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This study quantifies the costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) of reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a minimal cost in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMPA) for the year 2014 and compares with current air quality management plans and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation plans. The results estimated health benefits from prevention of premature mortality under the IES scenario as 14 trillion Korean won (won) and associated cost as -3.6 trillion won, yielding total benefit, difference of benefits and costs, of 18 trillion won. With the inclusion of benefits from GHG reductions, the total benefits result in 147 trillion won. The difference of human health benefits and costs of air quality management plan and GHG reduction strategies result in 14 trillion won and 8 trillion won, respectively. The research shows that benefits of integrating air quality management and GHG reduction measures are greater than those obtained by air quality management and GHG reduction measures individually. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Ha J.,Korea Environment Institute | Kim H.,Seoul National University
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2013

The health impact of climate change depends on various conditions at any given time and place, as well as on the person. Temporal variations in the relationship between high temperature and mortality need to be explored in depth to explain how changes in the level of exposure and public health interventions modify the temperature-mortality relationship. We examined changes in the relationship between human mortality and temperature in Seoul, which has the highest population in South Korea, considering the change in population structure from 1993-2009. Poisson regression models were used to estimate short-term temperature-related mortality impacts. Temperature-related risks were divided into two "time periods" of approximately equal length (1993 and 1995-2000, and 2001-2009), and were also examined according to early summer and late summer. Temperature-related mortality in summer over the past 17 years has declined. These decreasing patterns were stronger for cardiovascular disease-related mortality than for all non-accidental deaths. The novel finding is that declines in temperature-related mortality were particularly noteworthy in late summer. Our results indicate that temperature-related mortality is decreasing in Seoul, particularly during late summer and, to a lesser extent, during early summer. This information would be useful for detailed public health preparedness for hot weather. © 2012 ISB.


Kim Y.,Korea Environment Institute | Chung E.-S.,Seoul National University of Science and Technology
Climatic Change | Year: 2013

This study developed an approach to assess the vulnerability to climate change and variability using various group multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods and identified the sources of uncertainty in assessments. MCDM methods include the weighted sum method, one of the most common MCDM methods, the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), fuzzy-based TOPSIS, TOPSIS in a group-decision environment, and TOPSIS combined with the voting methods (Borda count and Copeland's methods). The approach was applied to a water-resource system in South Korea, and the assessment was performed at the province level by categorizing water resources into water supply and conservation, flood control and water-quality sectors according to their management objectives. Key indicators for each category were profiled with the Delphi surveys, a series of questionnaires interspersed with controlled opinion feedback. The sectoral vulnerability scores were further aggregated into one composite score for water-resource vulnerability. Rankings among different MCDM methods varied in different degrees, but noticeable differences in the rankings from the fuzzy- and non-fuzzy-based methods suggested that the uncertainty with crisp data, rather widely used, should be acknowledged in vulnerability assessment. Also rankings from the voting-based methods did not differ much from those from non-voting-based (i.e., average-based) methods. Vulnerability rankings varied significantly among the different sectors of the water-resource systems, highlighting the need to assess the vulnerability of water-resource systems according to objectives, even though one composite index is often used for simplicity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Kwak S.-Y.,Korea Environment Institute | Yoo S.-H.,Seoul National University of Science and Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

Ocean energy is a type of renewable energies and is considered as having a potential power of providing a substantial amount of energy. Although some forms of ocean energy are developed, there is a need for further technological advances to better utilize ocean energy. Government should take observable actions to compensate for the costs of developing the technology. This paper attempts to apply a contingent valuation (CV) method to obtaining at least a preliminary evaluation of the benefits that ensue from the development of the technology that commercializes ocean energy in the Republic of Korea. Overall, the CV survey was successfully carried out to elicit the willingness to pay (WTP) for ocean energy. The WTP was statistically significantly estimated from one-and one-half bounded spike model and the monthly mean WTP estimates was KRW 1003 (USD 0.9) per household. The estimates of the annual benefits to relevant residents amounted to KRW 206.4 billion (USD 183.8 million). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. . All rights reserved.


Sun H.,Korea Environment Institute
Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology | Year: 2012

This paper describes the influence of geometrical parameters on the hydrofoil performance in non-cavitating and cavitating flows. The two-phase incompressible Navier-Stokes solver is used to compute the hydrofoil performance in two operating conditions. The new hydrofoil useful for performance improvement is obtained through the optimization design with RSM and the application of nose-drooping geometry. In the optimization design with the response surface model between hydrofoil performance and hydrofoil geometry, it is observed that the design concept of maximum lift-to-drag ratio is appropriate for the improvement of hydrofoil performance. The application of nose-drooping design concept results in the increase of hydrofoil performance in non-cavitating and cavitating flows. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Ahn J.H.,Korea Environment Institute
Water Research | Year: 2012

Field studies were carried out to investigate seasonal and bay-wide variations in the particle size distributions (PSDs) and settling velocities of suspended particles in Newport Bay, the second largest tidal embayment in southern California. Maximum Entropy Classification (MEC) of the data identified three PSD groups: (1) suspended particles with a single mode around 10-20 μm (Group 1), (2) suspended particles with a single mode similar to Group 1, but shifted to smaller particle sizes (Group 2), and (3) suspended particles with a coarse mode at around 100 μm (Group 3). The three PSD groups have distinct seasonal and spatial patterns, and different size-settling velocity relationships, consistent with the hypothesis that Newport Bay longitudinally fractionates allochthonous particles from its tributaries by both size and settling velocity, and generates large and fast settling autochthonous particles, probably in the form of biological debris. Particle concentrations in Groups 1 and 2 are significantly correlated with fecal indicator bacteria, suggesting possible linkages between fecal pollution and particle transfer in this tidal embayment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Chae Y.,Korea Environment Institute
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2010

This study assesses the co-benefits of an air quality management plan and CO2 emission control measures in the Seoul metropolitan area. This co-benefit analysis includes NOx, PM10 and CO2 emission reductions and cost estimations, yielding cost-effectiveness values for each of the measures. It has been found that fuel switching from BC-oil to LNG, CNG bus operation are most cost effective in NOx and PM10 emission reduction. For CO2 emission reduction, landfill gas reuse and fuel switching were the most effective option. The correlation of cost-effectiveness analysis indicated that fuel switching and CNG bus operation were the most cost effective option to reduce NOx and CO2, PM10 and CO2 emissions at the same time. Based on cost effectiveness and co-benefit analysis, this study developed an alternative scenario of emission reduction measures through optimization in order to achieve both air quality improvements and CO2 reduction targets at the minimum cost. These integrated environmental strategies make it possible to reduce 10.3Mt of CO2 emissions, which is beyond the target of the CO2 reduction strategy, and achieve air quality improvement targets together and at a lower cost than the CO2 emission reduction and air quality improvement measures combined. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Sun H.,Korea Environment Institute
Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology | Year: 2011

This paper describes the design of a wind turbine airfoil under various operating conditions through the use of a suitable combination of flow analysis and optimization techniques. The proposed method includes a parametric study on the influence of design variables and different design conditions on airfoil performance. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the k-e{open} turbulence model are used to compute the aerodynamic coefficients of an airfoil. The response surface method (RSM) is applied to obtain the optimum solution of the defined objective function and the penalty term of the constraint. The influence of the design variables (change in airfoil geometry) on airfoil performance as well as the accuracy of the RSM is examined from the statistical viewpoint. Various airfoil shapes with good aerodynamic performance are obtained according to various operating conditions (change in angle of attack), objective functions (minimum of drag coefficient or maximum of lift-to-drag ratio), and constraints (the lift coefficient of a designed airfoil is higher than that of a base airfoil at a certain angle of attack). © 2011 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Han H.,Korea Environment Institute | Allan J.D.,University of Michigan
Biogeochemistry | Year: 2012

By constructing nitrogen (N) budgets from 1880 to 2002 for watersheds that have undergone urbanization, intensive agricultural specialization or experienced minimal change, we document an uneven timeline of increase in anthropogenic N inputs. N loading to the watersheds of the Lake Michigan Basin grew six-fold from 1880 to 2002, peaking in 1987. Human activities influenced N inputs as early as 1880, and the magnitude and timing of increase differed markedly across regions in accord with population growth, land use, and type of agriculture. The greatest increase occurred from 1950 to 1980, corresponding with rapidly accelerating use of artificial fertilizers, but increases in atmospheric deposition and shifting patterns in crop and livestock production also affected trends. Net anthropogenic N inputs have changed little since about 1980, showing a modest decline due to a leveling out of fertilizer use and greater export of animal feed and products. Using a model that predicts riverine N export from watershed N loadings and river discharge, we found that river TN fluxes from all tributaries increased approximately threefold from 1900 to 2000 but have stabilized or declined over the past two decades, consistent with national surveys that show near-constant or declining riverine TN concentrations. For the LMB, the past two decades has been a period of relative stasis in N inputs to its terrestrial systems and N export from watersheds. This retrospective analysis also points to the challenge of forecasting future trends in N budget terms, which can both increase and decline in response to policy and societal transitions. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Kim Y.,Korea Environment Institute | Chung E.-S.,Seoul National University of Science and Technology
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

This study developed an index-based robust decision making framework for watershed management dealing with water quantity and quality issues in a changing climate. It consists of two parts of management alternative development and analysis. The first part for alternative development consists of six steps: 1) to understand the watershed components and process using HSPF model, 2) to identify the spatial vulnerability ranking using two indices: potential streamflow depletion (PSD) and potential water quality deterioration (PWQD), 3) to quantify the residents' preferences on water management demands and calculate the watershed evaluation index which is the weighted combinations of PSD and PWQD, 4) to set the quantitative targets for water quantity and quality, 5) to develop a list of feasible alternatives and 6) to eliminate the unacceptable alternatives. The second part for alternative analysis has three steps: 7) to analyze all selected alternatives with a hydrologic simulation model considering various climate change scenarios, 8) to quantify the alternative evaluation index including social and hydrologic criteria with utilizing multi-criteria decision analysis methods and 9) to prioritize all options based on a minimax regret strategy for robust decision. This framework considers the uncertainty inherent in climate models and climate change scenarios with utilizing the minimax regret strategy, a decision making strategy under deep uncertainty and thus this procedure derives the robust prioritization based on the multiple utilities of alternatives from various scenarios. In this study, the proposed procedure was applied to the Korean urban watershed, which has suffered from streamflow depletion and water quality deterioration. Our application shows that the framework provides a useful watershed management tool for incorporating quantitative and qualitative information into the evaluation of various policies with regard to water resource planning and management. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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