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Gucsik A.,University of Johannesburg | Gucsik A.,Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute | Endo T.,Okayama University of Science | Nishido H.,Okayama University of Science | And 14 more authors.
Meteoritics and Planetary Science | Year: 2013

Highly forsteritic olivine (Fo: 99.2-99.7) in the Kaba meteorite emits bright cathodoluminescence (CL). CL spectra of red luminescent forsterite grains have two broad emission bands at approximately 630 nm (impurity center of divalent Mn ions) in the red region and above 700 nm (trivalent Cr ions) in the red-IR region. The cores of the grains show CL blue luminescence giving a characteristic broad band emission at 400 nm, also associated with minor red emissions related to Mn and Cr ions. CL color variation of Kaba forsterite is attributed to structural defects. Electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) analysis shows concentrations of Ca, Al, and Ti in the center of the forsterite grain. The migration of diffusible ions of Mn, Cr, and Fe to the rim of the Kaba meteoritic forsterite was controlled by the hydrothermal alteration at relatively low temperature (estimated at about 250 °C), while Ca and Al ions might still lie in the core. A very unusual phase of FeO (wüstite) was also observed, which may be a terrestrial alteration product of FeNi-metal. © The Meteoritical Society, 2013.

De Vera J.-P.,German Aerospace Center | Dulai S.,Eszterházy Károly College | Kereszturi A.,New Europe School for Theoretical Biology and Ecology | Kereszturi A.,Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Astrobiology | Year: 2014

Tests on cyanobacteria communities embedded in cryptobiotic crusts collected in hot and cold deserts on Earth were performed under Mars-like conditions. The simulations were realized as a survey, to find the best samples for future research. During the tests organisms have to resist Mars-like conditions such as atmospheric composition, pressure, variable humidity (saturated and dry conditions) and partly strong UV irradiation. Organisms were tested within their original habitat inside the crust. Nearly half of the cryptobiotic samples from various sites showed survival of a substantial part of their coexisting organisms. The survival in general depended more on the nature of the original habitat and type of the sample than on the different conditions they were exposed to. The best survival was observed in samples from United Arab Emirates (Jebel Ali, 25Â km SW of Dubai town) and from Western Australia (near the South edge of Lake Barley), by taxa: Tolypothrix byssoidea, Gloeocapsopsis pleurocapsoides, Nostoc microscopicum, Leptolyngbya or Symploca sp. At both places in salty desert areas members of the Chenopodiaceae family dominated among the higher plants and in the cryptobiotic crust cyanobacterial taxa Tolypothrix was dominant. These organisms were all living in salty locations with dry conditions most of the year. Among them Tolypothrix, Gloeocapsopsis and Symploca sp. were tested in Mars simulation chambers for the first time. The results suggest that extremophiles should be tested with taken into account the context of their original microenvironment, and also the importance to analyse communities of microbes beside single organisms. © 2013 Cambridge University Press.

PubMed | Wigner Research Center for Physics, Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute, Institute for Geological and Geochemical Research, International Meteorite Collectors Association IMCA and 6251 and Geographical Institute
Type: | Journal: Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy | Year: 2016

Correlating the Raman and infrared spectra of shocked minerals in Cstalja ordinary chondrite (H4, S2, W2) with controlling the composition by EPMA measurements, we identified and improved various shock indicators, as infrared spectro-microscopic analysis has been poorly used for shock impact alteration studies of meteorites to date. We also provide reference spectra as SOM for the community with local mineralogical and shock alteration related context to support further standardization of the IR ATR based measurements. Raman band positions shifted in conjunction with the increase in full width half maximum (FWHM) with shock stage in olivine minerals while in the infrared spectra when comparing the IR band positions and IR maximal absorbance, increasing correlation was found as a function of increasing shock effects. This is the first observational confirmation with the ATR method of the already expected shock related disordering. In the case of shocked pyroxenes the well-known peak broadening and peak shift was confirmed by Raman method, beyond the level that could have been produced by only chemical changes. With increasing shock level the 852-864cm

Jasko A.,Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute | Aitink-Kroes G.,NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group | Agocs T.,NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group | Venema L.,ASTRON | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

In this paper a status report is given on the development of the FAME (Freeform Active Mirror Experiment) active array. Further information regarding this project can be found in the paper by Venema et al. (this conference). Freeform optics provide the opportunity to drastically reduce the complexity of the future optical instruments. In order to produce these non-axisymmetric freeform optics with up to 1 mm deviation from the best fit sphere, it is necessary to come up with new design and manufacturing methods. The way we would like to create novel freeform optics is by fine tuning a preformed high surface-quality thin mirror using an array which is actively controlled by actuators. In the following we introduce the tools deployed to create and assess the individual designs. The result is an active array having optimal number and lay-out of actuators. © 2014 SPIE.

Agocs T.,NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group | Kroes G.,NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group | Venema L.,ASTRON | Hugot E.,Aix - Marseille University | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

In this paper we present the design of freeform mirror based optical systems that have the potential to be used in future astronomical instrumentation in the era of extremely large ground based telescopes. Firstly we describe the optical requirements followed by a summary of the optimization methodology used to design the freeform surface. The intention is to create optical architectures, which not only have the numerous advantages of freeform based systems (increased optical performance and/or reduction of mass and volume), but also can be manufactured and tested with today's manufacturing techniques and technologies. The team plans to build a demonstrator based on one of the optical design examples presented in this paper. The demonstrator will be built and tested as part of the OPTICON FP7 Freeform Active Mirror Experiment (FAME) project. A hydroforming technique developed as part of the previous OPTICON FP7 project will be used to produce an accurate, compact and stable freeform mirror. The manufacturing issues normally experienced in the production of freeform mirrors are solved through the hydroforming of thin polished substrates, which then will be supported with an active array structure. The active array will be used to compensate for residual manufacturing errors, thermo-elastic deformation and gravity-induced errors. © 2014 SPIE.

Challita Z.,Aix - Marseille University | Agocs T.,NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group | Hugot E.,Aix - Marseille University | Jasko A.,Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute | And 9 more authors.
Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

The advent of extremely large telescopes will bring unprecedented light-collecting power and spatial resolution, but it will also lead to a significant increase in the size and complexity of focal-plane instruments. The use of freeform mirrors could drastically reduce the number of components in optical systems. Currently, manufacturing issues limit the common use of freeform mirrors at short wavelengths. This article outlines the use of freeform mirrors in astronomical instruments with a description of two efficient freeform optical systems. A new manufacturing method is presented which seeks to overcome the manufacturing issues through hydroforming of thin polished substrates. A specific design of an active array is detailed, which will compensate for residual manufacturing errors, thermoelastic deformation, and gravity-induced errors during observations. The combined hydroformed mirror and the active array comprise the Freeform Active Mirror Experiment, which will produce an accurate, compact, and stable freeform optics dedicated to visible and near-infrared observations. © 2014 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

Kereszturi A.,Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute | Gyollai I.,University of Vienna | Szabo M.,Institute of Geological and Geochemical Research
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2015

Analyzing the alteration in an olivine chondrule of the NWA 2086 CV3 meteorite, infrared spectral, electron microprobe and optical microscopic observations were correlated to each other. The intensity and wavelength positions of olivine peaks changed characteristically with the progression of alteration and related Fe/Mg substitution inward of the chondrule. Moderate to good correlations were identified between Fo% composition and positions of 830 and 860 cm-1 IR peaks. The disappearance of 1020 cm-1 peak by structural change happens already at a low level alteration without changing the optical appearance of the mineral. The existence of the 980 cm-1 peak is found to be an indicator of the intact phase of olivine. While profiles perpendicular to the chondrule's perimeter showed that the alteration progressed 15-20 μm distance inward without observable fractures (probablly by some diffusion related process), the "alteration distance" from various obvious fractures inside the chondrule was only 3-5 μm distance. These observations suggest that the substitution was more effective close to the matrix, and also related to some fluids that although were able to circulate along the large internal fractures too, did not produce such strong substitution there, like what happened close to the matrix. It was also demonstrated that the poorly exploited contact mode observations with ATR based reflection method in infrared spectroscopy provide a useful tool to analyze the alteration at micrometer scale without much sample preparation, and enable identifying alterations already at such a low level where the olivines still look optically intact. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Kereszturi A.,Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute | Rivera-Valentin E.G.,Arecibo Observatory USRA
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2016

In this work we evaluate a new model on the possibility, could microscopic liquid water supported grain movement on Mars happen at the circumpolar region (in Richardson crater) today, combined with the analysis of new HiRISE ESP images. We confirmed earlier (PSP images based) findings on the morphology, sequential growth and two separate phased formation method of flow features emanate from Dark Dune Spots (1: gas-jet driven streaks toward different directions, 2: flow-like streaks downward). We also identified that the gas-jet ejected and back fallen grains surrounded by water ice produce local enrichment of H2O, forming local water ice layer.Several model scenarios were developed and evaluated to exploit the possibilities of liquid supported flow, including the increased thickness of interfacial liquid layer by salts and impurities, the collapse and movement of loose stratum of air-fallen dust-salt mixture with interbedded liquid layers, the mechanical force to kick-off the movement by hydration/dehydration cycles, and the migrating phase change plus the seeping of thin liquid film around interconnected grains. Selecting the most relevant elements among them, which are also compatible to our current knowledge of Mars, a comprehensive model was built that could be tested. This best model contains four interconnected and subsequent elements: 1. deposition of airfall dust in autumn and winter producing a loose surface layer, 2. spatial concentration of H2O ice by gas-jet activity during the CO2 sublimation phase, 3. mechanical kick-off by daily expansion/contraction cycles to mix the components, 4. engulfed hygroscopic salts and dust grains to enlarge the ratio of liquid to support the flow. The emerged self-amplifying process could produce daily movement in theory. The scenario contains realistic elements; it is in agreement with the observations, and also being testable by laboratory modelling. The analyzed locations are important because of the joint occurrence of concentrated water ice, elevated temperature and moving flow-features; and it also provides insight into the possible current action of liquid water on Mars. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Kereszturi A.,Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2014

Surface properties of small asteroids are reviewed in this work focusing on microgravity related processes in order to give constrains for targeting sample acquisition by next missions, especially for MarcoPolo-R proposed by ESA. Based on our current knowledge and the planned capabilities of this mission, good chance exists to get answers for the following basic questions. Formation method of nanophase iron and amorphous ingredients in the regolith could be determined, surface particle size and regolith density estimation would also be gained, and with extrapolation to the rest of the surface, knowledge on transport processes, ages and results of cratering under special gravity-strength regime will be improved. Searching for fresh material on asteroid surface in general requires sophisticated effort, as small craters often do not produce much ejecta in microgravity, but the bright annuli around them could be the result of local surface disturbance, while slopes often exhibit fresh material. To identify these locations high albedo, bluer colour and occasionally the depth of 1 μm absorption band could be useful as they often change parallel to each other. To identify the best area for sample acquisition addresses a strategic question: while smooth terrains with easy navigation and sample acquisition provide strongly weathered fine grains; steeper terrains give access to less weathered, material more representative for the whole asteroid, but navigation and mechanical sampling rise difficulties there. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Schegerer A.A.,Max Planck Institute for Astronomy | Schegerer A.A.,Federal office for Radiation Protection | Ratzka T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Schuller P.A.,University of Cologne | And 3 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2013

Aims. We investigate the structure of the innermost region of three circumstellar disks around pre-main sequence stars HD 142666, AS 205 N, and AS 205 S. We determine the inner radii of the dust disks and, in particular, search for transition objects where dust has been depleted and inner disk gaps have formed at radii of a few tenths of AU up to several AU. Methods. We performed interferometric observations with IOTA, AMBER, and MIDI in the infrared wavelength ranges 1.6-2.5 μm and 8-13 μm with projected baseline lengths between 25 m and 102 m. The data analysis was based on radiative transfer simulations in 3D models of young stellar objects (YSOs) to reproduce the spectral energy distribution and the interferometric visibilities simultaneously. Accretion effects and disk gaps could be considered in the modeling approach. Results from previous studies restricted the parameter space. Results. The objects of this study were spatially resolved in the infrared wavelength range using the interferometers. Based on these observations, a disk gap could be found for the source HD 142666 that classifies it as transition object. There is a disk hole up to a radius of Rin = 0.30 AU and a (dust-free) ring between 0.35 AU and 0.80 AU in the disk of HD 142666. The classification of AS 205 as a system of classical T Tauri stars could be confirmed using the canonical model approach, i.e., there are no hints of disk gaps in our observations. © ESO, 2013.

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