PubMed | Center for Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases and Konstantopouleio General Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of global antimicrobial resistance | Year: 2016
Acquisition of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) strains poses a major threat to critically ill patients. The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemiology of CP-Kp isolates as well as the clinical outcome associated with the corresponding infections and to identify risk factors for mortality of intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a Greek hospital. A prospective, observational study was conducted in a nine-bed general ICU over a 2-year period (April 2010-March 2012). Imipenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from clinical samples of ICU patients were prospectively collected and studied for the presence of carbapenemases. Isolates were submitted to molecular typing using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total, 61 CP-Kp isolates (48 KPC-producers and 13 VIM-producers) were recovered from 58 ICU patients. The majority of KPC-producers were classified into a single PFGE type, indicating potent clonal dissemination. Among the 32 infected patients, bacteraemia was diagnosed in 16. Tigecycline+colistin was the most common combination antimicrobial regimen. Infection-attributable mortality was 43.8%. Regarding mortality risk factors, non-survivors were older (P=0.080), all of them presented with septic shock (P=0.010) and they had higher Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores at infection onset (P=0.004) compared with survivors. Appropriate definitive treatment and combination regimens were not associated with patient survival. In conclusion, CP-Kp infections are associated with limited treatment options and high in-hospital mortality. Effective measures for preventing dissemination of respective isolates in the hospital setting are required.
PubMed | Agios Savvas Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and Konstantopouleio General Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Radiation protection dosimetry | Year: 2016
All orthopaedic fluoroscopic procedures performed using C-arm guidance were monitored for 1 y. The type of procedure, fluoroscopy time (T), kerma-area product (KAP) values and number of radiographs (F) were recorded. The two most often performed techniques were as follows: intramedullary nailing (IMN) of intertrochanteric/peritrochanteric (IP) fractures (101 cases, 49.3 %) and antergrade IMN of femur or tibia shaft (TS) fractures (28 cases, 13.7 %). For the remaining procedures, none accounted for >5 %, categorised as various (76 cases, 37 %). Large variations in T, KAP and F were observed. For IMN of IP fractures, antergrade IMN of femur and TS fractures and for various procedures, respectively, median values were T--2.1, 2.2 and 0.6 min, KAP--6.3, 6.3 and 0.6 Gy cm(-2) and F--21, 2.2 and 6.7. The patient doses during fluoroscopically guided procedures are relatively low compared with other interventional procedures.
Charalampopoulos A.F.,General Hospital of Nikaea |
Nikolaou N.I.,Konstantopouleio General Hospital
Resuscitation | Year: 2011
Objective: The medication used in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has by no means yielded the expected prognostic benefit. This review focuses on drugs that are currently under investigation as part of novel therapeutic strategies in CPR and post-resuscitation care. Data sources: The main categories of drugs under investigation were identified in position papers regarding gaps in scientific knowledge and research priorities in CPR. The electronic bases of Medline via PubMed and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry were searched. Research terms were identified using the MESH database and were combined thereafter. Initial search terms were " cardiac arrest", " cardiopulmonary resuscitation", " post-cardiac arrest syndrome" combined with " drugs" and also the names of pharmaceutical categories and related drugs. Results: Novel pharmaceutical approaches rely on a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cardiac arrest and post-resuscitation syndrome. Some medications are targeted primarily towards enhancing the return of spontaneous circulation and increasing survival rates, while others mostly aim at the attenuation of post-arrest myocardial and neurological impairment. Only a few of these therapies are currently being evaluated for clinical use. Despite the remarkable variability in study quality and success in achieving therapeutic targets, results for most therapies seem encouraging and support the continuation of research. Conclusion: New pharmaceutical modalities are being investigated for future use in CPR. Currently, none has been unequivocally accepted for clinical use, while only a few of them are undergoing clinical testing. This research is likely to continue, in view of the unsatisfactory results of current pharmaceutical therapies and the encouraging results of preliminary studies. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
PubMed | University of Thessaly, Konstantopouleio General Hospital, Imperial College London, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Acta tropica | Year: 2016
Murine or endemic typhus, a febrile disease caused by Rickettsia typhi, is often misdiagnosed due to its non-specific presentation. We sought to evaluate all available evidence in the literature regarding the clinical and laboratory manifestations, epidemiological characteristics, and outcomes of murine typhus. Pubmed was searched for all articles providing available data. In an effort to incorporate contemporary data, only studies from 1980 were included. Thirty-three case series including 2074 patients were included in final analysis. Available evidence suggests that the classic triad of fever, headache and rash is encountered in only one-third of patients. Other frequent symptoms were chills, malaise, myalgia, and anorexia. A tetrad of reported laboratory abnormalities consisting of elevated liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and hypoalbuminemia was detected. Complications were observed in one-fourth of patients, reported mortality was extremely low, but untreated patients had notably longer duration of fever. Among epidemiological characteristics, a seasonal distribution with most cases reported during warmer months, was the most prominent finding. Murine typhus in children exhibits several different characteristics, with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and sore throat reported more commonly, higher frequency of anemia, lower frequency of hypoalbuminemia, hematuria and proteinuria and a much lower rate of complications. This systematic review of published evidence provides a thorough description of the clinical and laboratory features of murine typhus and highlights important differences in children.
Triantopoulou C.,Konstantopouleio General Hospital |
Kolliakou E.,Konstantopouleio General Hospital |
Karoumpalis I.,G Gennimatas General Hospital |
Yarmenitis S.,Ygeia General Hospital |
Dervenis C.,Konstantopouleio General Hospital
Insights into Imaging | Year: 2012
Metastatic lesions of the pancreas are uncommon, accounting for approximately 2% of pancreatic malignancies. Many tumours involve the pancreas secondarily and may manifest with different clinical and imaging characteristics. Although many patients have widespread disease, isolated metastases can be found. Surgical management is associated with improved survival in these cases. The experience of the pancreatic surgery unit and imaging department of our hospital in many patients presenting with pancreatic metastases is presented, and a review of the recent literature is undertaken. Main Messages • The early recognition of secondary pancreatic tumours on US, CT and MRI is extremely important. • Pancreatic metastases may mimic primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma or induce acute pancreatitis. • Most pancreatic metastases are discovered on a CT examination performed for follow-up. © European Society of Radiology 2011.
Antoniadis P.N.,Konstantopouleio General Hospital |
Kyriakidis K.D.,Konstantopouleio General Hospital |
Paraskevas K.I.,Red Cross
Angiology | Year: 2012
Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (EVAR) procedures require lifelong patient surveillance for the detection of complications (eg, endoleaks or graft migration). This follow-up may be suboptimal. Between November 2010 and November 2011, a follow-up booklet was provided at hospital discharge to 42 consecutive patients undergoing EVAR for an infrarenal AAA. Each patient was given specific instructions for completion of the booklet at each follow-up examination whether this took place at our hospital or elsewhere. After a mean follow-up of 7 ± 3 months, all patients had fully complied with the instructions. This booklet may be useful for patients who find it difficult to attend follow-up appointments. Additionally, this booklet is useful for patients who move to another town/country or in cases of emergency when patients are admitted to another hospital. © The Author(s) 2012.
Nikolaou N.I.,Konstantopouleio General Hospital |
Christou A.H.,Konstantopouleio General Hospital
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology | Year: 2013
Management and prevention of cardiac arrest in the setting of heart disease is a challenge for modern cardiology. After reviewing the aetiology of sudden cardiac death and discussing the way to identify candidates at risk, we emphasise the role of percutaneous coronary interventions during and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the treatment of patients with return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Konstantopouleio General Hospital
Type: | Journal: European journal of radiology open | Year: 2016
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts). The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3-4mm). This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure-consistency (areas of necrosis-hemorrhage-fibrosis-inflammation), the degree of vessels infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins. Missed findings by imaging or pitfalls were recorded and we tried to explain all discrepancies between radiology evaluation and the histopathological findings. Radiologic-pathologic correlation is extremely important, adding crucial information on imaging limitations and enabling quality assessment of surgical specimens. The deep knowledge of different pancreatic tumors consistency and way of extension helps to improve radiologists diagnostic accuracy and minimize the radiological-surgical mismatching, preventing patients from unnecessary surgery.
PubMed | Konstantopouleio General Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT | Year: 2016
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) has improved postoperative outcomes particularly in colorectal surgery. This study aimed to assess compliance with an ERAS protocol and evaluate its effect on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy.Fifty patients who had received conventional perioperative management from 2005 to 2009 (conventional group) were compared with 75 patients who had received perioperative care with an ERAS protocol (fast-track group) from 2010 to 2014. Mortality, complications, readmissions and length of hospital stay were evaluated and compared in the groups.Compliance with each element of the ERAS protocol ranged from 74.7% to 100%. Uneventful patients had a significant higher adherence to the ERAS protocol (87.5% vs 40.7%; P<0.001). There were no significant differences in demographics and perioperative characteristics between the two groups. Patients in the fast-track group had a shorter time to remove the nasogastric tube, start liquid diet and solid food, pass flatus and stools, and remove drains. No difference was found in mortality, relaparotomy, readmission rates and overall morbidity. However, delayed gastric emptying and length of hospital stay were significantly reduced in the fast-track group. The independent effect of the ERAS protocol in reducing delayed gastric emptying and length of hospital stay was confirmed by multivariate analysis.ERAS pathway was feasible and safe in improving gastric emptying, yielding an earlier postoperative recovery, and reducing the length of hospital stay.
PubMed | Konstantopouleio General Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy) | Year: 2016
Tigecycline has a broad-spectrum in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. However, some Gram-negative bacteria are intrinsically resistant or have reduced susceptibility to tigecycline. We performed a prospective, observational study of 43 patients who received tigecycline as the treatment for serious infections due to MDR Gram-negative microorganisms, to evaluate superinfections. In 60.5% of our patients, tigecycline-resistant (T-R) Gram-negative microorganisms were isolated, representing superinfection in 37.2% and colonization in 23.5%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the predominant pathogen (48.4%) followed by Providencia stuartii, Proteus mirabilis and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Median time elapsed between tigecycline prescription and isolation of T-R pathogens was 7days. The 16 superinfections consisted of ventilator-associated pneumonias (43.75%), catheter-related bloodstream infections (37.5%), intra-abdominal infections (12.5%) and urinary tract infection (6.25%). Attributed mortality to superinfections was 31.25%. The comparison of various potential risk factors for isolation of T-R microorganisms did not reveal statistically significant results.