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Kaynar M.,Konya Training and Research Hospital | Kilic O.,Selcuk University | Yurdakul T.,BSK Konya Hospital

To determine the efficacy of tramadol in premature ejaculation (PE) treatment compared with placebo. A single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted with 60 lifelong (primary) patients with PE. The patients were randomized into 2 groups, each consisting of 30 patients, who took tramadol or placebo on demand. PE was defined as an intravaginal ejaculation latency time of ≤60 seconds in 90% of intercourse episodes. The efficacy of the drugs was assessed using the intravaginal ejaculation latency time, ability of ejaculation control, and sexual satisfaction scores after an 8-week treatment period. All participants completed the study voluntarily. Two groups were similar in terms of the patient demographics. Increases in the intravaginal ejaculation latency time, ability of ejaculation control, and sexual satisfaction score between the placebo and tramadol groups were compared with the baseline values in both groups. At the end of study period, the tramadol group had significantly (P <.001) greater values for all 3 parameters compared with those in the placebo group. On-demand use of low-dose tramadol is effective for lifelong PE. Currently, selective seratonin reuptake inhibitors such as dapoxetine, are a more popular treatment option for PE. However, tramadol might be considered an alternative agent for primary PE treatment. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

To compare the healing properties of lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) ointment for chronic anal fissure. Patients with a chronic anal fissure were randomly assigned to a group treated with ISDN ointment (n = 105) or a group treated with LIS (n = 102). The same investigators examined the patients in a blinded manner, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after the treatments. The anal fissure had healed completely by 4 weeks in 64.7 versus 92.2 %, and by 6 months in 77.1 versus 97.1 % of the ISDN and LIS group patients, respectively. At 12 months, the recurrence rates were 4.8 versus 1 % for the ISDN and LIS groups, respectively, and the success rates of the treatments were 72.4 versus 96.1 %, respectively. Six patients in the LIS group experienced minor fecal incontinence, and seven (6.7 %) patients in the ISDN group experienced headaches that responded well to paracetamol. ISDN ointment was reported by all patients to be easy to use. Although its success rate was lower than that of surgery, ISDN can be offered to selected patients with a chronic anal fissure, as it has a low recurrence rate and rare side effects are rare. Source

No data are available on the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to determine whether an association exists between subclinical hypothyroidism and risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents with NAFLD. The study enrolled 111 obese adolescents and 42 lean subjects. The obese subjects were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of fatty liver with high transaminases: a NAFLD group and a non-NAFLD group. Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined as a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level higher than 4 mIU/l and a normal free-thyroxine level (0.6-1.8 ng/dl). Insulin resistance was calculated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Left ventricular mass (LVM), LVM index measurements, carotid intima media thickness (IMT), and HOMA-IR values were higher in the NAFLD obese group with TSH levels higher than 4 mIU/l than in the NAFLD obese group with TSH levels lower than 4 mIU/l. Elevated TSH values in the NAFLD obese group were positively correlated with most of the metabolic and cardiovascular risk parameters such as total cholesterol (r = 0.606, p = 0.001), triglycerides (r = 0.476, p = 0.016), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.461, p = 0.004), insulin (r = 0.607, p = 0.001), HOMA-IR (r = 0.596, p = 0.002), carotid IMT (r = 0.894, p < 0.0001), and LVM (r = 0.563, p = 0.003). The findings demonstrated that the obese adolescents with NAFLD and subclinical hypothyroidism had a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile and a higher carotid IMT and LVM. Source

Summary Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between bone mineral density (BMD) vs insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in obese adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Patients and methods Eighty-two obese adolescents [45 girls and 37 boys, mean age: 12·3 ± 1·7 years, mean body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS): 1·9 ± 0·2] and 30 control subjects (15 girls and 15 boys, mean age: 12·3 ± 1·45 years, mean BMI-SDS: 0·5 ± 0·7) were enrolled the study. The obese subjects were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of liver steatosis with high transaminases (NAFLD group and non-NAFLD group). Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) from fasting samples. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Fasting insulin levels in the NAFLD group were significantly higher than in the non-NAFLD obese (32·3 ± 24·0 vs 11·02 ± 2·95 mU/l, P < 0·001) and control groups (8·4 ± 2·4 mU/l, P< 0·001). The NAFLD group had higher values of HOMA-IR than the non-NAFLD obese (7·3 ± 0·1 vs 2·3 ± 0·7, P < 0·001) and control groups (1·8 ± 0·5, P < 0·001). BMD-SDS measurements were lower in the NAFLD group than in the non-NAFLD (0·56 ± 0·3 vs 1·02 ± 0·9, P < 0·001) and control groups (0·56 ± 0·3 vs 1·37 ± 1·04, P < 0·001). BMD-SDS was positively correlated with BMI-SDS (r = 0·530, P = 0·004) and negatively correlated with HOMA-IR (r = -0·628, P = 0·017) in the NAFLD obese group. Conclusion This study reports the association between BMD-SDS and insulin resistance in obese adolescents both with and without NAFLD, although the NAFLD group had a lower BMD-SDS than the non-NAFLD group. We suggest that NAFLD has a detrimental effect on bone health in adolescents, and it is correlated with increased insulin resistance. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Emiroglu M.,Konya Training and Research Hospital
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are one of the major reasons for morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised children. The majority of IFIs are caused by Candida and Aspergillus species. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy is essential for favorable outcome. Micafungin is a member of the echinocandins, a novel class of antifungal agents that target the biosynthesis of β-1,3-D-glucan, a key fungal cell wall component. It has concentration-dependent fungicidal activity against Candida species and fungistatic activity against Aspergillus species. Although optimal dosing of micafungin in children has not been established, the recommended dosage in children is 2 mg/kg/day (100 mg/day if >40 kg bodyweight) for invasive candidiasis, 1 mg/kg/day (50 mg/day if >40 kg bodyweight) for the prophylaxis of Candida infections in patients with anticipated prolonged and severe neutropenia or in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Micafungin has a favorable safety and drug-drug interaction profile. The most common adverse effects in children are diarrhea, epistaxis, abdominal pain, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills, elevation of alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase values, hypokalemia, thrombocytopenia, mucositis, and rash. Because of its different mechanisms of action, micafungin shows promise as part of the prophylactic and therapeutic management of IFIs, but larger prospective and comparative trials are needed for widespread use in children. © 2011 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source

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