those aged 19 to 64 years who participated in the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 5955 participants (54% female) were included. Subjects were excluded if they reported unrealistic daily total energy intakes or intentional dietary changes, were pregnant, or were diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes, renal failure, liver cirrhosis, or thyroid disease. Overweight was defined as having a body mass index of 25 kg/m2 or higher. Sodium intake was calculated from 24-h recall and categorized into quintiles. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the relationship between sodium intake and being overweight. Results Compared to men in the lowest quintile, men in the 4th and 5th quintiles had an increased risk of being overweight with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.82) and 1.67 (95% CI, 1.23-2.27) respectively, after adjusting for confounding factors including soft drink and energy intake. The P value for trend of ORs in each quintile for men was 0.0033. In women, compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintile had an OR of 1.31(95% CI, 0.96-1.79) and showed a marginally significant trend towards increasing risk of being overweight (P value =.058). Conclusions Our findings suggest an independent relationship between high sodium intake and an increased risk of being overweight in adults. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Shin H.,Samsung | Yoon Y.S.,Inje University | Lee Y.,Shingu College | Kim C.-I.,Korea Health Industry Development Institute | Oh S.W.,Dongguk University
Journal of Korean Medical Science | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dairy product intake and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among middle-aged Koreans. We examined 7,240 adults aged 40-69 yr without MetS at baseline over a 45.5-month follow-up period. They were taken from the Anseong and Ansan cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Dairy product intake including milk, yogurt, and cheese was assessed with food frequency questionnaire. At the follow-up, the incidence of MetS was 17.1%. The incidences of MetS components were as follows: low HDL cholesterol (16.2%), abdominal obesity (14.0%), hypertriglyceridemia (13.8%), hyperglycemia (13.3%), and hypertension (13.1%). Adjusting for potential confounders, dairy product consumption frequency was inversely associated with the risk of MetS and abdominal obesity. Hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) for dairy product consumption more than 7 times/week compared to never was 0.75 (0.64-0.88, P for trend <0.001) for MetS and 0.73 (0.61-0.88, P for trend <0.001) for abdominal obesity. HR for milk intake was 0.79 for MetS and 0.82 for abdominal obesity. The results of this study suggest that daily intake of dairy products protects against the development of MetS, particularly abdominal obesity, in middle-aged Koreans. © 2013 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

Kim H.,Korea Health Industry Development Institute
Journal of the Korean Medical Association | Year: 2014

Health Technology Research and Development (R&D) national grant system has been progressed by the unique governance of each countries. From this reason, it has historical context and path-dependency. South Korea, also have started their investment from Bio Technology Master Plan of Ministry of Science and Technology (1994) and Korea Health Technology R&D Project of Ministry of Health and Welfare (1995), currently investing around 1.1 trillion won (in the year 2012) into the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (now, Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning), Ministry of Health and Welfare and Ministry of Knowledge Economy (now, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy). This paper focuses on the Health Technology R&D national grant system in the aspect of governance, mid-long term strategic plan, main program, planning-evaluation-management system. And last but not least, implications. First, there would be important to build the effective governance, performance based policy and administration mechanisms of national grant system for the Health Technology R&D. Second, main objective of Health Technology R&D, which is improving the quality of life for the public, could not meet their target practically. Third, R&D investment has been enlarged from treatment based to prevention and care focused and from technology-centered into demand-centered, which based on the unmet health needs. Last, most of Health Technology R&D project could not consider sustainable health system, which would be the most important value in healthcare.

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