Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute

Eunpyeong gu, South Korea

Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute

Eunpyeong gu, South Korea
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Choi B.-Y.,Korea University | Choi B.-Y.,Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute | Yun S.-T.,Korea University | Yun S.-T.,University of Calgary | And 5 more authors.
Hydrological Processes | Year: 2010

We evaluated sources and pathways of groundwater recharge for a heterogeneous alluvial aquifer beneath an agricultural field, based on multi-level monitoring of hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes of a riverside groundwater system at Buyeo, Korea. Two distinct groundwater zones were identified with depth: (1) a shallow oxic groundwater zone, characterized by elevated concentrations of NO3 - and (2) a deeper (>10-14 m from the ground surface) sub-oxic groundwater zone with high concentrations of dissolved Fe, silica, and HCO3 -, but little nitrate. The change of redox zones occurred at a depth where the aquifer sediments change from an upper sandy stratum to a silty stratum with mud caps. The δ18O and δ2H values of groundwater were also different between the two zones. Hydrochemical and δ18O-δ2H data of oxic groundwater are similar to those of soil water. This illustrates that recharge of oxic groundwater mainly occurs through direct infiltration of rain and irrigation water in the sandy soil area where vegetable cropping with abundant fertilizer use is predominant. Oxic groundwater is therefore severely contaminated by agrochemical pollutants such as nitrate. In contrast, deeper sub-oxic groundwater contains only small amounts of dissolved oxygen (DO) and NO3 -. The 3H contents and elevated silica concentrations in sub-oxic groundwater indicate a somewhat longer mean residence time of groundwater within this part of the aquifer. Sub-oxic groundwater was also characterized by higher δ18O and δ2H values and lower d-excess values, indicating significant evaporation during recharge. We suggest that recharge of sub-oxic groundwater occurs in the areas of paddy rice fields where standing irrigation and rain water are affected by strong evaporation, and that reducing conditions develop during subsequent sub-surface infiltration. This study illustrates the existence of two groundwater bodies with different recharge processes within an alluvial aquifer. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Seo J.-K.,Kunsan National University | Lee M.J.,Pukyong National University | Jung H.-G.,Pukyong National University | Go H.-J.,Pukyong National University | And 2 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2014

A 2.3kDa of antimicrobial peptide was purified from an acidified liver extract of skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, by preparative acid-urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and C18 reversed-phase HPLC. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of the purified peptide with those of other known polypeptides revealed high homology with the C-terminus of hemoglobin β-chain; thus, this peptide was designated as the Skipjack Hemoglobin β chain-related Antimicrobial Peptide (SHβAP). SHβAP showed potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus iniae (minimal effective concentrations [MECs], 6.5-57.0μg/mL), Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli D31, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Shigella sonnei, and two Vibrio parahaemolyticus species (MECs, 2.0-19.0μg/mL), and against Candida albicans (MEC; 12.0μg/mL) without significant hemolytic activity. Antimicrobial activity of this peptide was heatstable and pH resistant but is sensitive to proteases and salt. SHβAP did not show membrane permeabilization and killing ability. The secondary structural prediction and the homology modeling expected that this peptide formed an amphipathic α-helical structure. This is the first report the purification of a novel antimicrobial peptide related to the C-terminus of hemoglobin β-chain from marine fish. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Kunsan National University, Pukyong National University and Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Fish & shellfish immunology | Year: 2014

A 2.3kDa of antimicrobial peptide was purified from an acidified liver extract of skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, by preparative acid-urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and C18 reversed-phase HPLC. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of the purified peptide with those of other known polypeptides revealed high homology with the C-terminus of hemoglobin -chain; thus, this peptide was designated as the Skipjack Hemoglobin chain-related Antimicrobial Peptide (SHAP). SHAP showed potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus iniae (minimal effective concentrations [MECs], 6.5-57.0g/mL), Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli D31, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Shigella sonnei, and two Vibrio parahaemolyticus species (MECs, 2.0-19.0g/mL), and against Candida albicans (MEC; 12.0g/mL) without significant hemolytic activity. Antimicrobial activity of this peptide was heatstable and pH resistant but is sensitive to proteases and salt. SHAP did not show membrane permeabilization and killing ability. The secondary structural prediction and the homology modeling expected that this peptide formed an amphipathic -helical structure. This is the first report the purification of a novel antimicrobial peptide related to the C-terminus of hemoglobin -chain from marine fish.


Yoon H.,Kyungpook National University | You Y.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Kim Y.-E.,Kyungpook National University | Ja Kim Y.J.,Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

The ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma matsutake grows symbiotically with Pinus densiflora. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (E.C. 4.3.1.24) catalyzes the conversion of L-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid. The role of fungal phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, however, has not been clear until now. In this study, the gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), which was isolated from T. matsutake, was cloned and characterized. The PAL gene (tmpal) consists of 2,160 nucleotides, coding for a polypeptide containing 719 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of tmpal from T. matsutake shows high identity (70%) with that from Laccaria bicolor. Comparative analysis of the PAL genes among T. matsutake and other species of the class Agaricomycetes showed that both active sites and binding sites were significantly conserved among these genes. The transcriptional analysis of the PAL gene revealed a differential gene expression pattern depending on the developmental stages (mycelium, primordium, stipe, pileus, and gills) of T. matsutake. These results suggest that the PAL gene in T. matsutake plays an important role in multiple physiological functions. © 2013 by The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.


Park J.-A.,Konkuk University | Park J.-A.,EcoNetwork Co. | Hong S.-J.,Konkuk University | Hong S.-J.,Tohoku University | And 5 more authors.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2011

Material flow analysis (MFA) is an evaluation technique that systematically identifies the flows and stocks of materials within predefined spatial and temporal boundaries. In this paper, the steel resources in Korea are investigated using dynamic MFA. Iron ore and steel scrap are added as raw material components during the production processes of steel, which is then used in a variety of product groups such as construction products, transportation equipment, machinery/metal products, electrical/electronic devices, and other products through fabrication and manufacturing processes. When such product groups are discarded, they are either recycled or landfilled. With consideration for the lifetimes of various product groups in conjunction with steel resource flows in Korea, dynamic MFA is conducted on the flows of steel stock change and annual scrap generation. By 2020, these two flows are expected to increase by as much as 40% and 30%, respectively, compared to 2008, with transportation equipment, in particular, envisaged to experience high growth. At the current recycling rate, however, it will be hard to meet future scrap demand. According to the scenario analysis, 100% of this future scrap demand can be supplied domestically if the recycling rate is increased to over 70% for all product groups, except construction products and transportation equipment, which already have high recycling rates. By 2020, the reduction in scrap importation costs is projected to offer a financial gain of 2.3 billion dollars. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Kim M.H.,Seoul National University | Song H.B.,Soongsil University | Song Y.,University of Missouri | Jeong I.T.,Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute | Kim J.W.,Seoul National University
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2013

This study is aimed to evaluate and compare environmental impacts of various food waste management systems: anaerobic digestion, co-digestion with sewage sludge, and volume reduction using a garbage dryer followed by incineration from generation to final disposal. An environmental credit using life cycle assessment was employed to compare by-products. The entire disposal process, namely discharge, collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal, was included in the system boundary. The functional unit was 1 tonne of food waste from households for each treatment option. Global warming potential of the category indicator was selected to assess the environmental impact of food waste disposal options. The net global warming potential (environmental credit) of the options (wet based) was 33 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) for anaerobic digestion and -315 kg of CO2-eq for incineration by renewable energy production as electricity, thermal energy, and primary materials avoided. We found that dryer-incineration option was an available alternative for food waste recycling in a metropolitan area in Korea. © 2013 Kim et al.


Kim M.-K.,Seoul National University | Lee Y.-M.,Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute | Zoh K.-D.,Seoul National University
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

The spatial and temporal variations of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations (n = 120, respectively) in water and sediments of the Yangsuri lacustrine wetland in Korea were measured. The average concentrations of THg and MeHg in surface water were 2.04 ± 1.97 and 0.05 ± 0.05 ng L−1, respectively. The concentrations of THg and MeHg in sediments ranged from 1.28 to 85.83 and ≤0.01 to 0.35 ng g−1, respectively, and varied depending on the location. In the vegetated zone located near residential areas, the highest concentrations of THg and MeHg in both surface water and sediments were obtained near the residential areas, especially during the fall season. This result might be due to increased methylation rate of Hg by water turnover in the fall season. While THg and MeHg concentrations in water were not correlated, they were significantly correlated in sediment (r = 0.75; P < 0.01). Log-transformed Hg concentrations in sediments were highly correlated with log-transformed organic matter (OM) and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) concentrations (P < 0.01). We also collected five species of fish near the output point of the wetland, and MeHg concentrations in fish tissue varied from 21.30 to 154.66 μg kg−1w/w, which was significantly dependent on fish species (P < 0.05). This is the first reported study which measured the levels of mercury, especially MeHg in the wetlands, and freshwater fish species in Korea. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Kim H.-J.,Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials | Kim H.-J.,University of Tokyo | Han B.,Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials | Kim Y.-J.,Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials | And 2 more authors.
Building and Environment | Year: 2012

We have developed a new test method for differentiating the gas-removal performance of indoor air cleaners by using Fourier-transfer infrared measurements and a clean-air-delivery-rate (CADR) calculation method in a closed test chamber (4 m3). Eighteen air cleaners were evaluated using both the new method and the current Korean and Japanese test methods, using ammonia, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, and toluene as test gases. The Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers' statistical method for calculating regression line slopes of test chamber gas concentrations during air cleaner operation was used. The standard deviations of CADRs for ammonia, acetic acid, and toluene, gases that were easily removed by the air cleaners in the test chamber, were 3.2, 751.3, and 13.4 times higher, respectively, than the gas-removal efficiencies determined using the current arithmetic calculation method, which uses the ratio of concentrations after 0 and 30 min of air cleaner operation. The new test method clearly differentiated the gas-removal performances of various air cleaners, especially for gases that are quickly removed by indoor air cleaners. Also, the single-pass removal efficiency of the air cleaners was obtained with a simple calculation: CADR/flow rate/0.83. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Kwak D.-H.,Seonam University | Lee K.-C.,Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2015

To remove phosphorus (P) from municipal wastewater, various types of advanced treatment processes are being actively applied. However, there is commonly a space limit in municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs). For that reason, the dissolved air flotation (DAF), which is well known for small space and flexible application process, is preferred as an additive process to enhance the removal of P. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of flotation scum recycling for effective P removal from a MWTP using a DAF pilot plant over 1 year. The average increases in the removal efficiencies due to flotation scum recycling were 22.6% for total phosphorus (T-P) and 18.3% for PO4-P. A higher removal efficiency of T-P was induced by recycling the flotation scum because a significant amount of Al components remained in the flotation scum. The increase in T-P removal efficiency, due to the recycling of flotation scum, shifted from the boundary of the stoichiometric precipitate to the equilibrium control region. Flotation scum recycling may contribute to improving the quality of treated water and reducing treatment costs by minimizing the coagulant dosage required. © 2015 IWA Publishing.


PubMed | Seonam University and Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research | Year: 2015

To remove phosphorus (P) from municipal wastewater, various types of advanced treatment processes are being actively applied. However, there is commonly a space limit in municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs). For that reason, the dissolved air flotation (DAF), which is well known for small space and flexible application process, is preferred as an additive process to enhance the removal of P. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of flotation scum recycling for effective P removal from a MWTP using a DAF pilot plant over 1 year. The average increases in the removal efficiencies due to flotation scum recycling were 22.6% for total phosphorus (T-P) and 18.3% for PO4-P. A higher removal efficiency of T-P was induced by recycling the flotation scum because a significant amount of Al components remained in the flotation scum. The increase in T-P removal efficiency, due to the recycling of flotation scum, shifted from the boundary of the stoichiometric precipitate to the equilibrium control region. Flotation scum recycling may contribute to improving the quality of treated water and reducing treatment costs by minimizing the coagulant dosage required.

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