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Kereszturi A.,Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute | Gyollai I.,University of Vienna | Szabo M.,Institute of Geological and Geochemical Research
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2015

Analyzing the alteration in an olivine chondrule of the NWA 2086 CV3 meteorite, infrared spectral, electron microprobe and optical microscopic observations were correlated to each other. The intensity and wavelength positions of olivine peaks changed characteristically with the progression of alteration and related Fe/Mg substitution inward of the chondrule. Moderate to good correlations were identified between Fo% composition and positions of 830 and 860 cm-1 IR peaks. The disappearance of 1020 cm-1 peak by structural change happens already at a low level alteration without changing the optical appearance of the mineral. The existence of the 980 cm-1 peak is found to be an indicator of the intact phase of olivine. While profiles perpendicular to the chondrule's perimeter showed that the alteration progressed 15-20 μm distance inward without observable fractures (probablly by some diffusion related process), the "alteration distance" from various obvious fractures inside the chondrule was only 3-5 μm distance. These observations suggest that the substitution was more effective close to the matrix, and also related to some fluids that although were able to circulate along the large internal fractures too, did not produce such strong substitution there, like what happened close to the matrix. It was also demonstrated that the poorly exploited contact mode observations with ATR based reflection method in infrared spectroscopy provide a useful tool to analyze the alteration at micrometer scale without much sample preparation, and enable identifying alterations already at such a low level where the olivines still look optically intact. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Kereszturi A.,Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute | Kereszturi A.,The New School | Rivera-Valentin E.G.,National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2016

In this work we evaluate a new model on the possibility, could microscopic liquid water supported grain movement on Mars happen at the circumpolar region (in Richardson crater) today, combined with the analysis of new HiRISE ESP images. We confirmed earlier (PSP images based) findings on the morphology, sequential growth and two separate phased formation method of flow features emanate from Dark Dune Spots (1: gas-jet driven streaks toward different directions, 2: flow-like streaks downward). We also identified that the gas-jet ejected and back fallen grains surrounded by water ice produce local enrichment of H2O, forming local water ice layer.Several model scenarios were developed and evaluated to exploit the possibilities of liquid supported flow, including the increased thickness of interfacial liquid layer by salts and impurities, the collapse and movement of loose stratum of air-fallen dust-salt mixture with interbedded liquid layers, the mechanical force to kick-off the movement by hydration/dehydration cycles, and the migrating phase change plus the seeping of thin liquid film around interconnected grains. Selecting the most relevant elements among them, which are also compatible to our current knowledge of Mars, a comprehensive model was built that could be tested. This best model contains four interconnected and subsequent elements: 1. deposition of airfall dust in autumn and winter producing a loose surface layer, 2. spatial concentration of H2O ice by gas-jet activity during the CO2 sublimation phase, 3. mechanical kick-off by daily expansion/contraction cycles to mix the components, 4. engulfed hygroscopic salts and dust grains to enlarge the ratio of liquid to support the flow. The emerged self-amplifying process could produce daily movement in theory. The scenario contains realistic elements; it is in agreement with the observations, and also being testable by laboratory modelling. The analyzed locations are important because of the joint occurrence of concentrated water ice, elevated temperature and moving flow-features; and it also provides insight into the possible current action of liquid water on Mars. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Gyollai I.,Eotvos Lorand University | Gyollai I.,University of Vienna | Gyollai I.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Berczi S.,Eotvos Lorand University | And 4 more authors.
Central European Geology | Year: 2015

The Mócs chondrite was studied by optical microscopy, element mapping, as well as scanning electron microscope backscattered electron (SEM-BSE) imaging, in order to gain a better understanding of the thermal metamorphic as well as post-shock annealing evolution and the mineralogical signatures in this meteorite. The studied thin section of Mócs meteorite contains 26 chondrules with a variety of chondrule textures, which are characterized by a blurry rim. The chondrules mostly consist of pyroxene and olivine, whereas feldspars occur only in the recrystallized groundmass, chondrule mesostasis, and mineral melt inside and beyond the shock veins. It was found that the matrix was completely recrystallized. According to the scanning electron microscope and optical microscope observations mentioned above, it can be concluded that the Mócs chondrite is a 6.5 petrographic type. © 2015 The Author(s).

Agocs T.,NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group | Kroes G.,NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group | Venema L.,ASTRON | Hugot E.,Aix - Marseille University | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

In this paper we present the design of freeform mirror based optical systems that have the potential to be used in future astronomical instrumentation in the era of extremely large ground based telescopes. Firstly we describe the optical requirements followed by a summary of the optimization methodology used to design the freeform surface. The intention is to create optical architectures, which not only have the numerous advantages of freeform based systems (increased optical performance and/or reduction of mass and volume), but also can be manufactured and tested with today's manufacturing techniques and technologies. The team plans to build a demonstrator based on one of the optical design examples presented in this paper. The demonstrator will be built and tested as part of the OPTICON FP7 Freeform Active Mirror Experiment (FAME) project. A hydroforming technique developed as part of the previous OPTICON FP7 project will be used to produce an accurate, compact and stable freeform mirror. The manufacturing issues normally experienced in the production of freeform mirrors are solved through the hydroforming of thin polished substrates, which then will be supported with an active array structure. The active array will be used to compensate for residual manufacturing errors, thermo-elastic deformation and gravity-induced errors. © 2014 SPIE.

Kereszturi A.,Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2014

Surface properties of small asteroids are reviewed in this work focusing on microgravity related processes in order to give constrains for targeting sample acquisition by next missions, especially for MarcoPolo-R proposed by ESA. Based on our current knowledge and the planned capabilities of this mission, good chance exists to get answers for the following basic questions. Formation method of nanophase iron and amorphous ingredients in the regolith could be determined, surface particle size and regolith density estimation would also be gained, and with extrapolation to the rest of the surface, knowledge on transport processes, ages and results of cratering under special gravity-strength regime will be improved. Searching for fresh material on asteroid surface in general requires sophisticated effort, as small craters often do not produce much ejecta in microgravity, but the bright annuli around them could be the result of local surface disturbance, while slopes often exhibit fresh material. To identify these locations high albedo, bluer colour and occasionally the depth of 1 μm absorption band could be useful as they often change parallel to each other. To identify the best area for sample acquisition addresses a strategic question: while smooth terrains with easy navigation and sample acquisition provide strongly weathered fine grains; steeper terrains give access to less weathered, material more representative for the whole asteroid, but navigation and mechanical sampling rise difficulties there. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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