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Momose-Sato Y.,Kanto Gakuin University | Sato K.,Komazawa Womens University
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2014

We examined the initial expression of synaptic function in the embryonic chick trigeminal nucleus using voltage-sensitive dye recording. Brainstem preparations with three trigeminal nerve afferents, the ophthalmic nerve (N.V1), maxillary nerve (N.V2) and mandibular nerve (N.V3), were dissected from 5.5- to 6.5-day-old chick embryos. In our previous study [Sato et al., 1999], we detected slow signals corresponding to glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic potentials and identified the principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (Pr5), spinal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (Sp5) and trigeminal motor nucleus. In this study, we examined the effects of removing Mg2+ from the physiological solution, which enhanced N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function in the sensory nuclei. In 6.5-day-old (St 29) embryos, the slow signal was observed in Pr5 and Sp5 only when N.V1 was stimulated, whereas it appeared in Mg2+-free solution with every nerve stimulation. In 6-day-old (St 28) embryos, the slow signal was observed in Sp5 with N.V1 stimulation, and the appearance of synaptic function in Mg2+-free solution varied, depending on the nerves and preparations used. In 5.5-day-old (St 27) embryos, synaptic function was not detected even when external Mg2+ was removed. These results indicate that the initial expression of synaptic function in the trigeminal system occurs earlier than previously considered, and that the developmental organization of synaptic function differs among the three trigeminal nerves and between the two sensory nuclei. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Momose-Sato Y.,Kanto Gakuin University | Sato K.,Komazawa Womens University
Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology | Year: 2011

To regulate the autonomic function, the vagus nerve transfers various sensory information from peripheral organs, and appropriate motor reflexes are produced in the neural circuit. The functional development of the vagal pathway during the early phase of embryonic development has long been unclear. Optical recording with voltage-sensitive dyes has provided a new approach to the analysis of the functional development of the embryonic central nervous system. In this review, we present recent progress in optical studies on the vagal pathway in the embryonic chick and rat brainstems. The topics include how neural excitability is initially expressed in the motor and sensory nuclei [e.g. the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNV) and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS)] and how synapse networks are formed in the primary and higher-ordered sensory nuclei [e.g. the parabrachial nucleus (PBN)]. We also refer to the functional development of the glossopharyngeal nuclei and compare the developmental steps with those of the vagal nuclei. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Momose-Sato Y.,Kanto Gakuin University | Sato K.,Komazawa Womens University
Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Widely correlated spontaneous activity in the developing nervous system is transiently expressed and is considered to play a fundamental role in neural circuit formation. The depolarization wave, which spreads over a long distance along the neuraxis, maximally extending to the lumbosacral cord and forebrain, is an example of this spontaneous activity. Although the depolarization wave is typically initiated in the spinal cord in intact preparations, spontaneous discharges have also been detected in the isolated brainstem. Although this suggests that the brainstem has the ability to generate spontaneous activity, but is paced by a caudal rhythm generator of higher excitability, a number of questions remains. Does brainstem activity simply appear as a passive consequence, or does any active change occur in the brainstem network to compensate for this activity? If the latter is the case, does this compensation occur equally at different developmental stages? Where is the new rhythm generator in the isolated brainstem? To answer these questions, we optically analyzed spatio-temporal patterns of activity detected from the chick brainstem before and after transection at the obex. The results revealed that the depolarization wave was homeostatically maintained, which was characterized by an increase in excitability and/or the number of neurons recruited to the wave. The wave was more easily maintained in younger embryos. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the ability of brainstem neurons to perform such an active compensation was not lost even at the stage when the depolarization wave was no longer observed in the intact brainstem. © 2014 IBRO.

Momose-Sato Y.,Kanto Gakuin University | Sato K.,Komazawa Womens University
Neurophotonics | Year: 2015

Investigating the developmental organization of the embryonic nervous system is one of the major challenges in the field of neuroscience. Despite their significance, functional studies on the vertebrate embryonic central nervous system (CNS) have been hampered by the technical limitations associated with conventional electrophysiological methods. The advent of optical techniques using voltage-sensitive dyes, which were developed by Dr. Cohen and his colleagues, has enabled electrical activity in living cells to be monitored noninvasively and also facilitated the simultaneous recording of neural responses from multiple regions. Using optical recording techniques, it is now possible to follow the functional organization of the embryonic CNS and image the spatiotemporal dynamics involved in the formation of this neural network. We herein briefly reviewed optical studies on the embryonic CNS with a special emphasis on methodological considerations and the study of neuronal circuit formation, which demonstrates the utility of fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging as a powerful tool for elucidating the functional organization of the embryonic CNS. © The Authors.

Momose-Sato Y.,Kanto Gakuin University | Sato K.,Komazawa Womens University
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2013

Spontaneous embryonic movements, called embryonic motility, are produced by correlated spontaneous activity in the cranial and spinal nerves, which is driven by brainstem and spinal networks. Using optical imaging with a voltage-sensitive dye, we revealed previously in the chick and rat embryos that this correlated activity is a widely propagating wave of neural depolarization, which we termed the depolarization wave. One important consideration is whether a depolarization wave with similar characteristics occurs in other species, especially in different mammals. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of the depolarization wave in the mouse embryo by summarizing spatiotemporal characteristics and pharmacological natures of the widely propagating wave activity. The findings show that a synchronized wave with common characteristics is expressed in different species, suggesting its fundamental roles in neural development. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

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