Korea Ginseng Corporation Research Institute

Daejeon, South Korea

Korea Ginseng Corporation Research Institute

Daejeon, South Korea

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Upadhyaya J.,Chonbuk National University | Kim M.-J.,Chonbuk National University | Kim Y.-H.,Chonbuk National University | Ko S.-R.,Bureau of General Affairs | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2015

Background: Minor saponins or human intestinal bacterial metabolites, such as ginsenosides Rg3, F2, Rh2, and compound K, are more pharmacologically active than major saponins, such as ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, and Rc. In this work, enzymatic hydrolysis of ginsenoside Rb1 was studied using enzyme preparations from cultured mycelia of mushrooms. Methods: Mycelia of Armillaria mellea, Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus linteus, Elfvingia applanata, and Pleurotus ostreatus were cultivated in liquid media at 25°C for 2 wk. Enzyme preparations from cultured mycelia of five mushrooms were obtained by mycelia separation from cultured broth, enzyme extraction, ammonium sulfate (30-80%) precipitation, dialysis, and freeze drying, respectively. The enzyme preparations were used for enzymatic hydrolysis of ginsenoside Rb1. Results: Among the mushrooms used in this study, the enzyme preparation from cultured mycelia of A.mellea (AMMEP) was found to convert ginsenoside Rb1 into compound K with a high yield, while those from G.lucidum, P.linteus, E.applanata, and P.ostreatus produced remarkable amounts of ginsenoside Rd from ginsenoside Rb1. The enzymatic hydrolysis pathway of ginsenoside Rb1 by AMMEP was Rb1 → Rd → F2 → compound K. The optimum reaction conditions for compound K formation from ginsenoside Rb1 were as follows: reaction time 72-96h, pH 4.0-4.5, and temperature 45-55°C. Conclusion: AMMEP can be used to produce the human intestinal bacterial metabolite, compound K, from ginsenoside Rb1 with a high yield and without food safety issues. © 2015.


PubMed | Chonbuk National University, Bureau of General Affairs and Korea Ginseng Corporation Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of ginseng research | Year: 2016

Minor saponins or human intestinal bacterial metabolites, such as ginsenosides Rg3, F2, Rh2, and compound K, are more pharmacologically active than major saponins, such as ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, and Rc. In this work, enzymatic hydrolysis of ginsenoside Rb1 was studied using enzyme preparations from cultured mycelia of mushrooms.Mycelia of Armillaria mellea, Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus linteus, Elfvingia applanata, and Pleurotus ostreatus were cultivated in liquid media at 25C for 2 wk. Enzyme preparations from cultured mycelia of five mushrooms were obtained by mycelia separation from cultured broth, enzyme extraction, ammonium sulfate (30-80%) precipitation, dialysis, and freeze drying, respectively. The enzyme preparations were used for enzymatic hydrolysis of ginsenoside Rb1.Among the mushrooms used in this study, the enzyme preparation from cultured mycelia of A.mellea (AMMEP) was found to convert ginsenoside Rb1 into compound K with a high yield, while those from G.lucidum, P.linteus, E.applanata, and P.ostreatus produced remarkable amounts of ginsenoside Rd from ginsenoside Rb1. The enzymatic hydrolysis pathway of ginsenoside Rb1 by AMMEP was Rb1 Rd F2 compound K. The optimum reaction conditions for compound K formation from ginsenoside Rb1 were as follows: reaction time 72-96h, pH 4.0-4.5, and temperature 45-55C.AMMEP can be used to produce the human intestinal bacterial metabolite, compound K, from ginsenoside Rb1 with a high yield and without food safety issues.


Lee K.J.,Seoul National University | Lee B.-W.,Seoul National University | Kang J.Y.,Korea Ginseng Corporation Research Institute | Lee D.Y.,Korea Ginseng Corporation Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2015

Background: Knowledge on microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field would facilitate climate-aware management of ginseng production. Methods: Weather data were measured under the shade and outside the shade at two fields located in Gochang-gun and Jeongeup-si, Korea, in 2011 and 2012 seasons to assess temperature and humidity conditions under the shade. An empirical approach was developed and validated for the estimation of leaf wetness duration (LWD) using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. Results: Air temperature and relative humiditywere similar between under the shade and outside the shade. For example, temperature conditions favorable for ginseng growth, e.g., between 8_C and 27_C, occurred slightly less frequently in hours during night times under the shade (91%) than outside (92%). Humidity conditions favorable for development of a foliar disease, e.g., relative humidity> 70%, occurred slightlymore frequently under the shade (84%) than outside (82%). Effectiveness of correction schemes to an empirical LWD model differed by rainfall conditions for the estimation of LWD under the shade using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. During dew eligible days, a correction scheme to an empirical LWD model was slightly effective (10%) in reducing estimation errors under the shade. However, another correction approach during rainfall eligible days reduced errors of LWD estimation by 17%. Conclusion: Weather measurements outside the shade and LWD estimates derived from these measurements would be useful as inputs for decision support systems to predict ginseng growth and disease development. © 2015, The Korean Society of Ginseng, Published by Elsevier. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Seoul National University and Korea Ginseng Corporation Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of ginseng research | Year: 2014

Discriminating between two herbal medicines (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius), with similar chemical and physical properties but different therapeutic effects, is a very serious and difficult problem. Differentiation between two processed ginseng genera is even more difficult because the characteristics of their appearance are very similar. An ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS)-based metabolomic technique was applied for the metabolite profiling of 40 processed P.ginseng and processed P.quinquefolius. Currently known biomarkers such as ginsenoside Rf and F11 have been used for the analysis using the UPLC-photodiode array detector. However, this method was not able to fully discriminate between the two processed ginseng genera. Thus, an optimized UPLC-QTOF-based metabolic profiling method was adapted for the analysis and evaluation of two processed ginseng genera. As a result, all known biomarkers were identified by the proposed metabolomics, and additional potential biomarkers were extracted from the huge amounts of global analysis data. Therefore, it is expected that such metabolomics techniques would be widely applied to the ginseng research field.


PubMed | Korea Ginseng Corporation Research Institute and Seoul National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of ginseng research | Year: 2016

Knowledge on microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field would facilitate climate-aware management of ginseng production.Weather data were measured under the shade and outside the shade at two fields located in Gochang-gun and Jeongeup-si, Korea, in 2011 and 2012 seasons to assess temperature and humidity conditions under the shade. An empirical approach was developed and validated for the estimation of leaf wetness duration (LWD) using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model.Air temperature and relative humidity were similar between under the shade and outside the shade. For example, temperature conditions favorable for ginseng growth, e.g., between 8C and 27C, occurred slightly less frequently in hours during night times under the shade (91%) than outside (92%). Humidity conditions favorable for development of a foliar disease, e.g., relative humidity > 70%, occurred slightly more frequently under the shade (84%) than outside (82%). Effectiveness of correction schemes to an empirical LWD model differed by rainfall conditions for the estimation of LWD under the shade using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. During dew eligible days, a correction scheme to an empirical LWD model was slightly effective (10%) in reducing estimation errors under the shade. However, another correction approach during rainfall eligible days reduced errors of LWD estimation by 17%.Weather measurements outside the shade and LWD estimates derived from these measurements would be useful as inputs for decision support systems to predict ginseng growth and disease development.


Kim M.-J.,Chonbuk National University | Kim Y.-H.,Chonbuk National University | Song G.-S.,Chonbuk National University | Suzuki Y.,Okayama University | And 2 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2016

Six α-monoglucosyl derivatives of ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1) were synthesized by transglycosylation reaction of rice seed α-glucosidase in the reaction mixture containing maltose as a glucosyl donor and G-Rg1 as an acceptor. Their chemical structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis, and the effects of reaction time, pH, and glycosyl donors on transglycosylation reaction were investigated. The results showed that rice seed a-glucosidase transfers a-glucosyl group from maltose to G-Rg1 by forming either α-1,3 (α-nigerosyl)-, α-1,4 (α-maltosyl)-, or α-1,6 (α-isomaltosyl)-glucosidic linkages in β-glucose moieties linked at the C6- and C20-position of protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type aglycone. The optimum pH range for the transglycosylation reaction was between 5.0 and 6.0. Rice seed a-glucosidase acted on maltose, soluble starch, and PNP α-D-glucopyranoside as glycosyl donors, but not on glucose, sucrose, or trehalose. These a-monoglucosyl derivatives of G-Rg1 were easily hydrolyzed to G-Rg1 by rat small intestinal and liver α-glucosidase in vitro. © 2015 Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry.


Lee M.-H.,Korea Food Research Institute | Kim S.-S.,Korea Food Research Institute | Cho C.-W.,Korea Food Research Institute | Choi S.-Y.,Korea Food Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2013

Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and 65°C was the highest, at 17.48%. Color was not different based on the extraction method, but the b-value increased as the roasting time for compression extraction was increased. The b-values of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction were 3.54 to 15.6 and those following compression extraction after roasting treatment at 200°C for 30 min, were 20.49, which was the highest value. The result of the phenolic compounds composition showed the presence of gentisic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid in the ginseng seed oil. No differences were detected in phenolic acid levels in ginseng seed oil extracted by compression extraction or solvent extraction, but vanillic acid tended to decrease as extraction pressure and temperature were increased for seed oil extracted by a supercritical fluid extraction method. The fatty acid composition of ginseng seed oil was not different based on the extraction method, and unsaturated fatty acids were >90% of all fatty acids, among which, oleic acid was the highest at 80%. Phytosterol analysis showed that β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were detected. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction was 100.4 to 135.5 mg/100 g, and the phytosterol content following compression extraction and solvent extraction was 71.8 to 80.9 mg/100 g. © The Korean Society of Ginseng.


Park H.-W.,Korea Ginseng Corporation Research Institute | In G.,Korea Ginseng Corporation Research Institute | Han S.-T.,Korea Ginseng Corporation Research Institute | Lee M.-W.,Korea Ginseng Corporation Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2013

A quick and simple method for simultaneous determination of the 30 ginsenosides (ginsenoside Ro, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, 20(S)-Rg2, 20(R)-Rg2, 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, 20(S)-Rh1, 20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, F1, F2, F4, Ra1, Rg6, Rh4, Rk3, Rg5, Rk1, Rb3, Rk2, Rh3, compound Y, compound K, and notoginsenoside R1) in Panax ginseng preparations was developed and validated by an ultra performance liquid chromatography photo diode array detector. The separation of the 30 ginsenosides was efficiently undertaken on the Acquity BEH C-18 column with gradient elution with phosphoric acids. Especially the chromatogram of the ginsenoside Ro was dramatically enhanced by adding phosphoric acid. Under optimized conditions, the detection limits were 0.4 to 1.7 mg/L and the calibration curves of the peak areas for the 30 ginsenosides were linear over three orders of magnitude with a correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The accuracy of the method was tested by a recovery measurement of the spiked samples which yielded good results of 89% to 118%. From these overall results, the proposed method may be helpful in the development and quality of P. ginseng preparations because of its wide range of applications due to the simultaneous analysis of many kinds of ginsenosides. © The Korean Society of Ginseng.


Baeg I.-H.,Korea Ginseng Corporation Research Institute | So S.-H.,Korea Ginseng Corporation Research Institute
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2013

Ginseng is being distributed in 35 countries around the world and there are differences by each country in the distribution volume and amount. However, since there is no accurate statistics on production and distribution amount by each country, it is very difficult to predict the world ginseng market. Ginseng trading companies and governments are in desperate need of comprehensive data that shows the world ginseng market status for sales and marketing. For that reason, this study will look into the approximate size of the world ginseng market based on recent ginseng distribution amount by each country and production by major ginseng producing nations. In addition, the review sets an opportunity to check the status of ginseng (Korea) in the world and presents future direction by examining recent history of ginseng development in Korea, which is one of the world's largest ginseng distributers. Since ginseng is cultivated in limited areas due to its growth characteristics, ginseng distributing countries can be divided based on whether they grow it domestically or not. In general, four countries including South Korea, China, Canada, and the US are the biggest producers and their total production of fresh ginseng is approximately 79,769 tons which is more than 99% of 80,080 tons, the total ginseng production around the world. Ginseng is distributed to different countries in various forms such as fresh ginseng, dried ginseng, boiled and dried ginseng (Taekuksam), red ginseng and the related products, etc. and is consumed as food, dietary supplements, functional food, medical supplies, etc. Also, the world ginseng market including ginseng root and the processed products, is estimated to be worth $2,084 million. In particular, the size of the Korean market is $1,140 million which makes Korea the largest distributer in the world. Since the interests in alternative medicine and healthy food is increasing globally, the consumer market of ginseng with many features and the processed products are expected to expand continuously. © The Korean Society of Ginseng.


PubMed | Korea Ginseng Corporation Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of ginseng research | Year: 2013

A quick and simple method for simultaneous determination of the 30 ginsenosides (ginsenoside Ro, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, 20(S)-Rg2, 20(R)-Rg2, 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, 20(S)-Rh1, 20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, F1, F2, F4, Ra1, Rg6, Rh4, Rk3, Rg5, Rk1, Rb3, Rk2, Rh3, compound Y, compound K, and notoginsenoside R1) in Panax ginseng preparations was developed and validated by an ultra performance liquid chromatography photo diode array detector. The separation of the 30 ginsenosides was efficiently undertaken on the Acquity BEH C-18 column with gradient elution with phosphoric acids. Especially the chromatogram of the ginsenoside Ro was dramatically enhanced by adding phosphoric acid. Under optimized conditions, the detection limits were 0.4 to 1.7 mg/L and the calibration curves of the peak areas for the 30 ginsenosides were linear over three orders of magnitude with a correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The accuracy of the method was tested by a recovery measurement of the spiked samples which yielded good results of 89% to 118%. From these overall results, the proposed method may be helpful in the development and quality of P. ginseng preparations because of its wide range of applications due to the simultaneous analysis of many kinds of ginsenosides.

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