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Hoefsloot W.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Van Ingen J.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Andrejak C.,Amiens Teaching Hospital | Angeby K.,Karolinska Institutet | And 61 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2013

A significant knowledge gap exists concerning the geographical distribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolation worldwide. To provide a snapshot of NTM species distribution, global partners in the NTM-Network European Trials Group (NET) framework (www.ntm-net.org), a branch of the Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TB-NET), provided identification results of the total number of patients in 2008 in whom NTM were isolated from pulmonary samples. From these data, we visualised the relative distribution of the different NTM found per continent and per country. We received species identification data for 20 182 patients, from 62 laboratories in 30 countries across six continents. 91 different NTM species were isolated. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria predominated inmost countries, followed by M. gordonae and M. xenopi. Important differences in geographical distribution of MAC species as well as M. xenopi, M. kansasii and rapid-growing mycobacteria were observed. This snapshot demonstrates that the species distribution among NTM isolates from pulmonary specimens in the year 2008 differed by continent and differed by country within these continents. These differences in species distribution may partly determine the frequency and manifestations of pulmonary NTM disease in each geographical location. Copyright © ERS 2013.

Horvati K.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Bacsa B.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Kiss E.,Eotvos Lorand University | Gyulai G.,Eotvos Lorand University | And 7 more authors.
Bioconjugate Chemistry | Year: 2014

Considering that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) can survive in host phagocytes for decades and currently applied drugs are largely ineffective in killing intracellular Mtb, novel targeted delivery approaches to improve tuberculosis chemotherapy are urgently needed. In order to enhance the efficacy of a clinically used antitubercular agent (isoniazid, INH) a novel lipopeptide carrier was designed based on the sequence of tuftsin, which has been reported as a macrophage-targeting molecule. The conjugate showed relevant in vitro activity on Mtb H37Rv culture with low cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity on human cells. The conjugate directly killed intracellular Mtb and shows much greater efficacy than free INH. To improve bioavailability, the conjugate was encapsulated into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles and tested in vivo in a guinea pig infection model. External clinical signs, detectable mycobacterial colonies in the organs, and the histopathological findings substantiate the potent chemotherapeutic effect of orally administered conjugateloaded nanoparticles. (Figure Presented). © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Horvati K.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Bacsa B.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Szabo N.,Koranyi National Institute for Tuberculosis and Respiratory Medicine | Fodor K.,Szent Istvan University | And 9 more authors.
Tuberculosis | Year: 2015

New pyridopyrimidine derivatives were defined using a novel HTS in silico docking method (FRIGATE). The target protein was a dUTPase enzyme (EC; Rv2697) which plays a key role in nucleotide biosynthesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Top hit molecules were assayed in vitro for their antimycobacterial effect on Mtb H37Rv culture. In order to enhance the cellular uptake rate, the TB820 compound was conjugated to a peptid-based carrier and a nanoparticle type delivery system (polylactide-co-glycolide, PLGA) was applied. The conjugate had relevance to in vitro antitubercular activity with low in vitro and in vivo toxicity. In a Mtb H37Rv infected guinea pig model the in vivo efficacy of orally administrated PLGA encapsulated compound was proven: animals maintained a constant weight gain and no external clinical signs of tuberculosis were observed. All tissue homogenates from lung, liver and kidney were found negative for Mtb, and diagnostic autopsy showed that no significant malformations on the tissues occurred. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Horvati K.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Bacsa B.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Szabo N.,Koranyi National Institute for Tuberculosis and Respiratory Medicine | David S.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | And 9 more authors.
Bioconjugate Chemistry | Year: 2012

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a successful pathogen, and it can survive in infected macrophages in dormant phase for years and decades. The therapy of tuberculosis takes at least six months, and the slow-growing bacterium is resistant to many antibiotics. The development of novel antimicrobials to counter the emergence of bacteria resistant to current therapies is urgently needed. In silico docking methods and structure-based drug design are useful bioinformatics tools for identifying new agents. A docking experiment to M. tuberculosis dUTPase enzyme, which plays a key role in the bacterial metabolism, has resulted in 10 new antitubercular drug candidates. The uptake of antituberculars by infected macrophages is limited by extracellular diffusion. The optimization of the cellular uptake by drug delivery systems can decrease the used dosages and the length of the therapy, and it can also enhance the bioavailability of the drug molecule. In this study, improved in vitro efficacy was achieved by attaching the TB5 antitubercular drug candidate to peptide carriers. As drug delivery components, (i) an antimicrobial granulysin peptide and (ii) a receptor specific tuftsin peptide were used. An efficient synthetic approach was developed to conjugate the in silico identified TB5 coumarone derivative to the carrier peptides. The compounds were effective on M. tuberculosis H37Rv culture in vitro; the chemical linkage did not affect the antimycobacterial activity. Here, we show that the OT20 tuftsin and GranF2 granulysin peptide conjugates have dramatically enhanced uptake into human MonoMac6 cells. The TB5-OT20 tuftsin conjugate exhibited significant antimycobacterial activity on M. tuberculosis H37Rv infected MonoMac6 cells and inhibited intracellular bacteria. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Baranyai Z.,MTA ELTE Research Group of Peptide Chemistry | Kratky M.,Charles University | Vinsova J.,Charles University | Szabo N.,Koranyi National Institute for Tuberculosis and Respiratory Medicine | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

Abstract In the Mycobacterium genus over one hundred species are already described and new ones are periodically reported. Species that form colonies in a week are classified as rapid growers, those requiring longer periods (up to three months) are the mostly pathogenic slow growers. More recently, new emerging species have been identified to lengthen the list, all rapid growers. Of these, Mycobacterium abscessus is also an intracellular pathogen and it is the most chemotherapy-resistant rapid-growing mycobacterium. In addition, the cases of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are also increasing. Therefore there is an urgent need to find new active molecules against these threatening strains. Based on previous results, a series of salicylanilides, salicylanilide 5-chloropyrazinoates and carbamates was designed, synthesized and characterised. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity on M. abscessus, susceptible M. tuberculosis H37Rv, multidrug-resistant (MDR) M. tuberculosis MDR A8, M. tuberculosis MDR 9449/2006 and on the extremely-resistant Praha 131 (XDR) strains. All derivatives exhibited a significant activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the low micromolar range. Eight salicylanilide carbamates and two salicylanilide esters exhibited an excellent in vitro activity on M. abscessus with MICs from 0.2 to 2.1 μM, thus being more effective than ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. This finding is potentially promising, particularly, as M. abscessus is a threateningly chemotherapy-resistant species. M. tuberculosis H37Rv was inhibited with MICs from 0.2 μM, and eleven compounds have lower MICs than isoniazid. Salicylanilide esters and carbamates were found that they were effective also on MDR and XDR M. tuberculosis strains with MICs ≥1.0 μM. The in vitro cytotoxicity (IC50) was also determined on human MonoMac-6 cells, and selectivity index (SI) of the compounds was established. In general, salicylanilide derivatives substituted by halogens on both salicyl and aniline rings showed better activity, than 4-benzoylaniline derivatives. The ester or carbamate bond formation of parent salicylanilides mostly retained or improved antimycobacterial potency with moderate selectivity. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.

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