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Nkrumah B.,Kumasi Center for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine | Nguah S.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2011

Background: Acute childhood diarrhoea remains one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The WHO has accordingly underlined the need for epidemiological surveys of infantile diarrhoea in all geographical areas. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of intestinal parasites among stool samples from children examined at a secondary health care facility in a rural area of Ghana. Method. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence of intestinal parasites among children who had their stools examined at the Agogo Hospital laboratory. Stool microscopy results from January 2006 through May 2009 were obtained from archived records of the laboratory. Results for children less than 18 years were transcribed unto a standardized datasheet, entered into an electronic database designed using Microsoft access 2007 and analyzed using Stata/SE11.1 statistical software. The incidences of the parasites were determined and presented with their Poisson exact 95% confidence intervals for the various ages. Results: The median age of the 1080 children included in the study was 5 years (IQR: 2-12 years) with 51.9% being females. The overall incidence of all parasites was 114 per 1000 with Giardia lamblia being the most common (89.5%). Children aged less than a year had the lowest parasite incidence of 13 per 1000 with all being Giardia lamblia, while those aged 15-17 years had the highest of 169 per 1000. The incidence for Giardia lamblia only was lowest at 13 per 1000 for those under a year old, highest at 152 per 1000 for the 15-17 year group and 97 per 1000 for all ages combined. There was a significant rise in incidence of Giardia lamblia with age (Trend x 2 = 18.6, p < 0.001). Five (4.3%) of the 118 positive stool samples had mixed parasites infection. Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp and Trichuris trichiura were not seen in any of the stool samples. Conclusion: Giardia lamblia is the most prevalent intestinal parasite in examined stool samples of children within the Ashanti Akim North Municipality and its prevalence significantly increases with age. Measures must be put in place to educate the community on proper personal hygiene to reduce giardiasis. © 2011 Nkrumah and Nguah; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Owusu-Ofori A.K.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital | Owusu-Ofori A.K.,Disease Control Strategy Group | Bates I.,Disease Control Strategy Group
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Policies concerning the prevention of transfusion transmitted malaria (TTM) are the responsibility of blood transfusion services and malaria control programmes. To prevent spreading drug resistance due to over-use of malaria drugs, recent malaria treatment guidelines recommend prompt parasitological confirmation before treatment is started. In contrast, blood safety policies from the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommend presumptive malaria treatment for recipients of blood in endemic countries but evidence supporting this approach is lacking. Our study documented how these conflicting policies relating to malaria transmission through blood transfusion impact on clinical practice in a teaching hospital in West Africa. Methods/Principal Findings: We randomly selected and reviewed case notes of 151 patients within 24 hours of their receiving a blood transfusion. Transfusion practices including the confirmation of diagnosis and anti-malarial treatment given were compared across three departments; Obstetrics and Gynaecology (O&G), Paediatrics and Medicine. Overall, 66 (44%) of patients received malaria treatment within 24 hrs of their blood transfusion; of which only 2 (3%) received anti-malarials based on a laboratory confirmation of malaria. Paediatric patients (87%) received the most anti-malarials and only 7% and 24% of recipients in medicine and O&G respectively received anti malarials. In 51 patients (78%), the anti-malarials were prescribed at the same time as the blood transfusion and anti-malarials prescriptions exceeded the number of patients with a presumptive diagnosis of malaria. Conclusions: It is common practice in paediatrics to prescribe anti-malarials routinely with blood transfusions. This contravenes the malaria treatment guidelines of laboratory confirmation before treatment but is in accordance with the less-well evidenced blood safety guidelines. There is an urgent need for more evidence about the clinical impact of transfusion transmitted malaria to enable malaria and blood transfusion programmes to harmonize their policies and give clear guidance to clinicians who prescribe blood transfusions in malaria-endemic areas. © 2012 Owusu-Ofori, Bates.

Nguah S.B.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital
Journal of Clinical Ethics | Year: 2014

Yearly pediatric cardiac surgery missions to Ghana are of tremendous benefit to local children, but may create thorny ethical dilemmas for local clinicians who refer and screen children for the mission and who provide care to the children after the mission concludes for the year. This article presents the experiences and concerns of a pediatrician who is a local member of the Hearts and Minds of Ghana project. © 2014 by The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

Owusu-Ofori A.K.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital | Parry C.,University of Oxford | Bates I.,Disease Control Strategy Group
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Although international policies recommend that blood for transfusion should be screened for transfusion-transmitted infections, malaria screening is not performed in most malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Our literature review identified 17 relevant studies from the period 1980-2009 and indicated that the median prevalence of malaria among 33,029 blood donors was 10.2% (range, 0.7% in Kenya to 55.0% in Nigeria). Malaria screening methods, including microscopy (used in 16 of 17 studies), are either insensitive or impractical for donor screening in resource-poor countries. Even if a suitable screening method were available, rejection of malaria-positive donors would jeopardize the blood supply. Only 1 study established the prevalence of parasitemia among transfusion recipients. This review highlights the need for more evidence about the clinical impact of transfusion-transmitted malaria to justify the policy of screening for blood for malaria in areas of endemicity and for a critical analysis of the feasibility of implementing such a policy and its effect on blood supply. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

Badu-Peprah A.,Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital
African journal of reproductive health | Year: 2011

Sonohysterography is a simple, safe and convenient technique that is easily and rapidly performed in the ultrasound room; yet the technique seems to be underutilized in West Africa. We present two cases that were successfully carried out in our centre followed by detailed description, uses and challenges of the technique, with the hope of encouraging clinicians and sonographers in the sub-region to step up its use. Two women were referred for evaluation of their endometrial cavities on account of increasingly heavy menstrual bleeding. Sonohysterography revealed intracavity uterine masses with hyper-echoic focal thickening highly suggestive of endometrial polyps; histology confirmed the diagnosis of endometrial polyps. Sonohysterography is an affordable and feasible diagnostic modality for evaluating the endometrial cavity. Where equipment and skill permit, the technique should be used more often in the West African sub-region. Sonohysterography, Tansvaginal sonography, Gnaecologic imaging, West Africa.

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