Innsbruck, Austria
Innsbruck, Austria

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Schrittwieser R.,University of Innsbruck | Xu G.S.,CAS Hefei Institutes of Physical Science | Yan N.,CAS Hefei Institutes of Physical Science | Yan N.,Technical University of Denmark | And 6 more authors.
40th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, EPS 2013 | Year: 2013

We have tested two cylindrical graphite probe heads coated by a layer of electrically isolating UNCD (Ultra Nano-Crystalline Diamond) using a CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition) method. The probe heads were mounted on the reciprocating probe manipulator of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) in Hefei, People's Republic of China. Transport parameters, plasma density, temperature, potential, as well as toroidal rotation near the separatrix were determined up to a distance of 15 mm inside the LCFS in high confinement regimes. A very important result was that the UNCD coating could also prevent the sputtering of graphite from the probe head and the subsequent coating of the BN isolation between probe pins and probe head by a layer of conductive graphite almost completely. Copyright © (2013) by the European Physical Society (EPS).


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-1.4-2 | Award Amount: 15.57M | Year: 2010

The goal of VascuBone is to develop a tool box for bone regeneration, which on one hand fulfils basic requirements and on the other hand is freely combinable with what is needed in the respective patients situation. The tool box will include a variation of biocompatible biomaterials and cell types, FDA approved growth factors, material modification technologies, simulation and analytical tools like molecular imaging based in vivo diagnostics which can be combined for the specific medical need. This tool box will be used to develop translational approaches for regenerative therapies of three different types of bone defects. The chosen bone diseases differ in their requirements, to ensure a successful implementation and translation. Additionally this implementation strategy is characterized by high complexity to remove bottlenecks and limitations of bone regeneration identified in the clinical setting. Therefore definite quality criteria have to be evaluated concerning an optimal stem cell source/subpopulation as well as GF concentrations and their bioactivity in vivo. Furthermore quantitative evaluation will focus on the definition of differences between stem cell populations responsible for bone regeneration in young and old people, as a prerequisite for the development of regenerative therapies for the ageing European society. Considering a successful and prompt approval of the biomaterial, for each clinical application a minimum of modification steps in daily routine must be identified. The road map of the project and clinic trials contains pre-determined milestones, to ensure efficacy, safety, and immunological acceptance of the implant. The efficacy is quantified by high innovative MRI and PET/CT technology which is able to demonstrate the regenerative effect of biomaterials and cells in vivo. Based on the clinical data the proposal as Advanced Therapeutical Medicinal Product will be submitted to the European Medicines Agency at the end of the project.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 2.14M | Year: 2009

There is a consensus today that supplying a growing world population with energy is one of the biggest if not the biggest challenge mankind is facing in the 21st century. The reasons for this are numerous and are among others related to the observation that energy is critical to human development, including economic growth, equity and employment, and that fossil fuels our current energy backbone are slowly but inevitably declining. This generates an increasing demand of well-educated young scientists knowledgeable in materials science for energy conversion and storage, because a central problem for all forms of energy is their efficient generation or conversion as well as energy storage with sufficiently high density (e.g., hydrogen or biofuels). In this broader context, the proposed Marie Curie Initial Training Network (ITN) MATCON will concentrate on the following topics of fundamental importance: Photo-electrochemical generation of hydrogen by water splitting Bio-inspired and biomimetic energy conversion Thermoelectric and thermoionic heat conversion For all of these topics, alternative or new materials and materials combinations will be necessary to improve the efficiency of energy conversion or to overcome existing problems with stability. Therefore, the Network will also put considerable emphasis on the tailoring and development of specific materials for electrodes, substrates and functional interfaces. This expertise will be of central importance for the successful implementation of the different research topics outlined above and, at the same time, provide an ideal basis for the training of the young researchers in state of the art materials science and semiconductor technology.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.15M | Year: 2009

Aerospace has been pioneer in the industrial manufacturing of fibre reinforced composites for high performance components. Composite materials are used extensively as their higher specific properties (properties per unit weight) of strength and stiffness, when compared to metals, offer interesting opportunities for new product design. Still nowadays it is a growing market due to the technical improvements in the properties of the fibres, allowing the substitution of other materials like aluminium. It is remarkable the case of Boeings new 787 jet, where 35 tons (50% of total weight) of fibre reinforced composites are being used for each jet. By comparison, the 777 aircraft, currently Boeings most advanced passenger jet, only has 12% composites. Aerospace sector expects that the high use of composites will reduce maintenance time and expense and cut fuel burn per passenger by 20%. However, being nonhomogeneous, anisotropic and reinforced by very abrasive components, these materials are difficult to machine. Significant damage to the workpiece may be introduced and high wear rates of the cutting tools are experienced. One added problem related with the machining of composite materials is the operator safety, as instead of chips, the machining of composite produces small particles and dust in the range of 0,5 micrometres to 20 micrometres. These residues are harmful for human beings if aspirated because of their carcinogenic potential. Therefore, these residues must be controlled to avoid the hazards they can provoke. The main objective of ASPIRATE is to develop a new machining technology for carbon and glass fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP and GFRP) parts based on the internal extraction of the produced chip and dust particles through the whole machining system (cutting tool, tool holder, spindle). This innovative machining system will allow the safe, dry and clean machining of CFRP and GFRP, opening a growing and profitable market to the SMEs involved in the project.


Xing Z.,University of Bergen | Pedersen T.O.,University of Bergen | Wu X.,Innsbruck Medical University | Xue Y.,University of Bergen | And 7 more authors.
Tissue Engineering - Part A | Year: 2013

Significant evidence has indicated that poly(L-lactide)-co-(É"- caprolactone) [(poly(LLA-co-CL)] scaffolds could be one of the suitable candidates for bone tissue engineering. Oxygen-terminated nanodiamond particles (n-DP) were combined with poly(LLA-co-CL) and revealed to be positive for cell growth. In this study, we evaluated the influence of poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds modified by n-DP on attachment, proliferation, differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro, and on bone formation using a sheep calvarial defect model. BMSCs were seeded on either poly(LLA-co-CL)- or n-DP-coated scaffolds and incubated for 1 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy were used in addition to protein and DNA measurements to evaluate cellular attachment on the scaffolds. To determine the effect of n-DP on proliferation of BMSCs, cell/scaffold constructs were harvested after 3 days and evaluated by Bicinchoninic Acid (BCA) protein assay and SEM. In addition, the osteogenic differentiation of cells grown for 2 weeks on the various scaffolds and in a dynamic culture condition was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Unmodified and modified scaffolds were implanted into the calvaria of six-year-old sheep. The expression of collagen type I (COL I) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) after 4 weeks as well as the formation of new bone after 12 and 24 weeks were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histology. Scaffolds modified with n-DP supported increased cell attachment and the mRNA expression of osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and BMP-2 were significantly increased after 2 weeks of culture. The BMSCs had spread well on the various scaffolds investigated after 3 days in the study with no significant difference in cell proliferation. Furthermore, the in vivo data revealed more positive staining of COL I and BMP-2 in relation to the n-DP-coated scaffolds after 4 weeks and presented more bone formation after 12 and 24 weeks. n-DP modification significantly increased cell attachment and differentiation of BMSCs on poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds in vitro and enhanced bone formation in vivo. © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Neu E.,Saarland University | Neu E.,University of Basel | Hepp C.,Saarland University | Hauschild M.,Saarland University | And 7 more authors.
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2013

We study single silicon vacancy (SiV) centres in chemical vapour deposition (CVD) nanodiamonds on iridium as well as an ensemble of SiV centres in a high-quality, low-stress CVD diamond film by using temperature-dependent luminescence spectroscopy in the temperature range 5-295 K. We investigate in detail the temperature-dependent fine structure of the zero-phonon line (ZPL) of the SiV centres. The ZPL transition is affected by inhomogeneous as well as temperature-dependent homogeneous broadening and blue shifts by about 20 cm -1 upon cooling from room temperature to 5 K. We employ excitation power-dependent g(2) measurements to explore the temperature- dependent internal population dynamics of single SiV centres and infer mostly temperature-independent dynamics. © IOP Publishing and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.


Subramanian P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Subramanian P.,KOMET RHOBEST GmbH | Coffinier Y.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Steinmuller-Nethl D.,KOMET RHOBEST GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2013

Conductive diamond nanowires, fabricated by maskless oxygen plasma etching of highly boron-doped polycrystalline diamond substrates, were decorated with nickel nanoparticles. The nickel modified boron-doped diamond nanowire (Ni-BDD NWs) electrodes were prepared through cathodic reduction of nickel sulfate in PBS (pH 6.5) followed by cycling in KOH to oxidize remaining metallic Ni deposits into Ni(OH)2. The novel electrode allowed for orientation-controlled immobilization of histidine-tagged peptides without need for surface linking with any other ion-chelating compound. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Sternschulte H.,TU Munich | Staudinger I.,TU Munich | Sepe A.,TU Munich | Sepe A.,University of Cambridge | And 5 more authors.
Diamond and Related Materials | Year: 2013

In this work, an ultrananocrystalline diamond film was studied with grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) to determine the diamond grain size and average distance of the grains with a non-destructive method and with excellent sampling statistics. The measured 2D GISAXS patterns were modelled with the assumption of monodisperse spheres. The best fits were obtained with the «buried layer» model where the spheres are correlated within the film plane. This correlation was approximated with a two-dimensional Percus-Yevick structure factor. The average diamond grain size of D = 8.0-8.5 nm and a centre-to-centre distance of the grains with 10.4-11.9 nm agrees well with transmission electron microscopy results of comparable samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2008-3.2-2 | Award Amount: 3.41M | Year: 2009

The European manufacturing industry is currently facing the challenge of reducing production costs and times while increased product quality. In order to achieve this, the industry must develop new, innovative machining concepts beyond the current state-of-the-art. Current process monitoring systems concentrate on the monitoring of forces, vibrations and acoustic emission as input signals, but do not consider tool temperature. Tool temperature does however have a significant influence on workpiece quality and tool wear and therefore on manufacturing productivity. The ConTemp project will develop a self-learning temperature monitoring system combined with a self-cooling tool. The system will control and stabilise tool temperature in the cutting process, which leads to longer tool lifetimes and increased part accuracies. Significant cost reductions can therefore be achieved, as well as allowing the machining of difficult-to-cut materials without incurring the larger costs typically associated with this. The system is based on the development of a combined sensor/actor system. By using an innovative micro cooling device a closed coolant circuit can be used for the measurement of the tool temperature, and by variation of the coolant flow the temperature can be controlled. A further significant advantage of the system is the possibility of avoiding the need for cooling lubricant. Diamond coatings on the surface of the self-cooling tool will ensure maximumheat dissipation from the tool tip, and so sufficient cooling can be achieved with the interior micro-cooling device to allow dry machining. The avoidance of cooling lubricant will lead to substantial cost reductions and environmentally friendly machining.

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