Kootenai Tribe of Idaho

Idaho City, ID, United States

Kootenai Tribe of Idaho

Idaho City, ID, United States
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Schreier A.,University of California at Davis | Stephenson S.,British Columbia Ministry of forests | Rust P.,885W Kathleen Avenue | Young S.,Kootenai Tribe of Idaho
Biological Conservation | Year: 2015

The success of captive and supportive breeding programs is often determined by abundance criteria but it is also necessary to consider genetic characteristics of reintroduced or supplemented populations as genetic diversity loss can reduce population viability. Genetic analysis of the parent pools is often used to determine whether captive or supportive breeding programs conserve adequate levels of genetic diversity and maximize the effective population size (Ne). This practice assumes that released cohorts reflect the genetic characteristics of parents. Here we provide a case study of how post-release mortality can alter the genetic composition of released cohorts in a supportive breeding program for an endangered population of white sturgeon. Data from ongoing genetic monitoring of wild broodstock in the Kootenai River white sturgeon conservation aquaculture program are combined with multi-year post-release abundance monitoring of captive bred juveniles to reveal high variability in recapture among families. We found that genetic monitoring of broodstock used in supportive breeding overestimates genetic diversity conservation in most year classes due to differential post-release mortality among families. Ne was reduced in most year classes when post-release mortality was considered due to reduced parental representation in released cohorts. Although rarely performed, our results indicate that post-release genetic monitoring is necessary to accurately characterize the genetic composition of released cohorts altered by post-release mortality and should be considered when designing a captive or supportive breeding program. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Schreier A.D.,University of California at Davis | Rodzen J.,Forensic Services Laboratory | Ireland S.,Kootenai Tribe of Idaho | May B.,University of California at Davis
Endangered Species Research | Year: 2012

Large river-resident and diadromous fishes are globally threatened by environmental degradation, overharvest, and a rapidly changing climate. Conservation aquaculture is a tool that, used in concert with ecological restoration and harvest regulation, can protect the unique genetic, morphological, and behavioral characteristics of imperiled populations. Although conservation aquaculture programs are designed to minimize genetic impacts on wild populations, founder effects, domestication, and inbreeding may occur. Genetic monitoring may be used in the context of adaptive management to reduce deleterious genetic impacts of captive breeding in wild populations. Here we use the conservation aquaculture program for the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus as a case study to illustrate how genetic tools might improve captive breeding programs for large river fishes. We used microsatellite markers to reveal very low levels of genetic diversity in the Kootenai River white sturgeon relative to other populations across the species' range. We show that by using high numbers of broodstock, the conservation aquaculture program has captured 96% of the population's microsatellite diversity in hatchery-released progeny in only 10 yr. We validate the power of parentage analysis to identify family relationships between individual white sturgeon using a panel of 18 microsatellite loci. Parentage analysis will become crucial for inbreeding avoidance in the Kootenai River white sturgeon aquaculture program in ~2020 to 2030, when the majority of broodstock available for captive breeding will originate from the hatchery. © Inter-Research 2012.

Minshall G.W.,Idaho State University | Shafii B.,University of Idaho | Price W.J.,University of Idaho | Holderman C.,Kootenai Tribe of Idaho | And 3 more authors.
Freshwater Science | Year: 2014

Large impoundments remove substantial amounts of sediment and nutrients from rivers and often limit production by downstream primary producers and secondary consumers. Nutrient levels and macroinvertebrate and fish abundance in the lower Kootenai River (7th order, mean annual discharge = 454 m3/s) in Idaho and Montana declined dramatically after Libby Dam was built in 1972. A subsequent study implicated ultraoligotrophic conditions (total dissolved P [TDP] ≤ 2 μg/L TDP) as a principal causative agent and prompted an on-going experimental nutrient-addition program for the Kootenai River downstream from Libby Dam, with dosing at the Idaho-Montana border. Pre-treatment monitoring began in 2003 and liquid ammonium polyphosphate fertilizer (10-34-0) was added each year during the growing season from 2006 through 2010 with a target TDP concentration of 3 μg/L and TN:TP near 20:1. We studied benthic macroinvertebrate responses to the experimental addition and hypothesized moderate increases in invertebrate richness, abundance, and biomass with little change in assemblage structure. We used a before-after control-impact BACI design with macroinvertebrate samples collected pre-and post-treatment from July to early November 2003-2010 from fertilized and unfertilized reaches. After treatment, mean modified (Oligochaeta and Chironomidae subtaxa excluded) total abundance increased 72%, mean total abundance increased 69%, and mean biomass increased 48%. Abundance of Ephemeroptera, the principal insect order in the study area increased 66%. Filter-feeder abundance also increased, indicating increased suspended organic matter in addition to the attached forms consumed by other benthic macroinvertebrates. The first 5 y of experimental treatment resulted in increased food resources for resident native fishes with no major alteration of macroinvertebrate community structure or trophic pathways. © 2014 by The Society for Freshwater Science.

Neufeld M.D.,British Columbia Ministry of forests | Davis C.A.,British Columbia Ministry of forests | Cain K.D.,University of Idaho | Jensen N.R.,Cramer Fish science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Ichthyology | Year: 2011

Summary: In the Kootenay River, British Columbia, Canada, burbot (Lota lota maculosa) numbers have diminished to near extirpation due to factors including physical changes to habitat and overfishing. Habitat restoration is currently underway but short-term recovery measures include the release of hatchery-reared burbot. Moyie Lake has been identified as a suitable brood source for a conservation aquaculture program but uncertainties remain regarding current population size, the feasibility of capturing broodstock and the ability to collect eggs from wild spawners. Specific objectives of our study were to: (i) develop a length at age key to provide a non-destructive means of population age structure identification, (ii) determine the location and general habitat characteristics of burbot spawning locations on Moyie Lake, (iii) provide a marked sample for future population estimation, and (iv) investigate the feasibility of collecting gametes for use in a conservation aquaculture program. A total of 181, 554, and 370 burbot were captured in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. No significant relationship was established between length and age for burbot on Moyie Lake. Spawning burbot were observed over a number of different habitats, but high use areas consisted of steep banks dominated by a mix of gravel/boulder/cobble substrates. Mature burbot were reliably collected each year, and eggs from females were fertilized and transported to the hatchery. Egg survival was highly variable (range 0-98%) and resulted in an estimated 353429, 3032143, and 3970283 eggs for use in the aquaculture program in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. Results of this study demonstrate that gametes can be collected from adult burbot during spawning and eggs can be successfully fertilized in the field. Further methodological refinement aimed at improving egg fertilization and subsequent survival to the hatchery will be important as recovery moves forward. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Neufeld M.D.,Environment Canada | Cain K.D.,University of Idaho | Jensen N.R.,University of Idaho | Ireland S.C.,Kootenai Tribe of Idaho | Paragamian V.L.,750 Kathleen Avenue
North American Journal of Fisheries Management | Year: 2011

Burbot Lota lota in Kootenay Lake and the Kootenay River of British Columbia, Idaho, and Montana (U.S. spelling: "Kootenai River") are at risk of demographic extinction. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate poststocking dispersal and movement of hatchery-reared, lake-strain burbot (Moyie Lake, British Columbia) in a riverine environment to determine the potential utility of this hatchery strain for future burbot rehabilitation efforts in this system. We implanted ultrasonic tags into 30 hatchery-reared burbot (ages 2 and 3) and released them into the Goat River, a tributary to the Kootenay River, in October 2009. Dispersal over a distance of 2 km from the Goat River release site to the Kootenay River occurred within 1-9 d after release (mean = 3.1 d; n = 28 active tags). Thereafter, 14 burbot remained in the Kootenay River for the rest of the 144-d study period; nine of these fish were observed moving upstream from the Goat River confluence, and five were observed both upstream and downstream from the confluence. The other 14 burbot were observed in Kootenay Lake; of these fish, eight were detected in the lake for the duration of the study, and six were observed to move regularly between the lake and the river. Dispersal distances (distance between the upstream-most and downstream-most detections per individual) within the Kootenay River ranged from 10 to 138 km (mean = 80 km), and tagged fish were detected over a 236- km reach (from 135 km downstream to 101 km upstream of the Goat River confluence).We also observed burbot in the vicinity of known spawning locations during the February spawning season. The observed dispersal suggests that a limited number of stocking locations may be sufficient to allow burbot to access available habitats within a few months postrelease. Our observations therefore suggest that lake-origin, hatchery-reared burbot may be suitable for stocking in a riverine environment.

Ashton N.K.,University of Idaho | Ireland S.C.,Kootenai Tribe of Idaho | Cain K.D.,University of Idaho
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society | Year: 2013

A conservation program developed by regional stakeholders incorporates stock enhancement as one of several approaches to restore an imperiled Burbot Lota lota population native to Idaho and British Columbia. Tagging juvenile fish is pivotal to stock enhancement monitoring; however, limited information is currently available on marks or tags applied to Burbot. We identified six criteria to guide artificial marker selection that are specific to imperiled juvenile fish. A short-term experiment with age-0 Burbot (65-92 mm TL) tested fin clips, freeze brands, visible implant elastomer, passive integrated transponders, and an unmarked control group. At 4 weeks posttagging, no significant differences were found between marking treatments with respect to fish survival (100%), absolute growth rate (0.15 ± 0.06 mm/d), specific growth rate (0.55 ± 0.32 g·g-1·d-1), or condition factor (0.64 ± 0.05). Mean tag retention ranged from 88% to 100%, and no significant differences were detected between treatments. Recognition of dorsal freeze brands differed significantly between two independent tag assessments. Overall, we found no adverse short-term effects and high tag retention in this preliminary trial of seven artificial marks applied to hatchery-reared Burbot. Received September 4, 2012; accepted March 13, 2013. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Barron J.M.,University of Idaho | Barron J.M.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Jensen N.R.,University of Idaho | Anders P.J.,University of Idaho | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of temperature on growth and survival of larval and juvenile burbot, Lota lota maculosa. Burbot aquaculture is developing primarily in response to declining wild stocks and a need to restore such populations. Beyond conservation efforts, there is also potential to culture this species commercially. However, many important aspects of burbot culture remain unaddressed. In this study larval and juvenile burbot were reared at three constant water temperatures (10, 15, and 20. °C) in an intensive culture setting. Two 30. day trials were conducted during the larval life stage and one 60. day trial during the juvenile life stage. In Trial 1, larval burbot (mean total length. ±. SD, 6.9. ±. 1.0. mm, approximately 65. days post hatch) reared at 20. °C grew the fastest, while growth was lowest in the 10. °C treatment. Survival was inversely related to temperature, with the lowest average of 6.6% observed in larvae reared at 20. °C. The percentage cannibalized was quantified and found to be positively correlated with water temperature, and reached 58.0% in larvae reared at 20. °C. In Trial 2, as larvae approached metamorphosis (12.9. ±. 1.9. mm, approximately 100. days post hatch), growth was also highest in fish at 20. °C and lowest in those at 10. °C. At this stage survival was higher in fish at lower temperatures, but the percentage cannibalized appeared independent of temperature, averaging over 50% in fish at all temperatures. In Trial 3, growth of juveniles (59.9. ±. 12.4. mm, approximately 205. days post hatch) reared at 15 and 20. °C was not significantly different, yet both displayed significantly increased growth relative to juveniles reared at 10. °C. Juveniles were fully transitioned to a dry diet, and survival averaged >. 93% in all culture temperatures. The percentage cannibalized during this life stage averaged <. 5%, and was not affected by temperature. This study demonstrated the importance of water temperature, as it clearly affects culture performance of larval and juvenile burbot. Results from this study have implications for maximizing growth during larval and juvenile life stages of this species, and provide a comparative, empirical framework for establishing conservation, or commercial aquaculture programs for burbot. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Benjankar R.,University of Idaho | Yager E.,University of Idaho | Tonina D.,University of Idaho | Merz N.,Kootenai Tribe of Idaho
Ecohydrology | Year: 2016

We developed a geographic information systems (GIS)-based multi-metric assessment tool using model-simulated long-term vegetation data to assess changes in riparian ecosystems due to altered hydrologic regimes. This allowed us to estimate spatial changes in a riparian system over several decades at annual resolution, to study system trends through time, and the effect of multiple and time-distributed human activities. We applied the tool to assess human and hydrologic impacts, for two scenarios, pre-dam versus post-dam periods and pre-levee versus post-levee periods on the Kootenai River. The pre-dam versus post-dam scenario considers two distinct hydrologic regimes as a result of dam operation, whereas the pre-levee versus post-levee scenario has one single natural hydrologic regime. We compared riparian ecosystem, community composition and native woody riparian vegetation index scores within the two scenarios. Our results showed that all three time-averaged index scores (riparian ecosystem, community composition and native woody vegetation) were statistically higher for the pre-dam than the post-dam period. In contrast, differences in index scores were small and were not statistically significant between pre-levee and post-levee periods. Thus, our GIS-based assessment tool can detect the impact of human-induced changes in the natural hydrologic regime on riparian ecosystems both temporally and spatially. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hardy R.S.,885 W. Kathleen Ave. | Stephenson S.M.,British Columbia Ministry of forests | Neufeld M.D.,British Columbia Ministry of forests | Young S.P.,Kootenai Tribe of Idaho
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2015

Burbot Lota lota maculosa numbers in Kootenay Lake and Kootenai River of British Columbia, Idaho, and Montana have diminished due to habitat changes from the construction of Libby Dam. Recent implementation of a conservation strategy included aquaculture to supplement the population using a donor stock from a self-sustaining lake population within the watershed. Evaluation of release strategies using telemetry and mark recapture through hoop netting suggests lake-origin Burbot have adapted to the Kootenai system and selected riverine over lacustrine habitat. Previous telemetry work identified good survival and dispersal of released Burbot, and vast dispersal distance and lacustrine use. However, our analysis of a broader telemetry dataset indicated that only 24% of age 1–4 Burbot were detected in the lake. Recapture hoop net data indicated that Burbot residing in the river have growth and survival rates comparable to the historical population. Spawning of hatchery origin fish was detected at historical riverine spawning locations. Other than later spawn timing, our evaluations suggest lake-origin fish are mimicking movement and habitat use of the historical riverine population. This study, in combination with others, provides evidence that Burbot progeny from lacustrine brood stock can successfully survive, grow, disperse, and spawn in a riverine environment. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

Hoyle G.M.,Kootenai Tribe of Idaho | Holderman C.,Kootenai Tribe of Idaho | Anders P.J.,University of Idaho | Shafii B.,University of Idaho | Ashley K.I.,British Columbia Institute of Technology
Freshwater Science | Year: 2014

During the past century, the Kootenai River, Idaho (USA), has experienced cultural oligotrophication following extensive levee construction, channelization, wetland drainage, and impoundment. A multiyear, whole-river nutrient-addition experiment was undertaken to mitigate these effects. The river was dosed with liquid agricultural-grade ammonium polyphosphate fertilizer (10-34-0) from June through September 2006-2010 to achieve an in-river total dissolved P (TDP) concentration of 3.0 μg/L. A fine-scale monitoring program included 8 sites over a 20-km reach (2 upstream control sites, one injection site, and 5 downstream treatment sites). Nutrient addition did not significantly increase N and P concentrations in the water column, but it significandy increased chlorophyll accrual rates and densities of edible green algae and diatoms. Nutrient addition significantly reduced NO3 -+NO2 - concentrations, atomic TN:TP ratios, and densities of inedible cyanophytes. Mean NO3 - +NO2 - values decreased along a downstream gradient below the nutrient-addition site, whereas chlorophyll accrual rate typically peaked immediately downstream from the nutrient addition site then decreased progressively down-stream. Our study showed that nutrient addition is a useful river restoration technique for the Kootenai River. © 2014 by The Society for Freshwater Science.

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