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Amuasi J.H.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital KATH | Amuasi J.H.,University of Minnesota | Diap G.,Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative DNDi | Blay-Nguah S.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital KATH | And 7 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in post-conflict Burundi. To counter the increasing challenge of anti-malarial drug resistance and improve highly effective treatment Burundi adopted artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and oral quinine as second-line treatment in its national treatment policy in 2003. Uptake of this policy in the public, private and non-governmental (NGO) retail market sectors of Burundi is relatively unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate access to national policy recommended anti-malarials. Methods. Adapting a standardized methodology developed by Health Action International/World Health Organization (HAI/WHO), a cross-sectional survey of 70 (24 public, 36 private, and 10 NGO) medicine outlets was conducted in three regions of Burundi, representing different levels of transmission of malaria. The availability on day of the survey, the median prices, and affordability (in terms of number of days' wages to purchase treatment) of AS-AQ, quinine and other anti-malarials were calculated. Results: Anti-malarials were stocked in all outlets surveyed. AS-AQ was available in 87.5%, 33.3%, and 90% of public, private, and NGO retail outlets, respectively. Quinine was the most common anti-malarial found in all outlet types. Non-policy recommended anti-malarials were mainly found in the private outlets (38.9%) compared to public (4.2%) and NGO (0%) outlets. The median price of a course of AS-AQ was US$0.16 (200 Burundi Francs, FBu) for the public and NGO markets, and 3.5-fold higher in the private sector (US$0.56 or 700 FBu). Quinine tablets were similarly priced in the public (US$1.53 or 1,892.50 FBu), private and NGO sectors (both US$1.61 or 2,000 FBu). Non-policy anti-malarials were priced 50-fold higher than the price of AS-AQ in the public sector. A course of AS-AQ was affordable at 0.4 of a day's wage in the public and NGO sectors, whereas, it was equivalent to 1.5 days worth of wages in the private sector. Conclusions: AS-AQ was widely available and affordable in the public and NGO markets of hard-to-reach post-conflict communities in Burundi. However greater accessibility and affordability of policy recommended anti-malarials in the private market sector is needed to improve country-wide policy uptake. © 2011 Amuasi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Adjei E.K.,University of Tromsø | Adjei E.K.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital KATH | Owusu-Afriyie O.,University of Tromsø | Owusu-Afriyie O.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital KATH | And 2 more authors.
Breast Journal | Year: 2014

Hormonal treatment of breast cancer is effective only in patients whose tumors express estrogen and/or progesterone receptors (ER, PR). Receptor assessment is often not available in low-resource areas, and the choice may be to apply endocrine therapy to all or none of breast cancer patients, depending on the proportion of patients that can be expected to respond. Fifty-one invasive breast cancers from Ghana and 100 from Norway diagnosed in the same laboratory during the same time period were reexamined in a blinded slide review. Of Ghanaian tumors, 76% were ER+ (≥1% ER+ tumor cells). Of Norwegian tumors, 85% were ER+. Triple-negative tumors were seen in 22% of Ghanaian patients and in 7% of Norwegian patients. A review of previous similar studies in sub-Saharan patients shows very discrepant results. Standardization and quality control of receptor assessment and well-designed clinical trials in sub-Saharan African breast cancer patients are needed to give a sound basis for endocrine treatment in this area. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Agyei-Baffour P.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Sekyere K.B.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital KATH | Addy E.A.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2013

Background: Food borne diseases claim more lives and are growing public health concerns. Simple preventive techniques such as adoption and adherence to hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) policy can significantly reduce this disease burden. Though food screening and inspection are done, the ultimate regulation, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, which is known and accepted worldwide, appears not to be popular among food operators in Ghana. This paper examines the level of awareness of the existence of policy on hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and its adherence to food preparation guidelines among food service providers in Ghana. Results: The results revealed the mean age of food providers as 33.1 years with a standard deviation of 7.5, range of 18-55 years, more females, in full time employment and with basic education. Of the fifty institutional managers, 42 (84%) were senior officers and had worked for more than five years. Education and type of food operator had strong statistically significant relationship with the implementation of HCCP policy and adherence with food preparation guidelines. The enforcement of HACCP policy and adherence with food safety guidelines was led by the Ghana Tourist Board, Public Health officers, and KMA, respectively. While a majority of food operators 373/450 (83.3%) did not know HACCP policy is part of food safety guidelines, staff of food safety law enforcement 44/50 (88%) confirmed knowing that food operators were not aware of the HACCP policy. Conclusion: The study documents evidence on the practice of food safety principles or HACCP policy or adherence to food preparation guidelines. Existing food safety guidelines incorporate varying principles of HACCP, however, awareness is low among food operators. The implication is that food production is likely to fall short of acceptable standards and not be wholesome putting consumers at health risk. Repeating this study in rural and urban areas in Ghana is necessary to provide much more evidence to inform food safety guidelines. Further studies on chemical analysis of food and implementing training modules on HACCP policy for food producers and law enforcement agencies may be helpful to improve existing situation. © 2013 Agyei-Baffour et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Arthur F.K.N.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Owusu L.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Yeboah F.A.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Yeboah F.A.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital KATH | And 2 more authors.
Clinical and Translational Oncology | Year: 2011

Background and purpose: Endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL) remains the prevalent form of paediatric cancer in tropical Africa with subtle pathological differences. This calls for intensified efforts to validate the global prognostic markers within local settings for improved cancer treatment and survival. This study proposes prognostic markers for enhanced eBL treatment and management. Patients and method: One hundred and eighty histologically and/or clinically diagnosed BL patients at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana were eligible for this cross-sectional eight-year retrospective study. Biochemical, clinical and demographic data, before chemotherapy administration, were documented and examined for their progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) significance. Results: A mean age of 6 (SD=2.7, range: 1-16) years was observed with general male dominance (M:F=1.69:1). Total serum lactate dehydrogenase (HR=2.04; 95% CI, 1.25-3.32; log rank=8.3; p=0.004), serum creatinine (HR=3.59; 95% CI, 1.62-7.98; log rank=15.4; p=0.002) and St. Jude stage (HR=1.74; 95% CI, 1.11-2.73; log rank=8.0; p=0.015) were important independent prognostic biochemical markers for both PFS and OS. Age, serum calcium, uric acid, potassium, sodium and phosphorus were non-prognostic. Conclusion: The better monitoring of these prognostic indices coupled with risk-stratification treatment may improve patients' survival, especially in resource-limited settings. © 2011 Feseo.


Diap G.,Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative DNDi | Amuasi J.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital KATH | Boakye I.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital KATH | Sevcsik A.-M.,Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative DNDi | Pecoul B.,Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative DNDi
Malaria Journal | Year: 2010

At a recent meeting (Sept 18, 2009) in which reasons for the limited access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in sub-Saharan Africa were discussed, policy and market surveys on anti-malarial drug availability and accessibility in Burundi and Sierra Leone were presented in a highly interactive brainstorming session among key stakeholders across private, public, and not-for-profit sectors. The surveys, the conduct of which directly involved the national malaria control programme managers of the two countries, provides the groundwork for evidence-based policy implementation. The results of the surveys could be extrapolated to other countries with similar socio-demographic and malaria profiles. The meeting resulted in recommendations on key actions to be taken at the global, national, and community level for better ACT accessibility. At the global level, both public and private sectors have actions to take to strengthen policies that lead to the replacement of loose blister packs with fixed-dose ACT products, develop strategies to ban inappropriate anti-malarials and regulate those bans, and facilitate technology and knowledge transfer to scale up production of fixed-dose ACT products, which should be readily available and affordable to those patients who are in the greatest need of these medicines. At the national level, policies that regulate the anti-malarial medicines market should be enacted and enforced. The public sector, including funding donors, should participate in ensuring that the private sector is engaged in the ACT implementation process. Research similar to the surveys discussed is important for other countries to develop and evaluate the right incentives at a local level. At the community level, community outreach and education about appropriate preventive and treatment measures must continue and be strengthened, with service delivery systems developed within both public and private sectors, among other measures, to decrease access to ineffective and inappropriate anti-malarial medicines. What was clear during the meeting is that continuing commitment, strengthened interaction and transparency among various stakeholders, with focus on communities, national governments, and evidence-based policy and action are the only way to sustainably address the control of malaria, a disease which continues to have a significant health and socio-economic impact worldwide, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Details on the methodology employed in carrying out the studies discussed at this meeting, as well as more detailed results, data analysis and discussion of the studies are soon to be published. © 2010 Diap et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Amuasi J.H.,University of Minnesota | Amuasi J.H.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital KATH | Diap G.,Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative DNDi | Nguah S.B.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital KATH | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Malaria remains the leading burden of disease in post-conflict Sierra Leone. To overcome the challenge of anti-malarial drug resistance and improve effective treatment, Sierra Leone adopted artemisinin-combination therapy artesunate-amodiaquine (AS+AQ) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Other national policy anti-malarials include artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as an alternative to AS+AQ, quinine and artemether for treatment of complicated malaria; and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp). This study was conducted to evaluate access to national policy recommended anti-malarials. A cross-sectional survey of 127 medicine outlets (public, private and NGO) was conducted in urban and rural areas. The availability on the day of the survey, median prices, and affordability policy and available non-policy anti-malarials were calculated. Anti-malarials were stocked in 79% of all outlets surveyed. AS+AQ was widely available in public medicine outlets; AL was only available in the private and NGO sectors. Quinine was available in nearly two-thirds of public and NGO outlets and over one-third of private outlets. SP was widely available in all outlets. Non-policy anti-malarials were predominantly available in the private outlets. AS+AQ in the public sector was widely offered for free. Among the anti-malarials sold at a cost, the same median price of a course of AS+AQ (US$1.56), quinine tablets (US$0.63), were found in both the public and private sectors. Quinine injection had a median cost of US$0.31 in the public sector and US$0.47 in the private sector, while SP had a median cost of US$0.31 in the public sector compared to US$ 0.63 in the private sector. Non-policy anti-malarials were more affordable than first-line AS+AQ in all sectors. A course of AS+AQ was affordable at nearly two days' worth of wages in both the public and private sectors. © 2012 Amuasi et al.


Phillips R.O.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital KATH | Phillips R.O.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Sarfo F.S.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital KATH | Abass M.K.,Agogo Presbyterian Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Buruli ulcer, an ulcerating skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, is common in tropical areas of western Africa. We determined the clinical and microbiological responses to administration of rifampin and streptomycin for 2 weeks followed by administration of rifampin and clarithromycin for 6 weeks in 43 patients with small laboratory-confirmed Buruli lesions and monitored for recurrence-free healing. Bacterial load in tissue samples before and after treatment for 6 and 12 weeks was monitored by semiquantitative culture. The success rate was 93%, and there was no recurrence after a 12-month follow-up. Eight percent had a positive culture 4 weeks after antibiotic treatment, but their lesions went on to heal. The findings indicate that rifampin and clarithromycin can replace rifampin and streptomycin for the continuation phase after rifampin and streptomycin administration for 2 weeks without any apparent loss of efficacy. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Obirikorang C.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Osakunor D.N.M.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Ntaadu B.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Adarkwa O.K.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital KATH
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: HAART is anticipated to result in an increase in long-term survival, but may present with the development of associated complications. The aim of this study was to assess the renal function of HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A case-control study (January to May 2013) conducted at the Suntreso Government Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. A total of 163 HIV-infected patients (mean age 39.9±10.22) were studied, of which 111 were on HAART (HIV-HAART) and 52 were not (HIV-Controls). Serum urea, creatinine, potassium, sodium, chloride and CD4 counts were measured with the determination of eGFR (CKD-EPI and MDRD). Data was analysed using GraphPad Prism. The Chi-square, t-test, one-way ANOVA and Spearman's correlation were used. P values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Mean CD4 count of HIV-Controls was higher than that of HIV-HAART but was not significant (p = 0.304). But for sodium levels which were higher in HIV-Controls (p = 0.0284), urea (p = 0.1209), creatinine (p = 0.7155), potassium (p = 0.454) and chloride (p = 0.6282) levels did not differ significantly between both groups. All serum biochemical parameters did not differ significantly, irrespective of duration on therapy and CD4 counts. Based on regimen, sodium, chloride, urea and creatinine did not differ significantly between TDF, EVF and NVP-based therapies. Prevalence of CKD (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) in the total population was 9.9% and 3.7% with the MDRD and EPI-CKD equations respectively. Conclusions: Renal insufficiency remains prevalent in HIV patients. Changes in renal function occur in HIV infection and over the course of HAART but the difference at either stage is not significant. This suggests the role of HIV infection, HAART and the presence of traditional risk factors but not HAART in itself, in renal dysfunction. We however recommend a close monitoring of patients before and during HAART, to aid in evaluating drug combinations and implement dose modifications when necessary. © 2014 Obirikorang et al.


PubMed | Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital KATH
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Buruli ulcer, an ulcerating skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, is common in tropical areas of western Africa. We determined the clinical and microbiological responses to administration of rifampin and streptomycin for 2 weeks followed by administration of rifampin and clarithromycin for 6 weeks in 43 patients with small laboratory-confirmed Buruli lesions and monitored for recurrence-free healing. Bacterial load in tissue samples before and after treatment for 6 and 12 weeks was monitored by semiquantitative culture. The success rate was 93%, and there was no recurrence after a 12-month follow-up. Eight percent had a positive culture 4 weeks after antibiotic treatment, but their lesions went on to heal. The findings indicate that rifampin and clarithromycin can replace rifampin and streptomycin for the continuation phase after rifampin and streptomycin administration for 2 weeks without any apparent loss of efficacy.


PubMed | Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology and Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital KATH
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

HAART is anticipated to result in an increase in long-term survival, but may present with the development of associated complications. The aim of this study was to assess the renal function of HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.A case-control study (January to May 2013) conducted at the Suntreso Government Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. A total of 163 HIV-infected patients (mean age 39.910.22) were studied, of which 111 were on HAART (HIV-HAART) and 52 were not (HIV-Controls). Serum urea, creatinine, potassium, sodium, chloride and CD4 counts were measured with the determination of eGFR (CKD-EPI and MDRD). Data was analysed using GraphPad Prism. The Chi-square, t-test, one-way ANOVA and Spearmans correlation were used. P values <0.05 were considered significant.Mean CD4 count of HIV-Controls was higher than that of HIV-HAART but was not significant (p=0.304). But for sodium levels which were higher in HIV-Controls (p=0.0284), urea (p=0.1209), creatinine (p=0.7155), potassium (p=0.454) and chloride (p=0.6282) levels did not differ significantly between both groups. All serum biochemical parameters did not differ significantly, irrespective of duration on therapy and CD4 counts. Based on regimen, sodium, chloride, urea and creatinine did not differ significantly between TDF, EVF and NVP-based therapies. Prevalence of CKD (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) in the total population was 9.9% and 3.7% with the MDRD and EPI-CKD equations respectively.Renal insufficiency remains prevalent in HIV patients. Changes in renal function occur in HIV infection and over the course of HAART but the difference at either stage is not significant. This suggests the role of HIV infection, HAART and the presence of traditional risk factors but not HAART in itself, in renal dysfunction. We however recommend a close monitoring of patients before and during HAART, to aid in evaluating drug combinations and implement dose modifications when necessary.

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