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Seoul, South Korea

This study quantifies the costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) of reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a minimal cost in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMPA) for the year 2014 and compares with current air quality management plans and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation plans. The results estimated health benefits from prevention of premature mortality under the IES scenario as 14 trillion Korean won (won) and associated cost as -3.6 trillion won, yielding total benefit, difference of benefits and costs, of 18 trillion won. With the inclusion of benefits from GHG reductions, the total benefits result in 147 trillion won. The difference of human health benefits and costs of air quality management plan and GHG reduction strategies result in 14 trillion won and 8 trillion won, respectively. The research shows that benefits of integrating air quality management and GHG reduction measures are greater than those obtained by air quality management and GHG reduction measures individually. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chae Y.,Korea Environment Institute
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2010

This study assesses the co-benefits of an air quality management plan and CO2 emission control measures in the Seoul metropolitan area. This co-benefit analysis includes NOx, PM10 and CO2 emission reductions and cost estimations, yielding cost-effectiveness values for each of the measures. It has been found that fuel switching from BC-oil to LNG, CNG bus operation are most cost effective in NOx and PM10 emission reduction. For CO2 emission reduction, landfill gas reuse and fuel switching were the most effective option. The correlation of cost-effectiveness analysis indicated that fuel switching and CNG bus operation were the most cost effective option to reduce NOx and CO2, PM10 and CO2 emissions at the same time. Based on cost effectiveness and co-benefit analysis, this study developed an alternative scenario of emission reduction measures through optimization in order to achieve both air quality improvements and CO2 reduction targets at the minimum cost. These integrated environmental strategies make it possible to reduce 10.3Mt of CO2 emissions, which is beyond the target of the CO2 reduction strategy, and achieve air quality improvement targets together and at a lower cost than the CO2 emission reduction and air quality improvement measures combined. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Sun H.,Korea Environment Institute
Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology | Year: 2012

This paper describes the influence of geometrical parameters on the hydrofoil performance in non-cavitating and cavitating flows. The two-phase incompressible Navier-Stokes solver is used to compute the hydrofoil performance in two operating conditions. The new hydrofoil useful for performance improvement is obtained through the optimization design with RSM and the application of nose-drooping geometry. In the optimization design with the response surface model between hydrofoil performance and hydrofoil geometry, it is observed that the design concept of maximum lift-to-drag ratio is appropriate for the improvement of hydrofoil performance. The application of nose-drooping design concept results in the increase of hydrofoil performance in non-cavitating and cavitating flows. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Ahn J.H.,Korea Environment Institute
Water Research | Year: 2012

Field studies were carried out to investigate seasonal and bay-wide variations in the particle size distributions (PSDs) and settling velocities of suspended particles in Newport Bay, the second largest tidal embayment in southern California. Maximum Entropy Classification (MEC) of the data identified three PSD groups: (1) suspended particles with a single mode around 10-20 μm (Group 1), (2) suspended particles with a single mode similar to Group 1, but shifted to smaller particle sizes (Group 2), and (3) suspended particles with a coarse mode at around 100 μm (Group 3). The three PSD groups have distinct seasonal and spatial patterns, and different size-settling velocity relationships, consistent with the hypothesis that Newport Bay longitudinally fractionates allochthonous particles from its tributaries by both size and settling velocity, and generates large and fast settling autochthonous particles, probably in the form of biological debris. Particle concentrations in Groups 1 and 2 are significantly correlated with fecal indicator bacteria, suggesting possible linkages between fecal pollution and particle transfer in this tidal embayment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kwak S.-Y.,Korea Environment Institute | Yoo S.-H.,Seoul National University of Science and Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

Ocean energy is a type of renewable energies and is considered as having a potential power of providing a substantial amount of energy. Although some forms of ocean energy are developed, there is a need for further technological advances to better utilize ocean energy. Government should take observable actions to compensate for the costs of developing the technology. This paper attempts to apply a contingent valuation (CV) method to obtaining at least a preliminary evaluation of the benefits that ensue from the development of the technology that commercializes ocean energy in the Republic of Korea. Overall, the CV survey was successfully carried out to elicit the willingness to pay (WTP) for ocean energy. The WTP was statistically significantly estimated from one-and one-half bounded spike model and the monthly mean WTP estimates was KRW 1003 (USD 0.9) per household. The estimates of the annual benefits to relevant residents amounted to KRW 206.4 billion (USD 183.8 million). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. . All rights reserved. Source

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