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Yeom H.-J.,Korea forest Research Institute | Jung C.-S.,Korea forest Research Institute | Kang J.,Korea Institute of Toxicology | Kim J.,Gyeongsang National University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Yahya A.F.,Seoul National University | Hyun J.O.,Seoul National University | Lee J.H.,National Institute of Environmental Research | Kim Y.Y.,Korea Forest Seed and Variety Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Plant Research | Year: 2014

Genetic variations within and among Rhizophora apiculata populations in the Greater Sunda Islands of Indonesia were studied using microsatellite markers. The study found 38 alleles on five loci in 15 populations. The observed (H o) and expected (H e) heterozygosity values are 0.338 and 0.378, respectively. Inbreeding effect from self-pollination might explain its heterozygote deficiency. Population genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.381) was similar to other mangrove species. The genetic diversity of R. apiculata populations along the coastline inside the archipelago (e.g., Buleleng, Donggala, Mamuju, and Takalar) was higher than those of population along the coastline outside the archipelago, especially northern Sumatra populations (i.e., Langkat, Tapanuli Tengah, Dumai, and Padang). The isolation by distances and sea currents directions as well as their connectivity might affect the gene flow and genetic exchange. The more isolated with fewer connections by sea currents, the smaller gene flow and genetic exchange observed between populations. The higher genetic exchange, on the contrary, occurred when population location was closer to the meeting point of the sea currents. The study also showed that the patterns of sea current movement seemed to have influence genetic clustering of populations which fell into three main groups (Sunda Shelf Mangroves) and one isolated population (New Guinea Mangroves). © 2013 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer Japan.


Lee K.M.,Seoul National University | Lee K.M.,Korea Forest Seed and Variety Center | Kim Y.Y.,Korea Forest Seed and Variety Center | Hyun J.O.,Seoul National University
Genes and Genomics | Year: 2011

Populus davidiana Dode, the only aspen in Korea, is useful for restoration because of its fast growth and vigorous reproduction. This study was conducted to estimate the genetic diversity and subdivision in populations of P. davidiana in South Korea using microsatellite markers. DNA from 113 individuals from five populations was amplified using five microsatellite primers. Fifty-three alleles were detected, and the expected heterozygosity was 0.603. The populations of P. davidiana in Korea have high genetic variation despite their peripheral distribution. RST (0.213) indicated a significant level of genetic subdivision among populations compared to the differentiation among other aspen populations. The high conservation value of the populations is attributed to its ecological and commercial importance. © The Genetics Society of Korea and Springer 2011.


Han M.-S.,Korea Forest Seed and Variety Center | Lee J.-R.,Chungbuk National University | Kim J.-S.,Chungbuk National University | Shin S.-J.,Chungbuk National University | Kim B.-R.,Chungbuk National University
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology | Year: 2015

This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between anatomical characteristics and growth rate of Quercus rubra from different origins of seed. Anatomical characteristics showed that all Quercus rubra species were ring-porous woods with 1∼3 layers of large pores in earlywood, but the latewood had small pores oriented in radial direction. There were slight differences in libriform fiber length and vessel element diameter in the earlywood among different provenance origins of seeds. In growth rate, the libriform fiber length and vessel element diameter was negative correlation in the earlywood, but not correlative in the latewood, and vessel element length was not correlative in the early and latewood, Volumetric composition of libriform fiber and ray in latewood was higher than those in ear lywood, and a higher composition of vessel element was observed in earlywood. Ray height was the range of from 11 to 15 cells.


Han M.S.,Korea Forest Seed and Variety Center | Noh S.A.,Korea forest Research Institute | Kwak M.C.,Gyounggido Forestry Environment Research Center | Moon H.K.,Korea forest Research Institute
Journal of Plant Biotechnology | Year: 2014

In order to develop an efficient in vitro micropropagation technique for a rare plant species, Astragalus membranaceus Bunge var. alpinus N., shoot proliferation and in vitro or in vivo rootings were conducted and hyperhydrated leaf generated from cultures was histologically observed. During shoot induction, no distinct effect on multiple shoot induction was found between BA and kinetin treatment. BA enhanced the number of internodes, whereas kinetin stimulated shoot elongation. Hyperhydrated leaf composed of bigger cells and retarded palisade parenchyma and showed irregular cell arrangement compared to normal leaf. Especially starch content in hyperhydrated leaf was significantly reduced. The best rooting rate was achieved by B5 medium among three different medium (B5, MS and WPM) and 0.1mg/L IBA treatment induced the highest rooting ratio (80%). No statistical difference was induced by explant types (apical bud or axillary bud) in terms of rooting ratio. In vivo cutting induced rooting rate up to 65% by 0.5% IBA/Talc powder treatment. Although in vivo rooting rate was less efficient compared to in vitro rooting, better survival rate was observed after soil acclimatization. Present study suggested that above micropropagation techniques can be used for rapid multiplication as well as in vitro or in vivo conservation of the species. © Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology.


Yan-Lin S.,Kangwon National University | Wan-Geun P.,Kangwon National University | Oh-Woung K.,Korea Forest Seed and Variety Center | Soon-Kwan H.,Kangwon National University
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Molecular approaches are now being developed to provide a more rapid and objective identification compared to traditional phenotypic methods. Nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) targets, especially internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2), have been widely used for molecular identification of some plants and fungi. We therefore conducted an investigation in the identification of the fifth medically important Zanthoxylum schinifolium ecotypes using the common primers of the ITS region. About 620 bp fragments were obtained and the sequences of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were tested. The sequence length, G+C content (%), DNA alignment and pariwise nucleotide comparisons demonstrated 98.8 to 100% sequence identities in the total ITS region, 98.3 to 100% identities in the ITS1 region and 99.5 to 100% in the ITS2 region. Comparative analysis using GenBank reference data showed that the exclusive reported data showed 100% identities with BEMR, CWDO, HCDC, JDGG and GJGD in the ITS1 region and 100% identities with thirteen ecotypes except BEMR and GRDG in the ITS2 region. The fifth different ecotypes were classified into five groups and the identification of medically important Z. schinifolium was highly improved due to the augmentation of our current ITS sequences. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Kwon O.-W.,Korea Forest Seed and Variety Center | Kim W.-J.,Korea forest Research Institute | Lee H.-J.,Korea forest Research Institute
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology | Year: 2014

A compound has been isolated from the methanol extract of Styrax japonica bark using conventional chromatographic methods including silica gel chromatography, TLC and HPLC. The molecular formula of Styraxlignolide F analyzed by spectrometric analyses using FAB-MS, NMR was found to be C 27H34O11Na. The cytotoxicity of the styralignolide F was showed 15.2% in 1.0 ./. on human kidney cell (HEK 293). As anticancer activity of CH2Cl2 fraction, over 60% of AGS and MCF-7 cells were inhibited in concentration of 1.0 ./.. In the results of anticancer test using quantification of Bcl-2, CH2Cl2 fraction showed lower Bcl-2 and p53 expression than those of styraxlignolide F and other fractions. In apoptosis of human lung carcunoma cancer cell (A549), CH2Cl2 fraction showed the highest inhibition rate (46.9%) and styralignolide F was the next (43.5%). The CH2Cl2 fraction showed higher anti-cancer activ ities than isolated substance (styraxlignolide F), probably due to the crude extract showing synergic effects by other components.


Yan-Lin S.,Kangwon National University | Wan-Geun P.,Kangwon National University | Oh-Woung K.,Korea Forest Seed and Variety Center | Soon-Kwan H.,Kangwon National University
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Genus Zanthoxylum which has significant medical importance belongs to the family Rutaceae. This investigation was aimed to identify total internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions among the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) to distinguish Zanthoxylum piperitum from Zanthoxylum sichinifolium. The nrDNA ITS sequence markers were developed by using universal ITS5/ITS4 primer pairs. Speciesspecific primers amplified the total ITS region sequence named ITS1-YL1 and ITS1-YL2. These were amplified efficiently when paired with universal primer ITS4 in Z. piperitum, but not in Z. schinifolium. ITS1-YL1/ITS4 or ITS1-YL2/ITS4 preferential amplification was shown to be particularly useful for detection and distribution of Z. piperitum from other plant species, especially Z. schinifolium. These primers are useful to study the structure of Rutaceae family. Such identifications will be helpful for phylogenetic analysis in intraspecies population of the genus Zanthoxylum. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Sun Y.L.,Kangwon National University | Wang D.,Kangwon National University | Lee H.B.,Kangwon National University | Park W.G.,Kangwon National University | And 3 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The genus Carpinus belonging to Coryloideae, Betulaceae, has significant economic and ornamental importance. This study was undertaken with the aim to understand the genetic diversity among eighteen isolates of Carpinus turczaninovii collected from different geographical regions of Korea, using ribosomal RNA (rRNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, to compare the infraspecificphylogenetic relationships among C. turczaninovii in Korea, and some known Carpinus plants. The size variation of sequenced rRNA ITS regions was not seen, with 215, 162, 222 bp of ITS1 region, 5.8S rRNA gene, ITS2 region, respectively. However, some certain nucleotide variations resulted in genetic diversity. In the genus Carpinus, C. turczaninovii closely genetic with Castanopsis kawakamii, Carpinus orientalis, Carpinus monbeigiana, and Calyptranthes polynenra formed one monophyletic cla de, whileCarpinus betulus and Carpinus laxiflora, respectively formed one monophyletic clade. In the present ITS sequence analysis, Carpinus fangiana, Carpinus coreana, Carpinus japonica, and Carpinus caroliniana were considered as Out Group, compared to C. turczaninovii group. The highest intraspecific variation was found between C. caroliniana and C. japonica. The least intraspecific variation was obtained between C. turczaninovii and C. coreana. The results will help further understanding Carpinus infraspecies population and their phylogenetic analysis. © 2011 Academic Journals.


Park H.,Korea forest Research Institute | Ka K.-H.,Korea forest Research Institute | Ryu S.-R.,Korea Forest Seed and Variety Center
Mycobiology | Year: 2014

The effectiveness of three kinds of enzymes (chitinase, ß-glucuronidase, and lysing enzyme complex), employed as elicitors to enhance the ß-glucan content in the sawdust-based cultivation of cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis latifolia), was examined. The elicitors were applied to the cauliflower mushroom after primordium formation, by spraying the enzyme solutions at three different levels on the sawdust-based medium. Mycelial growth was fully accomplished by the treatments, but the metabolic process during the growth of fruiting bodies was affected. The application of a lysing enzyme resulted in an increase in the ß-glucan concentration by up to 31% compared to that of the control. However, the treatment resulted in a decrease in mushroom yield, which necessitated the need to evaluate its economic efficiency. Although we still need to develop a more efficient way for using elicitors to enhance functional metabolites in mushroom cultivation, the results indicate that the elicitation technique can be applied in the cultivation of medicinal/edible mushrooms. © The Korean Society of Mycology.

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