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Background: Various studies have shown that sodium intake is related to increased blood pressure. However, the relationship between sodium intake and cognitive function and depression has not previously been studied. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between 24-h sodium excretion with cognitive function, depression and sleep quality in patients newly diagnosed with essential hypertension. Methods: All patients underwent history taking, physical examination, blood pressure measurement, 12-lead ECG evaluation, routine urine analysis, biochemical analysis and 24-h urine collection to measure urinary sodium and protein excretion and creatinine clearance, evaluation of cognitive function, depressive behaviour and sleep quality. Results: In total, 119 patients newly diagnosed with essential hypertension (50 men and 69 women aged 54.2 ± 16.1 years) were enrolled. The 24-h urinary sodium excretion of the patients was 204.0 ± 240.4 mEq/day. The Standardized Mini Mental State Examination (SMMSE), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Beck Depression Inventory scores of the patients were 26.0 ± 2.7, 5.6 ± 3.1 and 21.6 ± 13.5, respectively. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that 24-h urinary sodium excretion was correlated with age (rho -0.258, p = 0.005), systolic blood pressure (rho 0.219, p = 0.017), diastolic blood pressure (rho 0.195, p = 0.034), creatinine clearance (rho 0.414, p < 0.0001) and SMMSE score (rho -0.257, p = 0.005). Stepwise linear regression of independent factors revealed that gender (p < 0.0001), creatinine clearance (p < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.031) and SMMSE score (p < 0.0001) were independently related to logarithmically converted 24-h sodium excretion. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that better cognitive function, but not depressive behaviour and sleep disturbance, is related to decreased sodium intake as evaluated by 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Studies are needed to highlight the mechanisms regarding the relationship between cognitive function and sodium intake. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Kanbay M.,Istanbul Medeniyet University | Segal M.,University of Florida | Afsar B.,Konya Numune State Hospital | Kang D.-H.,Ewha Womans University | And 2 more authors.
Heart | Year: 2013

Hyperuricaemia is common in subjects with cardiovascular disease, but is not commonly considered a true risk factor. Recent studies suggest that uric acid is biologically active and can stimulate oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and vasoconstriction. Epidemiological studies have found that uric acid can independently predict the development of hypertension, as well as stroke and heart failure. Experimentally raising uric acid in animals increases blood pressure, and pilot studies suggest that lowering uric acid in humans can reduce blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. Uric acid may also have emerging roles in the pathogenesis of kidney disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. More studies need to be performed on the pathophysiology and clinical consequences of hyperuricaemia in cardiovascular disease.


Background: Seroconversion following Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine in hemodialysis (HD) patients has been shown to be suboptimal. Nutritional and immunological factors were shown to influence the seroconversion related to HBV vaccination in HD patients. Resistance to erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) for correction of anemia has also been shown to be associated with nutrition and inflammation in these patients. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationship between anti-HBs response and erythropoietin (EPO) resistance in HD patients. Patients and Methods: Demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters and the data about vaccination status were obtained from dialysis charts and vaccination registries retrospectively. To calculate the EPO resistance ESA hypo responsiveness index (EHRI) was used. The EHRI was calculated through deviding the weekly dose of EPO by per kilogram of body weight divided by the hemoglobin level. Patients were divided into non-seroconversion (anti-HBs titers were < 10 IU/L) and seroconversion groups (anti-HBs titers were ≥ 10 IU/L) after completion of the four-dose vaccination schedule. Results: In total 97 patients were enrolled. For the entire group, stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that square root transformed anti-HBs levels were independently associated with age (P = 0.016), blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.019), high sensitive C-Reactive Protein (P = 0.009), and square root transformed EHRI (P = 0.019). Logistic regression analysis have also demonstrated that blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.002), creatinine (P = 0.046), albumin (P = 0.01) and square root transformed EHRI (P = 0.011) were independently related to seroconversion. Conclusions: EPO resistance was negatively associated with anti-HBs levels and seroconversion. More studies are needed to highlight the underlying mechanisms regarding EPO resistance and response to HBV vaccination in HD patients. © 2013, Nephrology and Urology Research Center; Published by Kowsar Corp.


BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio play a role in the development and progression of cardiovascular complications. Increased urinary albumin and protein excretion has been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between circulating total and differential leukocyte counts including N/L ratio with urinary protein and albumin excretion in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. METHODS: All patients underwent history taking, physical examination, blood pressure measurement, 12-lead electrocardiographic evaluation, routine urine analysis, biochemical analysis, 24-hour urine collection to measure protein and albumin excretion and creatinine clearance. Peripheral total and differential leukocyte analyses were performed using an automated cell counter. RESULTS: In total, 80 patients were included. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that 24-hour urinary protein excretion was correlated with neutrophil count (ρ = 0.280, P = 0.012), lymphocyte count (ρ = -0.365, P = 0.001) and N/L ratio (ρ = 0.474, P < 0.0001). Spearman correlation analysis revealed that 24-hour urinary albumin excretion was correlated with neutrophil count (ρ = 0.261, P = 0.019), lymphocyte count (ρ = -0.278, P = 0.013) and N/L ratio (ρ = 0.415, P < 0.0001). In stepwise linear regression analysis, 24-hour urinary protein excretion was independently associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.01), blood urea (P = 0.014) and N/L ratio (P = 0.041). On the other hand, 24-hour urinary albumin excretion was independently associated with creatinine clearance (P = 0.004), albumin (P < 0.0001) and N/L ratio (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that increased N/L ratio was independently related with both 24-hour urinary protein and urinary albumin excretion in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes.


Objective: There are very few studies in the literature investigating the Internet use in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, no study examined the relationship between Internet and social media use and quality of life, depression, cognitive function and sleep problems in HD patients. Methods: The study is cross-sectional in design. All patients underwent history taking; physical examination; laboratory analysis and quality of life (by a short form of the Medical Outcomes Study), depression (by the Beck Depression Inventory), cognitive function (by the Standardized Mini Mental State Examination) and sleep problems (by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) evaluation. Results: In total, 134 HD patients (male/female: 73/61, age: 53.0±13.4 years) were included. Patients with mail, Facebook and Twitter accounts were younger, were less depressive, had better quality of life, had higher cognitive function and were more educated compared to patients who did not have these accounts. Patients with Internet-based research about their disease were less depressive, had better quality of life and sleep quality, had higher cognitive function and were more educated compared to patients who did not have Internet-based research. Conclusion: Internet and social media use was closely related with quality of life, depression, cognitive function and education in HD patients. Studies are needed on whether Internet use under the supervision of health care professionals will improve clinical outcomes, adherence, quality of life, depression and decision making in HD patients. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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