Koppert Biological Systems

Piracicaba, Brazil

Koppert Biological Systems

Piracicaba, Brazil
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Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Global Markets for Biopesticides" report to their offering. This market report organizes information from diverse sources into a cohesive unit that includes a pesticide (synthetic and biopesticide) overview, organic farming and production overview, industry structure, and technology and patents sections. Information on the synthetic pesticide market, genetically modified (GM) seeds and the biopesticide market is explored. Additional information on the organic market for food products offers the reader an opportunity to assess the biopesticide market in relation to crop production and sale of organic foods. Report includes - An overview of the global biopesticides and synthetic pesticides industry, including technological developments, future trends, and emerging opportunities. - Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2015, estimates for 2016, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2021. - The global supply and demand scenario broken down by applications and regions. - Examination of the market's dynamics, specifically growth drivers, restraints, and opportunities. - Discussion of emerging technologies. - Relevant patent analysis. - Profiles of major players in the industry Key Topics Covered: 1: Introduction - Study Goals And Objectives - Reasons For Doing The Study - Scope Of Report - Methodology - Intended Audience - Information Sources 2: Summary 3: Overview - What Are Biopesticides? - The Use Of Integrated Pest Management - Advantages/Disadvantages Of Biopesticides - Classification Of Biopesticides - The Ideal Pesticide - Impact Of Cost Of Production - Acquisitions And Mergers - Significant Trends - Regional Analysis 4: Organic Farming And The Market For Products - Feeding The World In A Sustainable Manner - Market For Organically Cultivated Food - Market Projections For Organically Farmed Products - Certification Programs - Organic Farming Producers - Global Organic Farming Areas 5: Synthetic Pesticides And Genetically Modified Crops - Historical Perspective On Synthetic Pesticides - Synthetic Pesticide Demand - Global Synthetic Pesticide Revenues - Market Trends - Future Of Synthetic Pesticides - Development Of Genetically Modified Organisms - GM Seed Market - Important GM Seeds - Regulation Of GM Crops - Regional Analysis 6: Biopesticide Technology Review - Classification Of Biopesticides - Production Technology - Technological Development Of Microbial Pesticides - Commercial Production 7: Global Biopesticide Market - Costs To Develop Biopesticdes - Biopesticide Manufacturers - Advantages Of Biopesticides - Factors That Determine The Biopesticide Market - Market Challenges - Global Market For Biopesticides By Type - Global Biopesticide Market By Type Of Crop - Regional Analysis 8: Biopesticide Market In North America - Biopesticide Market In The United States - Biopesticide Market In Canada 9: Biopesticide Market In Central And South America - Biopesticide Market In Brazil - Biopesticide Market In Argentina - Biopesticide Market In Mexico - Biopesticide Market In Peru - Biopesticide Market In Other Countries In Central And South America 10: Biopesticide Market In Europe And Russia - Biopesticide Market In European Union - Biopesticide Market In Other European Countries - Biopesticide Market In The Russia 11: Biopesticide Market In The Middle East And Africa - Biopesticide Market In The Middle East - Biopesticide Market In Africa 12: Biopesticide Market In Asia - Biopesticide Market In China - Biopesticide Market In India - Biopesticide Market In Japan - Biopesticide Market In Other Asian Countries 13: Biopesticide Market In Oceania - Biopesticide Market In Australia - Biopesticide Market In New Zealand - Biopesticide Market In Other Oceanic Countries 14: Global Regulations - Important Biopesticides Control And Promotional Organizations - The Americas - Emra - Asia 15: Patents 16: Company Profiles - Actagro Llc - AG Biochem Inc. - Agbitech PTY Ltd. - Agraquest Inc. (See Bayer Crop Science) - Ajay Bio-Tech Ltd. - Amvac Chemical (American Vanguard Corp.) - Andermatt Biocontrol AG - Arbico Organics - Bayer Cropscience AG - Bayer Cropscience Biologics Gmbh (Formerly Prophyta Biologischer Pfanzenschutz Gmbh) - Basf Corp. (Formerly Becker Underwood Inc.) - Bedoukian Research Inc. - Bioag Alliance (Monsanto And Novozymes) - Biologic Co. - Biogard - Biosafe Systems Llc - Biotepp - Bioworks Inc. - Bonide Products - Certis USA Llc - Dow Agrosciences - Dsm Food Specialties - Embrapa Milho E Sorgo - Greeneem - Growth Products Ltd. - Hebei Veyong Biochemical Co. Ltd. - Hercon Environmental - Isagro SPA - Koppert Biological Systems - Kumiai Chemical Industry Co. Ltd. - Marrone Bio Innovations - Monsanto Bioag - Novozymes A/S - Omnilytics Inc. - Organic Materials Review Institue (OMRI) - Phyllom Bioproducts - Real IPM - Rincon-Vitova Insectaries - Russell IPM - Soil Technologies Corp. - Stockton Group - Sumitomo Corp. (See Valent) - Summit Chemical - Suterra - T. Stanes & Co. - Troy Biosciences Inc. - Tyratech Inc. - Valent Biosciences Corp. - Verdera OY - Westbridge Agricultural Products 17: Technical Terms And Definitions For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/s5c9q8/global_markets Research and Markets Laura Wood, Senior Manager press@researchandmarkets.com For E.S.T Office Hours Call +1-917-300-0470 For U.S./CAN Toll Free Call +1-800-526-8630 For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900 U.S. Fax: 646-607-1907 Fax (outside U.S.): +353-1-481-1716


News Article | November 10, 2016
Site: www.prnewswire.co.uk

The report "Biopesticides Market by Type (Bioinsecticides, Biofungicides, Bioherbicides, and Bionematicides), Origin (Beneficial Insects, Microbials, Plant-incorporated Protectants, and Biochemicals), Mode of Application, Formulation, & Crop Type - Global Forecast to 2022", The global market is estimated to be valued at USD 3.36 Billion in 2016 and projected to reach USD 8.82 Billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 17.4% from 2016. Browse 80 market data Tables and 55 Figures spread through 188 Pages and in-depth TOC on "Biopesticides Market" Early buyers will receive 10% customization on this report. Increase in crop loss due to insects and diseases, development of pest-resistance to various chemicals, changing farming practices (from traditional to smart farming), have been of importance to the growth of the global Biopesticides Market. Biopesticides are used for high-quality crop yield for the increasing population and growing organic food demand. Hence, biopesticides will be viewed as a business opportunity in the next six years. As a result, many multinational players have entered into the production of various types of biopesticides, which can be used for diversified crop types. Bioinsecticides are gaining high popularity in the crop protection activities across the world as many of the crop pests, especially insects have gained resistance to the pesticides. Bioinsecticides are more convenient to use, owing to their ease in application. Bioinsecticides are the most widely used biopesticides and hence, the biopesticides segment is projected to be the fastest-growing for the next six years. The fruits & vegetables segment projected to be the fastest-growing market during the forecast period The major types of crops on which biopesticides are used are grains & oilseeds, fruits & vegetables, and others, which include turf, plantation, sugar crops, cotton, and ornamental crops. The fruits & vegetables segment is projected to be the fastest-growing market from 2016 to 2022. Growth in demand for fruits & vegetables, owing to the increasing awareness with regard to their nutritional benefits and the rise in need for enhancement of crop productivity is driving the market for biopesticides in the fruits & vegetables segment. Increase in need for organic food products, high investment in R&D, and change in farming practices key to success in the North American region North America is one of the largest contributors to the global biopesticides due to the rise in use of biopesticides through advanced agricultural techniques and increase in need for organic food security in the North American countries. U.S. constituted the largest country-level market in the North American region in 2015. High market penetration by the leading biopesticide companies and growth in need for nutrients for enhancing the agricultural growth and productivity, as well as the change in climatic conditions are the main factors influencing the growth of the Biopesticides Market in North America. The Biopesticides Market report includes a study of marketing and development strategies, along with the product portfolios of leading companies. These companies include BASF SE (Germany), Bayer CropScience AG (Germany), Marrone Bio Innovations Inc. (U.S.), Certis USA LLC (U.S.), Koppert Biological Systems (Netherlands), and The Dow Chemical Company (U.S.), Monsanto Company (U.S.), Isagro SPA (Italy), Camson Bio Technologies Limited (India), Bioworks, Inc. (U.S.), W. Neudorff GmbH Kg (Germany), and Valent Biosciences Corporation (U.S.). Bionematicides Market by Type (Microbials & Biochemicals), Crop Type (Cereals & Grains, Oilseeds & Pulses, and Fruits & Vegetables), Form (Liquid and Dry), Mode of Application, Infestation, & by Region - Global Forecast to 2021 http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/bionematicides-market-124041277.html Bioherbicides Market by Source (Microbials, Biochemicals & Others), Application Mode (Seed, Soil, Foliar, Post-harvest), Formulation (Granular, Liquid & Others), Application, & by Region - Global Trends & Forecast to 2021 http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/bioherbicides-market-175213366.html MarketsandMarkets is the largest market research firm worldwide in terms of annually published premium market research reports. Serving 1700 global fortune enterprises with more than 1200 premium studies in a year, M&M is catering to a multitude of clients across 8 different industrial verticals. We specialize in consulting assignments and business research across high growth markets, cutting edge technologies and newer applications. Our 850 fulltime analyst and SMEs at MarketsandMarkets are tracking global high growth markets following the "Growth Engagement Model - GEM". The GEM aims at proactive collaboration with the clients to identify new opportunities, identify most important customers, write "Attack, avoid and defend" strategies, identify sources of incremental revenues for both the company and its competitors. M&M's flagship competitive intelligence and market research platform, "RT" connects over 200,000 markets and entire value chains for deeper understanding of the unmet insights along with market sizing and forecasts of niche markets. The new included chapters on Methodology and Benchmarking presented with high quality analytical infographics in our reports gives complete visibility of how the numbers have been arrived and defend the accuracy of the numbers. 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News Article | November 11, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

Global Biopesticides Market is valued at $66.57 billion in 2015 and is expected to reach $104.7 billion by 2022 growing at a CAGR of 6.7% between 2015 and 2022. The factors contributing for the market growth include increasing market for organic products, and growing number of environmental and health concerns. Joint ventures in the bio pesticides sector and increasing investments from private sector are contributing to the market growth. However, factors such as barriers in adoption of biopesticides, and variable efficacy of biopesticides are inhibiting the market growth. Furthermore, factors such as lack of knowledge to the farmers regarding the benefits of biopesticides and lack of enthusiasm among farmers to alter the existing chemical crop protection practices are restraining the market growth. North America is likely to acquire the highest market share during the forecast period due to increasing demand for organic food. European region is projected to be the fastest growing market. The growth is attributed to growing demand from organic products and stringent regulations for pesticides. Some of the key players in global market include Bayer CropScience, AgraQuest, Inc., BASF SE, Dow Chemical Company, Marrone Bio Innovations Inc., Koppert Biological Systems, Novozymes Ltd., Valent Biosciences Corporation, Certis USA LLC, Marrone Bio Innovations Inc., Becker Underwood Inc., AgBiTech Pty Ltd, Bioworks, Inc., Syngenta Crop Protection, Arysta LifeSciences, Isagro S.p.A, W. Neudorff GmbH Kg, and Camson Bio Technologies Limited. Regions Covered:  • North America  o US  o Canada  o Mexico  • Europe  o Germany  o France  o Italy  o UK  o Spain  o Rest of Europe  • Asia Pacific  o Japan  o China  o India  o Australia  o New Zealand  o Rest of Asia Pacific  • Rest of the World  o Middle East  o Brazil  o Argentina  o South Africa  o Egypt What our report offers:  - Market share assessments for the regional and country level segments  - Market share analysis of the top industry players  - Strategic recommendations for the new entrants  - Market forecasts for a minimum of 7 years of all the mentioned segments, sub segments and the regional markets  - Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations)  - Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations  - Competitive landscaping mapping the key common trends  - Company profiling with detailed strategies, financials, and recent developments  - Supply chain trends mapping the latest technological advancements 1 Executive Summary  2 Preface  2.1 Abstract  2.2 Stake Holders  2.3 Research Scope  2.4 Research Methodology  2.4.1 Data Mining  2.4.2 Data Analysis  2.4.3 Data Validation  2.4.4 Research Approach  2.5 Research Sources  2.5.1 Primary Research Sources  2.5.2 Secondary Research Sources  2.5.3 Assumptions  3 Market Trend Analysis  3.1 Introduction  3.2 Drivers  3.3 Restraints  3.4 Opportunities  3.5 Threats  3.6 Product Analysis  3.7 Emerging Markets  4 Porters Five Force Analysis  4.1 Bargaining power of suppliers  4.2 Bargaining power of buyers  4.3 Threat of substitutes  4.4 Threat of new entrants  4.5 Competitive rivalry   Continued.... About Us Wise Guy Reports is part of the Wise Guy Consultants Pvt. Ltd. and offers premium progressive statistical surveying, market research reports, analysis & forecast data for industries and governments around the globe. Wise Guy Reports understand how essential statistical surveying information is for your organization or association. Therefore, we have associated with the top publishers and research firms all specialized in specific domains, ensuring you will receive the most reliable and up to date research data available.


News Article | November 4, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

Global BioControl Agents market is estimated at $1.55 billion in 2015 and is poised to reach $3.67 billion by 2022, growing at a CAGR of 13.1% from 2015 to 2022. Rising concern regarding food contamination due to excess usage of pesticides is one of the key factors driving the market growth. Furthermore, concern about environment and soil fertility are the factors favoring the market growth. However, lack of adequate awareness among users acts as a restraint for BioControl Agents market. Based on application, On-Field segment is likely to acquire the highest market share during the forecast period driven by the use of beneficial insects. On-field and seed treatment segments are capturing maximum of the market share in BioControl Agents application market. Due to their low cost and large availability, Microbials are the most widely chosen active substances. North America leads the market globally with the largest market share and is expected to grow at the highest CAGR among the other regions. Some of the key players in the global market include Andermatt Biocontrol AG, BASF SE, Bayer CropScience AG, Biobest N.V., BioTech Systems LTD, Certis USA LLC, Dow AgroSciences, DuPont, FMC Corporation, Kenogard S.A., Koppert Biological Systems B.V., Marrone Bio Innovations, Inc., Monsanto Company Inc., Novozymes A/S and Syngenta AG. Environment Covered:  • Out Field Crops  • Horticulture  Applications Covered:  • On-Field  • Post-Harvest  • Seed Treatment  Target Pests Covered:  • Micro-Organisms  • Arthropods  • Weeds  Regions Covered:  • North America  o US  o Canada  o Mexico  • Europe  o Germany  o France  o Italy  o UK  o Spain  o Rest of Europe  • Asia Pacific  o Japan  o China  o India  o Australia  o New Zealand  o Rest of Asia Pacific  • Rest of the World  o Middle East  o Brazil  o Argentina  o South Africa  o Egypt What our report offers:  - Market share assessments for the regional and country level segments  - Market share analysis of the top industry players  - Strategic recommendations for the new entrants  - Market forecasts for a minimum of 7 years of all the mentioned segments, sub segments and the regional markets  - Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations)  - Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations  - Competitive landscaping mapping the key common trends  - Company profiling with detailed strategies, financials, and recent developments  - Supply chain trends mapping the latest technological advancements Wise Guy Reports is part of the Wise Guy Consultants Pvt. Ltd. and offers premium progressive statistical surveying, market research reports, analysis & forecast data for industries and governments around the globe. Wise Guy Reports understand how essential statistical surveying information is for your organization or association. Therefore, we have associated with the top publishers and research firms all specialized in specific domains, ensuring you will receive the most reliable and up to date research data available.


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

Global BioControl Agents market is estimated at $1.55 billion in 2015 and is poised to reach $3.67 billion by 2022, growing at a CAGR of 13.1% from 2015 to 2022. Rising concern regarding food contamination due to excess usage of pesticides is one of the key factors driving the market growth. Furthermore, concern about environment and soil fertility are the factors favoring the market growth. However, lack of adequate awareness among users acts as a restraint for BioControl Agents market. Based on application, On-Field segment is likely to acquire the highest market share during the forecast period driven by the use of beneficial insects. On-field and seed treatment segments are capturing maximum of the market share in BioControl Agents application market. Due to their low cost and large availability, Microbials are the most widely chosen active substances. North America leads the market globally with the largest market share and is expected to grow at the highest CAGR among the other regions. Some of the key players in the global market include Andermatt Biocontrol AG, BASF SE, Bayer CropScience AG, Biobest N.V., BioTech Systems LTD, Certis USA LLC, Dow AgroSciences, DuPont, FMC Corporation, Kenogard S.A., Koppert Biological Systems B.V., Marrone Bio Innovations, Inc., Monsanto Company Inc., Novozymes A/S and Syngenta AG. Regions Covered:  • North America  o US  o Canada  o Mexico  • Europe  o Germany  o France  o Italy  o UK  o Spain  o Rest of Europe  • Asia Pacific  o Japan  o China  o India  o Australia  o New Zealand  o Rest of Asia Pacific  • Rest of the World  o Middle East  o Brazil  o Argentina  o South Africa  o Egypt What our report offers:  - Market share assessments for the regional and country level segments  - Market share analysis of the top industry players  - Strategic recommendations for the new entrants  - Market forecasts for a minimum of 7 years of all the mentioned segments, sub segments and the regional markets  - Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations)  - Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations  - Competitive landscaping mapping the key common trends  - Company profiling with detailed strategies, financials, and recent developments  - Supply chain trends mapping the latest technological advancements Executive Summary  2 Preface  2.1 Abstract  2.2 Stake Holders  2.3 Research Scope  2.4 Research Methodology  2.4.1 Data Mining  2.4.2 Data Analysis  2.4.3 Data Validation  2.4.4 Research Approach  2.5 Research Sources  2.5.1 Primary Research Sources  2.5.2 Secondary Research Sources  2.5.3 Assumptions  3 Market Trend Analysis  3.1 Introduction  3.2 Drivers  3.3 Restraints  3.4 Opportunities  3.5 Threats  3.6 Application Analysis  3.7 Emerging Markets  4 Porters Five Force Analysis  4.1 Bargaining power of suppliers  4.2 Bargaining power of buyers  4.3 Threat of substitutes  4.4 Threat of new entrants  4.5 Competitive rivalry  5 Global BioControl Agents Market, By Crop Type  5.1 Introduction  5.2 Vegetables & Fruits  5.3 Cereals & Grains  5.4 Pulses & Oils  5.5 Other Crops  6 Global BioControl Agents Market, By Active Substance  6.1 Introduction  6.2 Microbials  6.2.1 Fungi  6.2.2 Bacteria  6.2.3 Viruses  6.2.4 Other  6.3 Macrobials  6.3.1 Weed Killers  6.3.2 Parasitoids  6.3.3 Predators  6.4 Entomopathogenic Nematodes  7 Global BioControl Agents Market, By Environment  7.1 Introduction  7.2 Out Field Crops  7.3 Horticulture  Continued.... About Us Wise Guy Reports is part of the Wise Guy Consultants Pvt. Ltd. and offers premium progressive statistical surveying, market research reports, analysis & forecast data for industries and governments around the globe. Wise Guy Reports understand how essential statistical surveying information is for your organization or association. Therefore, we have associated with the top publishers and research firms all specialized in specific domains, ensuring you will receive the most reliable and up to date research data available.


PubMed | National University of Costa Rica, West Parana State University and Koppert Biological Systems
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia | Year: 2016

Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul) is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality), demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.


Messelink G.J.,Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture | Bloemhard C.M.J.,Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture | Hoogerbrugge H.,Koppert Biological Systems | van Schelt J.,Koppert Biological Systems | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Entomology | Year: 2015

Zoophytophagous predators of the family Miridae (Heteroptera), which feed both on plant and prey, often maintain a close relationship with certain host plants. In this study, we aimed to select a suitable mirid predatory bug for aphid control in sweet pepper. Four species were compared: Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur), Dicyphus errans (Wolff), Dicyphus tamaninii Wagner and Deraeocoris pallens (Reuter). They were assessed on their establishment on sweet pepper plants with and without supplemental food (eggs of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller and decapsulated cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana Kellogg) and on their effects on aphids with releases before and after aphid infestations. None of the predator species was able to control an established population of aphids on sweet pepper plants; however, the predators M. pygmaeus and D. tamaninii could successfully reduce aphid populations when released prior to an artificially introduced aphid infestation. The best results were achieved with M. pygmaeus in combination with a weekly application of supplemental food. Hence, our results demonstrate that the order and level of plant colonization by mirid predators and aphids determines how successful biological control is. Further studies are needed to evaluate the performance of mirid predatory bugs in sweet pepper crops in commercial greenhouses with multiple pests and natural enemies, in particular to understand how increased variation in food sources affects their feeding behaviour and preferences. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Knapp M.,Koppert Biological Systems | Van Houten Y.,Koppert Biological Systems | Hoogerbrugge H.,Koppert Biological Systems | Bolckmans K.,Koppert Biological Systems
Acarologia | Year: 2013

Amblydromalus limonicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was described in 1956 from citrus in California; its distribution range covers North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. It first caught the attention of biocontrol workers in the 1960s as natural enemy of the spider mites Oligonychus punicae and Tetranychus cinnabarinus in avocados and other fruit trees. In laboratory studies, A. limonicus developed into adults and laid eggs on several species of mites, thrips, whiteflies and scale insects, as well as on pollen. Interest into A. limonicus re-emerged in the early 1990s after the western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis) had spread nearly all over the world. It was collected during surveys for WFT biocontrol agents in New Zealand and Australia. Laboratory and semi-field experiments in the Netherlands and Australia showed that A. limonicus was a very promising candidate for biological control of WFT in several greenhouse crops. However, it was not possible to establish a commercially viable mass rearing system. At around the same time A. limonicus was also identified in surveys in South America for classical biocontrol agents for the cassava green mite (Mononychellus tanajoa) in Africa. Detailed taxonomic research showed, however, that the mites collected in these surveys were a closely related, undescribed species that was given the name Amblydromalus manihoti in 1994. Recently, a mass production system for A. limonicus was developed and the mite became commercially available in January 2012. With the material from this mass production system, more semi-field and field trials could be conducted. Results showed that A. limonicus is also an excellent biocontrol agent for greenhouse whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) in various greenhouse crops including roses, cucumbers and strawberries. As this predatory mite originates from more temperate areas, it is a good complement to Amblyseius swirskii, which is currently the most frequently used phytoseiid in thrips and whitefly control, and Transeius montdorensis, which also recently came on the market. Both species originate from sub-tropical regions and have a higher optimum temperature than A. limonicus. © Knapp M. et al.


Kappers I.F.,Wageningen University | Hoogerbrugge H.,Koppert Biological Systems | Bouwmeester H.J.,Wageningen University | Dicke M.,Wageningen University
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2011

In response to herbivory by arthropods, plants emit herbivory-induced volatiles that attract carnivorous enemies of the inducing herbivores. Here, we compared the attractiveness of eight cucumber varieties (Cucumis sativus L.) to Phytoseiulus persimilis predatory mites after infestation of the plants with herbivorous spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) under greenhouse conditions. Attractiveness differed considerably, with the most attractive variety attracting twice as many predators as the least attractive variety. Chemical analysis of the volatiles released by the infested plants revealed significant differences among varieties, both in quantity and quality of the emitted blends. Comparison of the attractiveness of the varieties with the amounts of volatiles emitted indicated that the quality (composition) of the blend is more important for attraction than the amount of volatiles emitted. The amount of (E)-β-ocimene, (E,E)-TMTT, and two other, yet unidentified compounds correlated positively with the attraction of predatory mites. Quantities of four compounds negatively correlated with carnivore attraction, among them methyl salicylate, which is known to attract the predatory mite P. persimilis. The emission of methyl salicylate correlated with an unknown compound that had a negative correlation with carnivore attraction and hence could be masking the attractiveness of methyl salicylate. The results imply that the foraging success of natural enemies of pests can be enhanced by breeding for crop varieties that release specific volatiles. © 2011 The Author(s).


PubMed | Leiden University and Koppert Biological Systems
Type: | Journal: Journal of microbiological methods | Year: 2016

The fungal species Trichoderma harzianum is widely used as a biological agent in crop protection. To verify the continued presence of this fungus on plant roots manually inoculated with T. harzianum strain T22, a Q-PCR was designed using specific probes for this particular strain. To develop these molecular diagnostic tools, genome mining was first carried out to retrieve putative new regions by which different strains of T. harzianum could be distinguished. Subsequently, Sanger sequencing of the L-aminoacid oxidase gene (aox1) in T. harzianum was applied to determine the mutations differing between various strains isolated from the Trichoderma collection of Koppert Biological Systems. Based on the sequence information obtained, a set of hydrolysis probes was subsequently developed which discriminated T. harzianum T22 strains varying in only a single nucleotide. Probes designed for two strains uniquely recognized the respective strains in Q-PCR with a detection limit of 12,5ng DNA. Titration assays in which T. harzianum DNA from distinct strains was varied further underscored the specificity of the probes. Lastly, fungal DNA extracted from roots of greenhouse cultured tomato plants was analyzed using the probe-based assay. DNA from T. harzianum strain T22 could readily be identified on roots of greenhouse reared tomato plants inoculated with varying concentrations up to one week after treatment with a detection limit of 3e6 colony forming units of T. harzianum T22. We conclude that the Q-PCR method is a reliable and robust method for assessing the presence and quantity of T. harzianum strain T22 in manually inoculated plant material. Our method provides scope for the development of DNA based strain specific identification of additional strains of Trichoderma and other fungal biological control agents.

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