Korea Brain Research Institute

Daegu, South Korea

Korea Brain Research Institute

Daegu, South Korea
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Lee K.J.,Korea University | Lee K.J.,Georgetown University | Lee K.J.,Korea Brain Research Institute | Park I.S.,Korea University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Motor skill training promotes the formation of parallel fiber multiple-synapse boutons (MSBs) contacting dendritic spine pairs of Purkinje cells in the rat cerebellum. However, the dendritic origin of such spine pairs is unknown. Here, we used three-dimensional electron microscopy reconstruction of synaptic connectivity to demonstrate that motor skill training selectively induced MSBs contacting two spines arising from the same dendrite, consistent with strengthening of local synaptic efficacy. However, excitatory synapses near MSBs were smaller in motor-trained animals, suggesting compensatory depression of MSB-neighbor synapses. Concerted strengthening and weakening of adjacent synapses may enhance synaptic weight differences for information encoding while maintaining stable overall activity levels within local dendritic segments. © 2013 the authors.

Wook Koo J.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Wook Koo J.,Korea Brain Research Institute | Labonte B.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Engmann O.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 7 more authors.
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Background Previous work has shown that chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) induces increased phasic firing of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) selectively in mice that are susceptible to the deleterious effects of the stress. In addition, acute optogenetic phasic stimulation of these neurons promotes susceptibility in animals exposed to acute defeat stress. These findings are paradoxical, as increased DA signaling in NAc normally promotes motivation and reward, and the influence of chronic phasic VTA firing in the face of chronic stress is unknown. Methods We used CSDS with repeated optogenetic activation and pharmacologic manipulations of the mesolimbic VTA-NAc pathway to examine the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and DA signaling in depressive-like behaviors. We measured BDNF protein expression and DA release in this model. Results Pharmacologic blockade of BDNF–tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling, but not DA signaling, in NAc prevented CSDS-induced behavioral abnormalities. Chronic optogenetic phasic stimulation of the VTA-NAc circuit during CSDS exacerbated the defeat-induced behavioral symptoms, and these aggravated symptoms were also normalized by BDNF-TrkB blockade in NAc. The aggravated behavioral deficits induced by phasic stimulation of the VTA-NAc pathway were blocked as well by local knockdown of BDNF in VTA. Conclusions These findings show that BDNF-TrkB signaling, rather than DA signaling, in the VTA-NAc circuit is crucial for facilitating depressive-like outcomes after CSDS and they establish BDNF-TrkB signaling as a pathologic mechanism during periods of chronic stress. © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry

Bonney S.,Aurora University | Harrison-Uy S.,University of California at San Francisco | Mishra S.,Aurora University | MacPherson A.M.,Aurora University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2016

As neural structures grow in size and increase metabolic demand, the CNS vasculature undergoes extensive growth, remodeling, and maturation. Signals from neural tissue act on endothelial cells to stimulate blood vessel ingression, vessel patterning, and acquisition of mature brain vascular traits, most notably the blood– brain barrier. Using mouse genetic and in vitro approaches, we identified retinoic acid (RA) as an important regulator of brain vascular development via non-cell-autonomous and cell-autonomous regulation of endothelial WNT signaling. Our analysis of globally RA-deficient embryos (Rdh10 mutants) points to an important, non-cell-autonomous function for RA in the development of the vasculature in the neocortex. We demonstrate that Rdh10 mutants have severe defects in cerebrovascular development and that this phenotype correlates with near absence of endothelial WNT signaling, specifically in the cerebrovasculature, and substantially elevated expression of WNT inhibitors in the neocortex. We show that RA can suppress the expression of WNT inhibitors in neocortical progenitors. Analysis of vasculature in non-neocortical brain regions suggested that RA may have a separate, cell-autonomous function in brain endothelial cells to inhibit WNT signaling. Using both gain and loss of RA signaling approaches, we show that RA signaling in brain endothelial cells can inhibit WNT-β-catenin transcriptional activity and that this is required to moderate the expression of WNT target Sox17. From this, a model emerges in which RA acts upstream of the WNT pathway via non-cell-autonomous and cell-autonomous mechanisms to ensure the formation of an adequate and stable brain vascular plexus. © 2016 the authors.

Lee K.J.,Korea Brain Research Institute | Rhyu I.J.,Korea University | Pak D.T.S.,Georgetown University
Reviews in the Neurosciences | Year: 2014

Experience-dependent remodeling of synaptic structure and function underlies information storage in the mammalian central nervous system. Although accumulating evidence suggests synergistic roles of long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) in cerebellar motor learning, their structural correlates and operational mechanisms have not been clearly addressed. A recent three-dimensional electron microscopic study provides insight for a potential complementary interplay between LTP and LTD in local dendritic segments of Purkinje cells of motor skill-trained animals. Complex motor skill training induced strengthening of a subset of parallel fiber synapses onto Purkinje cells by forming multiple-synapse boutons (MSBs) contacting spine pairs arising from the same dendrite, whereas MSB-neighboring synapses were weakened by reducing the size of the post-synaptic density. Here, we discuss these orchestrated structural modifications of neighboring synapses that may sharpen synaptic weight contrast in local dendritic segments, leading to enhanced signal-to-noise ratio for optimal motor skill retention.

Jeon Y.-M.,Soonchunhyang University | Jeon Y.-M.,Korea Brain Research Institute | Lee M.-Y.,Soonchunhyang University
Journal of Applied Toxicology | Year: 2016

Airborne nanoparticles PM0.1 (<100 nm in diameter) were collected and their chemical composition was determined. Al was by far the most abundant metal in the PM0.1 followed by Zn, Cr, Mn, Cu, Pb and Ni. Exposure to PM0.1 resulted in a cell viability decrease in human neuronal cells SH-SY5Y in a concentration-dependent manner. Upon treatment with N-acetylcysteine, however, cell viability was significantly recovered, suggesting the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cellular DNA damage by PM0.1 was also detected by the Comet assay. PM0.1-induced autophagic cell death was explained by an increase in the expression of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3A-ІІ (LC3A-ІІ) and autophagy-related protein Atg 3 and Atg 7. Analysis of 2-DE gels revealed that six proteins were upregulated, whereas eight proteins were downregulated by PM0.1 exposure. Neuroinflammation-related lithostathine and cyclophilin A complexed with dipeptide Gly-Pro, autophagy-related heat shock protein gp96 and neurodegeneration-related triosephosphate isomerase were significantly changed upon exposure to PM0.1. These results, taken together, suggest that PM0.1-induced oxidative stress via ROS generation plays a key role in autophagic cell death and differential protein expressions in SH-SY5Y cells. This might provide a plausible explanation for the underlying mechanisms of PM0.1 toxicity in neuronal cells and even the pathogenesis of diseases associated with its exposure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Jha M.K.,Kyungpook National University | Lee S.,Kyungpook National University | Lee S.,Korea Brain Research Institute | Park D.H.,Kyungpook National University | And 4 more authors.
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2015

Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is an acute phase protein with multiple functions that has garnered a great deal of interest over the last decade. However, its precise role in the pathophysiology of the central nervous system (CNS) remains to be outlined. Emerging evidence indicates that LCN2 is synthesized and secreted as an inducible factor from activated microglia, reactive astrocytes, neurons, and endothelial cells in response to inflammatory, infectious, or injurious insults. More recently, it has been recognized as a modulatory factor for diverse cellular phenotypes in the CNS, such as cell death, survival, morphology, migration, invasion, differentiation, and functional polarization. LCN2 induces chemokine production in the CNS in response to inflammatory challenges, and actively participates in the innate immune response, cellular influx of iron, and regulation of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. LCN2 also modulates several biobehavioral responses including pain hypersensitivity, cognitive functions, emotional behaviors, depression, neuronal excitability, and anxiety. This review covers recent advances in our knowledge regarding functional roles of LCN2 in the CNS, and discusses how LCN2 acts as an autocrine mediator of astrocytosis, a chemokine inducer, and a modulator of various cellular phenotypes in the CNS. We finally explore the possibilities and challenges of employing LCN2 as a signature of several CNS anomalies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Choi Y.P.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Choi Y.P.,Korea Brain Research Institute | Head M.W.,University of Edinburgh | Ironside J.W.,University of Edinburgh | Priola S.A.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2014

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is the most common of the human prion diseases, a group of rare, transmissible, and fatal neurologic diseases associated with the accumulation of an abnormal form (PrPSc) of the host prion protein. In sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, disease-associated PrPSc is present not only as an aggregated, protease-resistant form but also as an aggregated protease-sensitive form (sPrPSc). Although evidence suggests that sPrPSc may play a role in prion pathogenesis, little is known about how it interacts with cells during prion infection. Here, we show that protease-sensitive abnormal PrP aggregates derived from patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are taken up and degraded by immortalized human astrocytes similarly to abnormal PrP aggregates that are resistant to proteases. Our data suggest that relative proteinase K resistance does not significantly influence the astrocyte's ability to degrade PrPSc. Furthermore, the cell does not appear to distinguish between sPrPSc and protease-resistant PrPSc, suggesting that sPrPSc could contribute to prion infection. © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Choe Y.,University of California at San Francisco | Choe Y.,Korea Brain Research Institute | Huynh T.,University of California at San Francisco | Pleasure S.J.,University of California at San Francisco
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2014

During embryonic development oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are generated first in the ventral forebrain and migrate dorsally to occupy the cortex. The molecular cues that guide this migratory route are currently completely unknown. Here, we show that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (Bmp4), Bmp7, and Tgfβ1 produced by the meninges and pericytes repelled ventral OPCs into the cortex at mouse embryonic stages. Ectopic activation of Bmp or Tgfβ1 signaling before the entrance of OPCs into the cortex hindered OPC migration into the cortical areas. OPCs without Smad4 signaling molecules also failed to migrate into the cortex efficiently and formed heterotopia in ventral areas. OPC migration into the cortex was also dramatically reduced by conditional inhibition of Tgfβ1 or Bmp expression from mesenchymal cells. The data suggest that mesenchymal Tgfβ family proteins promote migration of ventral OPCs into the cortex during corticogenesis. © 2014 the authors.

Greene M.J.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Kim J.S.,Princeton University | Kim J.S.,Korea Brain Research Institute | Seung H.S.,Princeton University
Cell Reports | Year: 2016

Visual motion information is computed by parallel On and Off pathways in the retina, which lead to On and Off types of starburst amacrine cells (SACs). The approximate mirror symmetry between this pair of cell types suggests that On and Off pathways might compute motion using analogous mechanisms. To test this idea, we reconstructed On SACs and On bipolar cells (BCs) from serial electron microscopic images of a mouse retina. We defined a new On BC type in the course of classifying On BCs. Through quantitative contact analysis, we found evidence that sustained and transient On BC types are wired to On SAC dendrites at different distances from the SAC soma, mirroring our previous wiring diagram for the Off BC-SAC circuit. Our finding is consistent with the hypothesis that On and Off pathways contain parallel correlation-type motion detectors. © 2016 The Authors.

Lim H.-H.,Brandeis University | Lim H.-H.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Lim H.-H.,Korea Brain Research Institute | Stockbridge R.B.,Brandeis University | And 3 more authors.
Nature Chemical Biology | Year: 2013

Cl - /H + antiporters of the CLC superfamily transport anions across biological membranes in varied physiological contexts. These proteins are weakly selective among anions commonly studied, including Cl -, Br -, I -, NO 3 - and SCN -, but they seem to be very selective against F -. The recent discovery of a new CLC clade of F - /H + antiporters, which are highly selective for F - over Cl -, led us to investigate the mechanism of Cl - -over-F - selectivity by a CLC Cl - /H + antiporter, CLC-ec1. By subjecting purified CLC-ec1 to anion transport measurements, electrophysiological recording, equilibrium ligand-binding studies and X-ray crystallography, we show that F - binds in the Cl - transport pathway with affinity similar to Cl - but stalls the transport cycle. Examination of various mutant antiporters implies a 'lock-down' mechanism of F - inhibition, in which F -, by virtue of its unique hydrogen-bonding chemistry, greatly retards a proton-linked conformational change essential for the transport cycle of CLC-ec1. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

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