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Wi Y.-M.,Korea University | Lee J.-U.,Korea Electric Power Research Institute | Joo S.-K.,Korea University
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics | Year: 2013

Due to the increased penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) and photovoltaic (PV) systems, additional application for home/building energy management system (EMS) is needed to determine when and how much to charge an electric vehicle in an individual home/building. This paper presents a smart EV charging method for smart homes/buildings with a PV system. The paper consists of two parts: EV charging scheduling algorithm for smart homes/buildings and implementation of prototype application for home/building EMS. The proposed EV charging algorithm is designed to determine the optimal schedules of EV charging based on predicted PV output and electricity consumption. The implemented prototype application for home/building EMS can provide EV charging schedules according to user preferences. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed smart EV charging method. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Lee H.P.,Korea Electric Power Research Institute
Nuclear Engineering and Design | Year: 2011

This paper describes a 9-node degenerated shell finite element (FE), an analysis program developed for ultimate pressure capacity evaluation and nonlinear analysis of a nuclear containment building. The shell FE developed adopts the Reissner-Mindlin (RM) assumptions to consider the degenerated shell solidification technique and the degree of transverse shear strain occurring in the structure. The material model of the concrete determines the level of the concrete stress and strain by using the equivalent stress-equivalent strain relationship. When a crack occurs in the concrete, the material behavior is expressed through the tension stiffening model that takes adhesive stress into account and through the shear transfer mechanism and compressive strength reduction model of the crack plane. In addition, the failure envelope proposed by Niwa is adopted as the crack occurrence criteria for the compression-tension region, and the failure envelope proposed by Yamada is used for the tension-tension region. The performance of the program developed is verified through various numerical examples. The analysis based on the application of the shell FE developed from the results of verified examples produced results similar to the experiment or other analysis results. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Ku K.H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Shin J.M.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Kim M.P.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Lee C.-H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

The tuning of interfacial properties at selective and desired locations on the particles is of great importance to create the novel structured particles by breaking the symmetry of their surface property. Herein, a dramatic transition of both the external shape and internal morphology of the particles of polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) was induced by precise positioning of size-controlled Au nanoparticle surfactants (Au NPs). The size-dependent assembly of the Au NPs was localized preferentially at the interface between the P4VP domain at the particle surface and the surrounding water, which generated a balanced interfacial interaction between two different PS/P4VP domains of the BCP particles and water, producing unique convex lens-shaped BCP particles. In addition, the neutralized interfacial interaction, in combination with the directionality of the solvent-induced ordering of the BCP domains from the interface of the particle/water, generated defect-free, vertically ordered porous channels within the particles. The mechanism for the formation of these novel nanostructures was investigated systemically by varying the size and the volume fraction of the Au NPs. Furthermore, these convex lens-shaped particles with highly ordered channels can be used as a microlens, in which the light can be concentrated toward the focal point with enhanced near-field signals. And, these particles can possess additional optical properties such as unique distribution of light scattering as a result of the well-ordered Au cylinders that filled into the channels, which hold great promise for use in optical, biological-sensing, and imaging applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Choi J.C.,KAIST | Lee S.R.,KAIST | Lee D.S.,Korea Electric Power Research Institute
Computers and Geotechnics | Year: 2011

The effect of varying the thermal properties of inhomogeneous unsaturated soil on the intermittent operation of a vertical ground heat exchanger (GHE) was simulated by a conjugate heat transfer simulation using a transient conductive heat transfer model. A three-phase soil model was used to introduce soil properties that vary with depth. The performance during the first few hours was significantly different from that of an analytical infinite line source model that assumes steady-state borehole conditions, although relatively good agreement was obtained thereafter. Unsaturated soil conditions afforded a 40% lower mean heat exchange rate than saturated conditions. This demonstrates the importance of considering unsaturated conditions in the design and performance evaluation of GHEs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lee H.-I.,Korea Electric Power Research Institute | Noh M.D.,Chungnam National University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

Toroidally wound brushless dc (BLDC) machines are compact, economical, and can operate across large air gaps. In this paper, we provide analytical design equations for a radial-flux toroidally wound BLDC machine. The validity of the design equations is checked against finite-element analyses (FEAs) and experiments. It is found that the motor constant calculated by the design equations is off only by 5% from the results by the FEAs or experiments. We also provide an optimization metric that corresponds to the maximization of machine torque while maintaining minimum power loss. Two optimal design cases are presented. © 2011 IEEE. Source

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