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Cha S.,Seoul National University | Cha S.,Korea Association of Health Promotion | Cha S.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Global Health Action | Year: 2017

Background: As the Millennium Development Goals campaign (MDGs) came to a close, clear evidence was needed on the contribution of the worldwide MDG campaign. Objective: We seek to determine the degree of difference in the reduction rate between the pre-MDG and MDG campaign periods and its statistical significance by region. Design: Unlike the prevailing studies that measured progress in 1990-2010, this study explores by percentage how much MDG progress has been achieved during the MDG campaign period and quantifies the impact of the MDG campaign on the maternal and under-five child mortality reduction during the MDG era by comparing observed values with counterfactual values estimated on the basis of the historical trend. Results: The low accomplishment of sub-Saharan Africa toward the MDG target mainly resulted from the debilitated progress of mortality reduction during 1990-2000, which was not related to the worldwide MDG campaign. In contrast, the other regions had already achieved substantial progress before the Millennium Declaration was proclaimed. Sub- Saharan African countries have seen the most remarkable impact of the worldwide MDG campaign on maternal and child mortality reduction across all different measurements. In sub-Saharan Africa, the MDG campaign has advanced the progress of the declining maternal mortality ratio and under-five mortality rate, respectively, by 4.29 and 4.37 years. Conclusions: Sub-Saharan African countries were frequently labeled as 'off-track', 'insufficient progress', or 'no progress' even though the greatest progress was achieved here during the worldwide MDG campaign period and the impact of the worldwide MDG campaign was most pronounced in this region in all respects. It is time to learn from the success stories of the sub-Saharan African countries. Erroneous and biased measurement should be avoided for the sustainable development goals to progress. © 2017 The Author(s).


Lee Y.-H.,Chungnam National University | Jeong H.G.,Korea Association of Health Promotion | Kong W.H.,Korea Association of Health Promotion | Lee S.-H.,Korea Association of Health Promotion | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in Sudan, particularly Schistosoma haematobium infection. This study presents the disease-reduction outcomes of an integrated control program for schistosomiasis in Al Jabalain locality of White Nile State, Sudan from 2009 through 2011.The total population of the project sites was 482,902, and the major target group for intervention among them was 78,615 primary school students. For the cross-sectional study of the prevalence, urine and stool specimens were examined using the urine sedimentation method and the Kato cellophane thick smear method, respectively. To assess the impacts of health education for students and a drinking water supply facility at Al Hidaib village, questionnaire survey was done.The overall prevalence for S. haematobium and S. mansoni at baseline was 28.5% and 0.4%, respectively. At follow-up survey after 6–9 months post-treatment, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced to 13.5% (95% CI = 0.331–0.462). A higher reduction in prevalence was observed among girls, those with moderately infected status (around 20%), and residents in rural areas, than among boys, those with high prevalence (>40%), and residents in urban areas. After health education, increased awareness about schistosomiasis was checked by questionnaire survey. Also, a drinking water facility was constructed at Al Hidaib village, where infection rate was reduced more compared to that in a neighboring village within the same unit. However, we found no significant change in the prevalence of S. mansoni infection between baseline and follow-up survey (95% CI = 0.933–6.891).At the end of the project, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced by more than 50% in comparison with the baseline rate. Approximately 200,000 subjects had received either praziquantel therapy, health education, or supply of clean water. To consolidate the achievements of this project, the integrated intervention should be adapted continuously. © 2015 Lee et al.


Sohn W.-M.,Gyeongsang National University | Chai J.-Y.,Seoul National University | Chai J.-Y.,Korea Association of Health Promotion | Yong T.-S.,Yonsei University | And 5 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

To determine the prevalence of helminthic infections in Pursat Province, Cambodia, we tested fecal specimens from 471 children, 10-14 years of age, in June 2007. The prevalence of infection with echinostome flukes ranged from 7.5% to 22.4% in 4 schools surveyed. Adult worms were identified as Echinostoma revolutum.


Rim H.-J.,Korea University | Sohn W.-M.,Gyeongsang National University | Yong T.-S.,Yonsei University | Eom K.S.,Chungbuk National University | And 6 more authors.
Korean Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2013

Fishborne trematode (FBT) metacercariae were investigated in fish from 3 Provinces of Lao PDR. Total 242 freshwater fish of 40 spechies were collected in local markets of Luang Prabang (59 fish of 16 species), Khammouane (81 fish of 19 species), and Saravane (97 fish of 14 species), and each of them was examined by artifcial digestion method. Four species of metacercariae (Opisthorchis viverrini, Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis yokogawai, and Centrocestus formosanus) were detected. O. viverrini was detected in 35 fish (14.5%), and their density was 252 per infected fish (Luang Prabang, 88 metacercariae in 5 fish; Khammouane, 187 in 6 fish; Saravane, 303 in 24 fish). H. taichui was found in 102 fish (42.1%), and their density was 485 per infected fish (Luang Prabang, 260 metacercariae in 38 fish; Khammouane, 1,084 in 23 fish; Saravane, 359 in 41 fish). H. yokogawai was detected in 92 fish (38.0%), and their density was 222 per infected fish (Luang Prabang, 362 metacercariae in 17 fish; Khammouane, 126 in 20 fish; Saravane, 214 in 55 fish). Metacercariae of C. formosanus were found in 8 fish (3.3%), and their density was 3 per infected fish. In the present study, it has been confrmed that FBT metacercariae, in particular, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, and O. viverrini, are highly prevalent in fish from Luang Prabang, Khammouane, and Saravane Province, Lao PDR. © 2013, Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine.


PubMed | Chungnam National University, Konkuk University, Center for Schistosomiasis Control, Korea Association of Health Promotion and Seoul National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Korean journal of parasitology | Year: 2016

Cryptosporidium , a protozoan parasite that causes watery diarrhea, is found worldwide and is common in areas with low water hygiene. In February 2014, 866 stool samples were collected from the inhabitants of 2 rural areas in White Nile State, Sudan. These stool samples were assessed by performing modified acid-fast staining, followed by examination under a light microscope. The overall positive rate of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 13.3%. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 8.6% stool samples obtained from inhabitants living in the area having water purification systems and in 14.6% stool samples obtained from inhabitants living in the area not having water purification systems. No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection between men and women (14.7% and 14.1%, respectively). The positive rate of oocysts by age was the highest among inhabitants in their 60s (40.0%). These findings suggest that the use of water purification systems is important for preventing Cryptosporidium infection among inhabitants of these rural areas in Sudan.


PubMed | Gyeongsang National University, National Health Laboratory, Korea Association of Health Promotion and Seoul National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Korean journal of parasitology | Year: 2016

In order to determine the status of Enterobius vermicularis infection among schoolchildren in suburban areas of Myanmar, 761 primary schoolchildren in 3 different townships around Yangon City were subjected to a survey using cello-tape anal swabs. The subjected schoolchildren were 383 boys and 378 girls who were 5-7 years of age. Only 1 anal swab was obtained from each child. The overall egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was 47.2% (359 positives), and sex difference was not remarkable (48.6% in boys and 45.8% in girls). However, the positive rate was the highest in South Dagon (54.6%) followed by Hlaing Thayar (43.8%) and North Dagon (34.8%). This difference was highly correlated with the living standards of the people in each township. Nucleotide sequence of the 5S rDNA from the eggs on the cello-tape (2 children) revealed 99.7% identity with that of E. vermicularis reported in GenBank. The results indicated that E. vermicularis infection is highly prevalent among primary schoolchildren around Yangon, Myanmar.


PubMed | Gyeongsang National University, National Center for Parasitology, Korea Association of Health Promotion and Seoul National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Korean journal of parasitology | Year: 2016

Stellantchasmus falcatus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) is first reported from Cambodia through recovery of the metacercariae from mullet fish and adult flukes from an experimentally infected hamster. We purchased 7 mullets, Chelon macrolepis, in a local market of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and each of them was examined by the artificial digestion method on May 2010. The metacercariae of S. falcatus were detected in all mullets (100%) examined, and their average density was 177 per fish. They were elliptical, 220168 m in average size. They were orally infected to an hamster to obtain adult flukes. Adults recovered at day 10 post infection were observed with a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). They were small, 450237 m in average size, had a small oral sucker (4150 m), subglobular pharynx (2921 m), slender esophagus (57 m), long and thick-walled expulsor (11932 m), spherical ovary (5869 m), and 2 ovoid testes (right: 11774 m; left: 11463 m). Eggs were small, yellow, and 2312 m in average size. In SEM observations, tegumental spines were densely distributed on the whole tegument, and single small type I sensory papillae were distributed around the lip of oral sucker. The small ventral sucker was dextrally located and had 8 type I sensory papillae on the left margin. It has been first confirmed in the present study that the mullet, C. macrolepis, is playing the role of a second intermediate host of S. falcatus in Cambodia.


PubMed | National Health Laboratory, Korea Association of Health Promotion and Seoul National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Korean journal of parasitology | Year: 2016

Although intestinal protozoans are common etiologies of diarrhea, few studies have been conducted in Myanmar. This study planned to investigate the prevalence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, and Endolimax nana among schoolchildren and their guardians in suburban areas near Yangon, Myanmar. We performed a cross-sectional survey among schoolchildren and their guardians from 7 primary schools in South Dagon and Hlaing Thar Yar districts, Yangon, Myanmar. Stool samples were observed with a microscope after concentration technique and iodine staining. Total 821 stool samples, including 556 from schoolchildren and 265 from guardians, were examined. The median age was 6 years old for schoolchildren and 36 years old for guardians. A 53.1% of the school children and 14.6 % of the guardians were males. The overall prevalence of each intestinal protozoan species was as follows: 3.4% (28/821) for G. lamblia; 3.5% (29/821) for E. coli; 1.2% (10/821) for E. histoytica, and 3.0% for E. nana. This study showed that intestinal protozoans are common in primary schoolchildren and their guardians in suburban areas near Yangon, Myanmar. Health interventions, such as hand washing education, improvement of sanitation, and establishment of water purification systems are urgently needed in this area.


Lee J.,Hallym University | Jang S.,Hallym University | Jang S.,Korea Association of Health Promotion | Son H.,Kangwon National University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Despite the importance of accurate assessment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), the Friedewald formula has primarily been used as a cost-effective method to estimate LDL-C when triglycerides are less than 400 mg/dL. In a recent study, an alternative to the formula was proposed to improve estimation of LDL-C. We evaluated the performance of the novel method versus the Friedewald formula using a sample of 5,642 Korean adults with LDL-C measured by an enzymatic homogeneous assay (LDL-CD). Friedewald LDL-C (LDL-CF) was estimated using a fixed factor of 5 for the ratio of triglycerides to very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG:VLDL-C ratio). However, the novel LDL-C (LDL-CN) estimates were calculated using the N-strata-specific median TG:VLDL-C ratios, LDL-C5 and LDL-C25 from respective ratios derived from our data set, and LDL-C180 from the 180-cell table reported by the original study. Compared with LDL-CF, each LDL-CN estimate exhibited a significantly higher overall concordance in the NCEP-ATP III guideline classification with LDL-CD (p< 0.001 for each comparison). Overall concordance was 78.2% for LDL-CF, 81.6% for LDL-C5, 82.3%for LDL-C25, and 82.0% for LDL-C180. Compared to LDL-C5, LDLC25 significantly but slightly improved overall concordance (p = 0.008). LDL-C25 and LDL-C180 provided almost the same overall concordance; however, LDL-C180 achieved superior improvement in classifying LDL-C < 70 mg/dL compared to the other estimates. In subjects with triglycerides of 200 to 399 mg/dL, each LDL-CN estimate showed a significantly higher concordance than that of LDL-CF (p< 0.001 for each comparison). The novel method offers a significant improvement in LDL-C estimation when compared with the Friedewald formula. However, it requires further modification and validation considering the racial differences as well as the specific character of the applied measuring method. © 2016 Lee et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | University of Rome La Sapienza, Veterans Health Service Medical Center, Konkuk University and Korea Association of Health Promotion
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of laboratory medicine | Year: 2016

Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is a widely used index of kidney function. Recently, new formulas such as the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations or the Lund-Malm equation were introduced for assessing eGFR. We compared them with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation in the Korean adult population.The study population comprised 1,482 individuals (median age 51 [42-59] yr, 48.9% males) who received annual physical check-ups during the year 2014. Serum creatinine (Cr) and cystatin C (CysC) were measured. We conducted a retrospective analysis using five GFR estimating equations (MDRD Study, revised Lund-Malm, and Cr and/or CysC-based CKD-EPI equations). Reduced GFR was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m.For the GFR category distribution, large discrepancies were observed depending on the equation used; category G1 (90 mL/min/1.73 m) ranged from 7.4-81.8%. Compared with the MDRD Study equation, the other four equations overestimated GFR, and CysC-based equations showed a greater difference (-31.3 for CKD-EPI(CysC) and -20.5 for CKD-EPI(Cr-CysC)). CysC-based equations decreased the prevalence of reduced GFR by one third (9.4% in the MDRD Study and 2.4% in CKD-EPI(CysC)).Our data shows that there are remarkable differences in eGFR assessment in the Korean population depending on the equation used, especially in normal or mildly decreased categories. Further prospective studies are necessary in various clinical settings.

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