Korea Green Promotion Agency

Daejeon, South Korea

Korea Green Promotion Agency

Daejeon, South Korea
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Lee C.-B.,Korea Green Promotion Agency | Chun J.-H.,Korea forest Research Institute | Um T.-W.,Sangji University | Cho H.-J.,Korea Forest Ecosystems Institute
Journal of Ecology and Environment | Year: 2013

Altitudinal patterns of plant species richness and the effects of area, the mid-domain effect, climatic variables, net primary productivity and latitude on observed richness patterns along the ridge of the Baekdudaegan Mountains, South Korea were studied. Data were collected from 1,100 plots along a 200 to 1,900 m altitudinal gradient on the ridge. A total of 802 plant species from 97 families and 342 genera were recorded. Common and rare species accounted for 91% and 9%, respectively, of the total plant species. The altitudinal patterns of species richness for total, common and rare plants showed distinctly hump-shaped patterns, although the absolute altitudes of the richness peaks varied somewhat among plant groups. The mid-domain effect was the most powerful explanatory variable for total and common species richness, whereas climatic variables were better predictors for rare plant richness. No effect of latitude on species richness was observed. Our study suggests that the mid-domain effect is a better predictor for wide-ranging species such as common species, whereas climatic variables are more important factors for range-restricted species such as rare species. The mechanisms underlying these richness patterns may reflect fundamental differences in the biology and ecology of different plant groups. © 2013 The Ecological Society of Korea.


Lee C.-B.,Korea Green Promotion Agency | Chun J.-H.,Korea forest Research Institute
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2015

We examined patterns of plant species richness on an elevation gradient and evaluated the effects of climatic variables including mean annual temperature and precipitation, area, the mid-domain effect and productivity on species richness along two transects on Mt. Seorak, South Korea. A total of 235 plant species of 72 families and 161 genera were recorded from 130 plots along the two transects. Two different patterns, monotonic decline and a unimodal shape, were observed for woody plants with the change in elevation along the two transects, whereas multimodal patterns were observed for all plant species considered together and for herbaceous plants. Area and productivity showed significant relationships with total plant richness. Climatic variables were better predictors than other variables for variation by elevation in woody plant richness, whereas productivity was a more important variable for herbaceous plant richness. Although area was an important variable for predicting species richness patterns, the effects differed by transect and plant group. No empirical evidence was linked to the mid-domain effect. Different elevational patterns may characterize different groups in the same taxon and there might be fundamental differences in the mechanisms underlying these richness patterns. © 2015, Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Lee C.-B.,Korea Green Promotion Agency | Chun J.-H.,National Institute of Forest Science
Folia Geobotanica | Year: 2016

Understanding biodiversity patterns and the underlying drivers along environmental gradients is a central topic in ecology and biogeography. Despite intensive research devoted to the topic, it is poorly known how the diversity components (α-, β- and γ-) are forming the diversity patterns along gradients and whether they differ when taking individual life forms into account. In the present study, we evaluated α-, β- and γ-diversity for all, woody and herbaceous plants in relation to regional area, topographic heterogeneity, vegetation type diversity, climate and primary productivity along an extensive elevation gradient in the temperate forests of South Korea. We also examined the effect of latitude on the diversity patterns. We found differences in patterns among the diversity components as well as life forms. Habitat heterogeneity, represented by topographic heterogeneity and vegetation type diversity, was the most important driver of α- and γ-diversity, and the combined effects of habitat heterogeneity and climate were important for β-diversity of the individual life forms. Diversity patterns did not show significant relationships with latitude. Our results suggest that diversity patterns may differ among diversity components and life forms, and that habitat heterogeneity and climate along an extensive temperate elevation gradient are important biodiversity drivers in South Korea. At the same time, the effect of the elevation gradient may not be paralleled in relation to the latitudinal gradient, and this fact deserves attention in future studies. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic


Lee C.-B.,Korea Green Promotion Agency | Chun J.-H.,National Institute of Forest Science
Forests | Year: 2016

Understanding patterns of biodiversity and their drivers along environmental gradients is one of the central topics in ecology. However, whether diversity patterns along environmental gradients differ among diversity components as well as life forms and what kind of variables control or interact to shape the diversity patterns are poorly known. This study scrutinized the distribution patterns of three plant groups with four diversity indices and evaluated the effects of regional area, topography, topographic heterogeneity, climate, primary productivity, vegetation structure diversity and vegetation type diversity along an extensive elevational gradient on the Baekdudaegan Mountains in South Korea. Different elevational patterns, including hump-shaped, reversed hump-shaped, increasing, multimodal and no relationship, were observed among both the diversity indices and the plant groups. Regional area, habitat heterogeneity and climate were included to explain most of the elevational diversity patterns. In particular, habitat heterogeneity was the most important variable for explaining the patterns of diversity. The results suggest that patterns of elevational diversity may differ not only among plant groups but also among diversity indices and that such patterns are primarily caused by habitat heterogeneity in the Baekdudaegan Mountains because more heterogeneous and diverse habitats can support more coexisting species. © 2016 by the authors.


Kim G.-S.,Seoul Womens University | Song H.-K.,Korea forest Research Institute | Lee C.-H.,Korea forest Research Institute | Cho H.-J.,Korea Green Promotion Agency | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ecology and Field Biology | Year: 2011

Species composition, frequency distribution of diameter classes, species diversity, and stem vitality of woody plants were analyzed in a Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb.) forests in permanent quadrates of Mt. Nam and Mt. Jeombong, which were installed for Long Term Ecological Research (LTER). The principal objective of this study was to clarify the ecological characteristics of both sites by comparing the Mongolian oak communities established in Mt. Nam surrounded by urban area and in Mt. Jeombong as a natural area, to accumulate the basic data for long-term monitoring, and furthermore to predict possible changes in vegetation due to climate change. The species composition of the Mongolian oak community on Mt. Nam differed from that of Mt. Jeombong. Such differences were usually due to Sorbus alnifolia, Styrax japonicus, Oplismenus undulatifolius, Ageratina altissima and so on, which appeared in higher coverage in Mt. Nam. Species diversity of the Mongolian oak community in Mt. Nam was lower than that in Mt. Jeombong. This result was attributed to the fact that the Mongolian oak community in Mt. Nam is under continuous management and was dominated excessively by S. alnifolia, and S. japonicus, which were originated from artificial interference and chronic air pollution. As the results of analyses on the frequency distribution of diameter classes of major tree species and the transitional probability model based on Markov chain theory, the Mongolian oak community in Mt. Nam showed a possibility of being replaced by a S. alnifolia. Considering that this replacement species is not only a inf-tree but is also shade-intolerant, such a successional trend could be interpreted as a sort of retrogressive succession. The Mongolian oak community established in Mt. Jeombong differed from the community in Mt. Nam in terms of its probability of being continuously maintained © The Ecological Society of Korea.


Lee C.-B.,Korea Green Promotion Agency | Chun J.-H.,Korea forest Research Institute | Song H.-K.,Chungnam National University | Cho H.-J.,Korea Forest Ecosystems Institute
Ecological Research | Year: 2013

We studied the altitudinal patterns of plant species richness and examined the effects of geometric constraints, area, and climatic factors on the observed richness patterns along the ridge of the Baekdudaegan Mountains, South Korea. Rapoport's altitudinal rule was evaluated by examining the relationship between altitudinal range size and midpoint. We also examined the latitudinal effect on species richness. Plant data were collected from 1,100 plots along a 200-1,900 m altitudinal gradient along the ridge of the Baekdudaegan. A total of 802 plant species from 97 families and 342 genera were found. The altitudinal patterns of plant species richness along the ridge of the Baekdudaegan depicted distinctly hump-shaped patterns, although the absolute altitudes of the richness peaks vary somewhat among plant groups. While the mid-domain effect (MDE) was the most powerful explanatory variable in simple regression models, species richness was also associated with climatic factors, especially mean annual precipitation (MAP) and temperature (MAT) in multiple regression models. The relative importance of the MDE and climatic factors were different among plant groups. The MDE was more important for woody plants and for large-ranged species, whereas climatic factors were better predictors for total and herbaceous plants and for small-ranged species. Rapoport's altitudinal rule and a latitudinal effect on species richness were not supported. Our study suggests that a combined interaction of the MDE and climatic factors influences species richness patterns along the altitudinal gradient of the Baekdudaegan Mountains, South Korea. © 2012 The Ecological Society of Japan.


Lee C.-B.,Korea Green Promotion Agency | Chun J.-H.,Korea forest Research Institute | Ahn H.-H.,Korea Green Promotion Agency
Nordic Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

We examined the elevational patterns of plant species along two transects on Mt Seorak, South Korea, and calculated four richness indices from field survey data: total number of species per 100 m elevational b mean number of species per plot in each elevational b total estimated number of species per elevational b and beta diversity of each elevational band. We evaluated the effects of area, mean distance between plots, climatic variables (mean annual temperature and precipitation), and productivity on the richness patterns along the two transects. In total, 235 plant species belonging to 72 families and 161 genera were recorded from 130 plots along the two transects. The analyses revealed different patterns including monotonic decline, and unimodal and multimodal shapes for richness indices of total, woody, and herbaceous plants with the change in elevation along the two transects. The proportion of suitable area (as opposed to rocky areas) was the best predictor for total number of species per elevational band, mean number of species per plot, and total estimated number of species per elevational band of total and herbaceous plants along the two transects. Mean distance between plots was the most important variable for beta diversity of all plant groups. Although regional area, climatic variables, and productivity were important variables for predicting woody plant richness patterns, the effects were not consistent between the two transects. Our study suggests that elevational species richness patterns may differ not only among different plant groups, but also between nearby elevational transects, and that these differences are explained by differences in the underlying mechanisms shaping these patterns. © 2014 The Authors.


Cho Y.C.,Korea National Arboretum | Lee C.S.,Seoul Womens University | Lee C.S.,Planning Offce of National Ecological Institute | ho H.J.,Korea Green Promotion Agency | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ecology and Field Biology | Year: 2011

Various responses of forest ecosystems to climate change underscore the need to improve our understanding of the environmentally-driven changes in forests, most effectively by long-term monitoring protocols. We have explored vegetation dynamics based on changes in community structure, species composition, diversity and demographics in four Korean National Long Term Ecological Research (KNLTER) sites--Mt. Nam, Mt. Jeombong, Mt. Worak, and Mt. Jiri--between 2004 and 2009. Most of the sites and forests studied exhibited increments in total basal area, but this was not observed in Quercus mongolica forests in Mt. Nam and Mt. Worak. Stem density exhibited various changes. Altitude gradient was the representative factor in differences in species composition. Two patterns of compositional change-convergence and divergence--were detected. The vegetation of Mt. Nam and Q. mongolica community of Mt. Work showed relatively larger changes in composition. However, in the other sites, few changes were observed. Changes of species richness were not notable except for Mt. Nam, where three species were added in the pine forest, whereas one species disappeared in the oak forest. In the oak forests, mortality rate was as follows (in descending order): Mt. Nam (25.5%), Mt. Jeombong (24.3%), Mt. Worak (16.4%) and Mt. Jiri (0.8%). In the pine forest, the recruitment rate was as follows (in descending order): Mt. Nam (63.7%), Mt. Worak (12.9%), Mt. Jeombong (7.6%) and Mt. Jiri (7.3%). The mortality rate and change rate of basal area were strongly negatively correlated (r = -0.9, P = 0.002), and the recruitment rate and change rate of density were positively correlated (r = 0.77, P = 0.026). In the KNLTER sites, larger vegetation changes were attributed to anthropogenic activities such as salvage logging. Suppression or competition for resources would also affect these changes. Research suggestions such as monitoring to clarify the causes of species mortality were discussed. © The Ecological Society of Korea.

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