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Jee H.-S.,Konkuk University | Chang K.-H.,Konkuk University | Park S.-H.,Dongwon Korea Ginseng Co. | Kim K.-T.,Konkuk University | Paik H.-D.,Konkuk University
Food Reviews International | Year: 2014

The pharmacological activities of Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, and Panax notoginseng as herbal medicinal resources were reviewed to evaluate their biofunctional effects. P. ginseng contains relatively many kinds of ginsenoside that possess pharmacological activity compared with P. quinquefolium and P. notoginseng. However, the ratio of panaxatriol and panaxadiol of ginsenoside in P. notoginseng is higher than those of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolium. The free sugar content of P. ginseng is similar to P. quinquefolium but is different from P. notoginseng. The total free amino acid content is highest in P. ginseng and lowest in P. notoginseng. P. ginseng has the highest antioxidative effects and P. ginseng and P. quinquefoilum possess more potent cytotoxicities on A549 and SK-OV-3 cell lines than P. notoginseng. Particularly, red ginseng of P. ginseng shows the highest antidiabetic effects, suggesting that it possesses activity to enhance insulin secretion as well as to prevent a destruction of pancreatic islet cells. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Chang K.H.,Konkuk University | Park S.-H.,Dongwon Korea Ginseng Co. | Jee H.-S.,Konkuk University | Kim K.-T.,Konkuk University | And 2 more authors.
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

White ginseng extract (WGE) was hydrolyzed with organic acids to increase the yield of ginsenoside Rg3 which has high bio-functional activities. The condition of hydrolysis by citric acid was studied to maximize a production of ginsenoside Rg3. The total content of ginsenoside Rg3 in WGE treated with 10% citric acid at 110°C for 1 h was 10-folds greater than that of commercial extract. The antitumor and antioxidant activities of WGE and the acid-hydrolysates were evaluated via an MTT assay and the DPPH method, respectively. At 1.0 mg/mL, hydrolysates inhibited the proliferation of AGS and Hep-2 cells by more than 90%, but did not inhibit their growth. It suggests that citric acid hydrolysis enhances the content of Rg3. In addition, the acid hydrolysates evidenced a free radical scavenging activity of 80% at a concentration of 4.0 mg/mL, while WGE exhibited only a 49% free radical scavenging activity at the same concentration. © 2014 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Jo M.,Konkuk University | Jung J.E.,Konkuk University | Lee J.H.,Konkuk University | Park S.-H.,Dongwon Korea Ginseng Co. | And 3 more authors.
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Red ginseng extract (RGE) and white ginseng extract (WGE) were treated with partially purified β-glucosidase to increase a production of minor ginsenosides. The enzyme produced from Aspergillus usamii KCTC 6954 was precipitated with (NH4)2SO4. Ginseng extracts were treated with a crude extract possessing β-glucosidase activity (1,089.2 μM/mL·min) at 60°C for 72 h. The results of HPLC showed that enzyme-treated RGE and enzymetreated WGE have increased amounts of minor ginsenosides compared to each controls implying that the ginsenoside Rb1 in WGE and RGE is converted enzymatically to Rd, F2, Rg3, and compound K. In cytotoxicity study, 2.5 mg/mL of RGE, 1.25 mg/mL of ERGE, and 5 mg/mL of WGE and EWGE were effective against the HepG2, AGS, and DLD-1, but HeLa and SK-MES-1 were not affected at any concentration. The results suggested that cytotoxicity of ginseng extracts treated with β-glucosidase were greater than that of each control against cancer cells. © 2014 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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