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Pohang, South Korea

Seo H.W.,Seoul National University | Han K.,Seoul National University | Kim D.,Seoul National University | Oh Y.,Seoul National University | And 4 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2011

The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of an inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine on PCV2b virus shedding in the semen of experimentally infected boars by measuring the immunological response and the PCV2b DNA load in blood and semen. Twelve boars were randomly divided into three groups. The boars in group 1 (n = 4) were immunized with an inactivated PCV2 vaccine and were challenged with PCV2b. The boars in group 2 (n = 4) were only challenged with PCV2b. The boars in group 3 (n = 4) served as negative controls. The number of PCV2 genome copies of PCV2 in the serum and semen were significantly lower in vaccinated challenged boars than in nonvaccinated challenged boars at 7, 10, 14, 21, 32, 35, 42, 49, and 60 days postinoculation. The number of PCV2b genomes in the semen correlated with the number of PCV2b genomes in the blood in both vaccinated challenged (R = 0.714) and nonvaccinated challenged (R = 0.861) boars. The results of the present study demonstrate that the inactivated PCV2 vaccine significantly decreases the amount of PCV2b DNA shedding in semen from vaccinated boars after experimental infection with PCV2b. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Paudel S.,Chungnam National University | Park J.E.,Chungnam National University | Jang H.,Komipharm International Co. | Shin H.J.,Chungnam National University | Shin H.J.,Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine
Veterinary Quarterly | Year: 2014

Background: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an economically important pathogen of swine.Objective: Serum neutralization (SN) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test results as well as the utility of spike proteins S1, S2, and S3 and entire nucleocapsid protein were compared.Animals and methods: Serum samples from 400 pigs vaccinated against PEDV strain SM98P were collected from 78 farms in Korea. SN test and ELISA were performed to confirm the presence of antibodies. For prokaryotic expression of partial fragments of spike protein the size and location of S1, S2, and S3, and full nucleocapsid protein, polymerase chain reaction was performed using specific primers.Results: Comparison of these results demonstrated that there was a correlation between the SN and ELISA results. Sera with higher neutralizing activity also had higher IgG titer. The antibody profiling data presented the correlation of neutralizing activity with the level of spike protein antibody. In particular, the S3 region may have an important role in neutralizing activity.Conclusions: We confirmed that the carboxy-terminal region that includes the endodomain of the S protein induced stronger neutralizing activity than the region that includes the ectodomain.Clinical relevance: The region of the S protein may have a stronger neutralizing KPEDV-9 epitope and could be useful for the evaluation of future PEDV vaccine efficacy. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Kim Y.,University of Ulsan | Jeong I.G.,University of Ulsan | You D.,University of Ulsan | Song S.H.,University of Ulsan | And 4 more authors.
Anti-Cancer Drugs | Year: 2014

Sodium meta-arsenite (NaAsO2), a novel compound synthesized by Komipham International Co. Ltd, is an orally bioavailable, water-soluble trivalent arsenical that has shown potent cytotoxic activity in human solid cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and is currently undergoing phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer. In this study, mechanisms of cell death induced by sodium meta-arsenite were investigated. Sodium meta-arsenite reduced cell viability and increased the sub-G1 population in cell cycle analysis in both androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-insensitive CWR22RV1 cells. The apoptosis induced by sodium meta-arsenite was associated with cleavage of caspases 3, 8, and 9, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and increased annexin V-positive cells, and was inhibited by the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk. Sodium meta-arsenite also increased the level of the autophagy marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and the number of autophagic vacuoles as shown by electron microscopy. Both the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine and the necrosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 blocked cell death induced by sodium meta-arsenite. Moreover, sodium meta-arsenite led to the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, decreased sodium meta-arsenite-induced levels of cleaved PARP and LC3-II. Propidium iodide (PI) staining also showed that NAC restored membrane integrity, damaged by sodium meta-arsenite. Therefore, these results suggest that sodium meta-arsenite induces apoptotic, necrotic, and autophagic cell death through intracellular ROS accumulation in both androgen-sensitive and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells and may be used as a new anticancer drug for the treatment of prostate cancer. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Paudel S.,Chungnam National University | Park J.E.,Chungnam National University | Jang H.,Komipharm International Co. | Hyun B.H.,Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Quarterly | Year: 2014

Background: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an infectious, highly contagious virus, and is an etiological agent of acute entero-pathogenic diarrhea in swine.Objectives: Evaluation of the antibody response of two types of PEDV vaccines is to be carried out.Animals and methods: Sows were vaccinated with either live or killed commercial PEDV SM98 (GenBank: GU937797.1) vaccines. Four different groups of sows with five sows in each group were used in this study: the unvaccinated negative control group, the killed virus vaccination group with killed virus boosting (K/K), the live virus vaccinated group with live virus boosting (L/L), and the combination group vaccinated with live virus and subsequently boosted with killed vaccine (L/K). Sows were vaccinated intramuscularly twice at four and two weeks prior to farrowing with 2ml/head vaccine dose. Antibody titers in sow and piglet serum one week after farrowing and that in colostrum were compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and serum neutralization test.Results: Vaccination with K/K vaccine induced the highest level of IgG and IgA in sow serum, colostrum, and especially in piglet serum, with the lowest levels found in the L/L group. The major neutralizing activity was also found in the K/K group, particularly in colostrum, with piglets bearing higher neutralizing activity compared to sow sera. Among recombinant spike S1, S2, S3, and nucleocapsid N protein of PEDV, S3 protein presented the highest antibody level in the K/K group.Conclusion: Killed PEDV SM98 vaccine induced higher antibody levels.Clinical importance: This study clearly confirms that killed vaccine has induced higher antibody levels and may contribute to the design of future research and vaccine programs. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Woo S.R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Ham Y.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kang W.,Sungkyunkwan University | Yang H.,Sungkyunkwan University | And 6 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

Standard treatment for glioblastoma comprises surgical resection, chemotherapy with temozolomide, and radiotherapy. Nevertheless, majority of glioblastoma patients have recurrence from resistance to the cytotoxic conventional therapies. We examined combinational effects of KML001, an arsenic compound targeting telomeres of chromosomes with temozolomide or irradiation, in glioblastoma cell lines and xenograft models, to overcome the therapeutic limitation of chemoradiation therapy for glioblastoma. Although KML001 alone showed little effects on in vitro survival of glioblastoma cells, cell death by in vitro temozolomide treatment or irradiation was synergistically potentiated by combination with KML001. Since phosphorylated γ-H2AX, cleaved casepase-3, and cleaved PARP were dramatically increased by KML001, the synergistic effects would be mediated by increased DNA damage and subsequent tumor cell apoptosis. Combinatorial effects of KML001 were observed not only in chemo- and radiosensitive glioblastoma cell line, U87MG, but also in the resistant cell line, U251MG. In the U87MG glioblastoma xenograft models, KML001 did not have systemic toxicity but showed synergistic therapeutic effects in combination with temozolomide or irradiation to reduce tumor volumes significantly. These data indicated that KML001 could be a candidate sensitizer to potentiate therapeutic effects of conventional cytotoxic treatment for glioblastoma. © 2014 Seon Rang Woo et al.

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