The Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Satellite 4 is an ultraviolet telescope in a satellite. It is funded by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute, and was launched on 27 September 2003 into an Earth orbit with a height between 675 and 695 km. Wikipedia.
Park H.G.,ETH Zurich |
Jung Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014
Fast transport of water inside nanoscale graphitic surfaces, namely carbon nanotubes and graphene, forms the basis of aqueous carbon nanofluidic phenomena for which there are numerous applications in energy and environmental fields. In this tutorial review, we provide the basic principles of nanofluidics using carbon materials. We also address thermodynamic and structural aspects of favourable water confinement between hydrophobic carbon surfaces. We outline the experimental and theoretical history and consider the current status of ultrafast water transport inside carbon nanotubes, together with recent applications of aqueous carbon nanofluidic phenomena for energy generation and energy storage. We briefly discuss the challenges and opportunities for utilization of fast water transport in the graphitic nanoenvironment as a means to offer a clean and sustainable source of energy technology. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Lee J.-O.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2011
Innate immune receptors respond to common structural patterns in microbial molecules and are called pattern recognition receptors. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in the innate immune system by recognizing microbial lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins. Precise definition of the ligand "pattern"of TLRs has been difficult to determine primarily owing to a lack of high-resolution structures. Recently, the structures of several TLR-ligand complexes and the intracellular signaling domains have been determined by X-ray crystallography. This new structural information, combined with extensive biochemical and immunological data accumulated over decades, sheds new light on ligand-recognition and -activation mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the TLR structures and discuss proposed ligand-recognition and -activation mechanisms. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Jang J.Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Blood | Year: 2013
To unveil the organotypic role and vulnerability of lymphatic vessels, we generated a lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1)-Cre/iDTR double-transgenic mouse and ablated LYVE-1-expressing lymphatic vessels in adult mice in a diphtheria toxin (DT)-inducible manner based on selective expression of LYVE-1 in most lymphatic vessels. Strikingly, lymphatic vessels in the small intestine and lymph nodes were rapidly ablated, but lymphatic vessels in the other organs were relatively intact at 24 hours after DT administration. Unexpectedly, LYVE-1-Cre/iDTR mice died of sepsis without visible edema at 24 and 60 hours after DT administration. The cause of death appeared to be related to acute failure of immune surveillance systems in the small intestine and draining lymph nodes. Of note, acute loss of lymphatic lacteals in intestinal villi appeared to trigger distortion of blood capillaries and the whole architecture of the villi, whereas acute loss of lymphatic vessels in lymph nodes caused dysfunction of lymph drainage and abnormal distribution of dendritic cells and macrophages. Thus, intact lymphatic vessels are required for structural and functional maintenance of surrounding tissues in an organotypic manner, at least in the intestine and lymph nodes.
Belowich M.E.,Northwestern University |
Stoddart J.F.,Northwestern University |
Stoddart J.F.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012
Formation of an imine - from an amine and an aldehyde - is a reversible reaction which operates under thermodynamic control such that the formation of kinetically competitive intermediates are, in the fullness of time, replaced by the thermodynamically most stable product(s). For this fundamental reason, the imine bond has emerged as an extraordinarily diverse and useful one in the hands of synthetic chemists. Imine bond formation is one of a handful of reactions which define a discipline known as dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC), which is now employed widely in the construction of exotic molecules and extended structures on account of the inherent 'proof-reading' and 'error-checking' associated with these reversible reactions. While both supramolecular chemistry and DCC operate under the regime of reversibility, DCC has the added advantage of constructing robust molecules on account of the formation of covalent bonds rather than fragile supermolecules resulting from noncovalent bonding interactions. On the other hand, these products tend to require more time to form - sometimes days or even months - but their formation can often be catalysed. In this manner, highly symmetrical molecules and extended structures can be prepared from relatively simple precursors. When DCC is utilised in conjunction with template-directed protocols - which rely on the use of noncovalent bonding interactions between molecular building blocks in order to preorganise them into certain relative geometries as a prelude to the formation of covalent bonds under equilibrium control - an additional level of control of structure and topology arises which offers a disarmingly simple way of constructing mechanically-interlocked molecules, such as rotaxanes, catenanes, Borromean rings, and Solomon knots. This tutorial review focuses on the use of dynamic imine bonds in the construction of compounds and products formed with and without the aid of additional templates. While synthesis under thermodynamic control is giving the field of chemical topology a new lease of life, it is also providing access to an endless array of new materials that are, in many circumstances, simply not accessible using more traditional synthetic methodologies where kinetic control rules the roost. One of the most endearing qualities of chemistry is its ability to reinvent itself in order to create its own object, as Berthelot first pointed out a century and a half ago. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.
Lee J.K.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2015
The Internet has become a minefield of crime, fakes, and terror perpetuated by anonymous users on a global scale. The security burden of protecting organizations is becoming increasingly difficult and costly, and this burden cannot be lessened under the current Internet protocol. In order to fundamentally solve these side effects, the Council of the Association for Information Systems (AIS) has adopted a grand vision of an ICT-Enabled Bright Society (in short, the Bright ICT Initiative). With the goal of preventing undesirable activities on the Internet, diverse issues can be investigated using a bottom-up perspective. Scholars are beginning to examine the concept and various approaches with the support of the AIS conferences and the information system journals. However, a unique approach and fundamental solution must be identified in order to drastically eliminate the negative side effects of these adverse online activities. In order to achieve this, four principles are proposed that will provide the foundation of the framework for a new and safer Internet platform, the Bright Internet, while protecting users' privacy at an appropriate level. The proposed principles are origin responsibility, deliverer responsibility, rule-based digital search warrants, and traceable anonymity. This endeavor requires the investigation of technologies, policies, and international agreements on which new business models can be created. © 2015 The Authors.