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Ivashkin E.,Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology | Adameyko I.,Karolinska Institutet
EvoDevo | Year: 2013

The neural crest represents a highly multipotent population of embryonic stem cells found only in vertebrate embryos. Acquisition of the neural crest during the evolution of vertebrates was a great advantage, providing Chordata animals with the first cellular cartilage, bone, dentition, advanced nervous system and other innovations. Today not much is known about the evolutionary origin of neural crest cells. Here we propose a novel scenario in which the neural crest originates from neuroectodermal progenitors of the pigmented ocelli in Amphioxus-like animals. We suggest that because of changes in photoreception needs, these multipotent progenitors of photoreceptors gained the ability to migrate outside of the central nervous system and subsequently started to give rise to neural, glial and pigmented progeny at the periphery. © 2013 Ivashkin and Adameyko.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Zakhidov S.T.,Moscow State University | Pavlyuchenkova S.M.,Moscow State University | Marshak T.L.,Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology | Rudoy V.M.,RAS Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry | And 6 more authors.
Biology Bulletin | Year: 2012

The response of the mouse male germ cells exposed to gold nanoparticles (~2.5 nm) was studied. Our investigation demonstrates that treatment with Au nanoparticles for four days does not impair the architecture of the spermatogenic epithelium. Cytogenetic evaluation using micronucleus assay showed that gold nanoparticles can affect the chromosomes of early primary spermatocytes. However, gold nanoparticles did not induce chromosome abnormalities in spermatogonial stem cells. Further, the cauda epididymal sperm was isolated on the 14th day after treatment and was incubated in SDS solution (Na dodecyl sulphate) and then in a solution containing DTT (dithiothreitol) to induce nuclear chromatin decondensation. Observations showed that after four days of treatment of spermiogenic (postmeiotic) cells with gold nanoparticles the decondensation process had no differences from the control. On the contrary, in the experiment with the same cells and period of fixation but with a single exposure to gold nanoparticles, the number of mature gametes with totally decondensed nuclei reached 100% as opposed to 44% in the controls. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Senchenko V.N.,RAS Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology | Kisseljova N.P.,Nn Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center | Ivanova T.A.,Nn Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center | Dmitriev A.A.,RAS Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology | And 8 more authors.
Epigenetics : official journal of the DNA Methylation Society | Year: 2013

Genetic and epigenetic alterations in cervical carcinomas were investigated using NotI-microarrays containing 180 cloned sequences flanking all NotI-sites associated with genes on chromosome 3. In total, 48 paired normal/tumor DNA samples, specifically enriched in NotI-sites, were hybridized to NotI-microarrays. Thirty genes, including tumor suppressors or candidates (for example, VHL, RBSP3/CTDSPL, ITGA9, LRRC3B, ALDH1L1, EPHB1) and genes previously unknown as cancer-associated (ABHD5, C3orf77, PRL32, LOC285375, FGD5 and others), showed methylation/deletion in 21-44% of tumors. The genes were more frequently altered in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) than in adenocarcinomas (ADC, p<0.01). A set of seven potential markers (LRRN1, PRICKLE2, VHL, BHLHE40, RBSP3, CGGBP1 and SOX14) is promising for discrimination of ADC and SCC. Alterations of more than 20 genes simultaneously were revealed in 23% of SCC. Bisulfite sequencing analysis confirmed methylation as a frequent event in SCC. High down-regulation frequency was shown for RBSP3, ITGA9, VILL, APRG1/C3orf35 and RASSF1 (isoform A) genes (3p21.3 locus) in SCC. Both frequency and extent of RASSF1A and RBSP3 mRNA level decrease were more pronounced in tumors with lymph node metastases compared with non-metastatic ones (p ≤ 0.05). We confirmed by bisulfite sequencing that RASSF1 promoter methylation was a rare event in SCC and, for the first time, demonstrated RASSF1A down-regulation at both the mRNA and protein levels without promoter methylation in tumors of this histological type. Thus, our data revealed novel tumor suppressor candidates located on chromosome 3 and a frequent loss of epigenetic stability of 3p21.3 locus in combination with down-regulation of genes in cervical cancer. Source

Bou Saada Y.,University Paris - Sud | Dib C.,University Paris - Sud | Dmitriev P.,University Paris - Sud | Hamade A.,Lebanese University | And 5 more authors.
Histochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2016

Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is a progressive muscular dystrophy linked to a deletion of a subset of D4Z4 macrosatellite repeats accompanied by a chromatin relaxation of the D4Z4 array on chromosome 4q. In vitro, FSHD primary myoblasts show altered expression of oxidative-related genes and are more susceptible to oxidative stress. Double homeobox 4 (DUX4) gene, encoded within each D4Z4 unit, is normally transcriptionally silenced but is found aberrantly expressed in skeletal muscles of FSHD patients. Its expression leads to a deregulation of DUX4 target genes including those implicated in redox balance. Here, we assessed DNA repair efficiency of oxidative DNA damage in FSHD myoblasts and DUX4-transfected myoblasts. We have shown that the DNA repair activity is altered neither in FSHD myoblasts nor in immortalized human myoblasts transiently expressing DUX4. DNA damage caused by moderate doses of an oxidant is efficiently repaired while FSHD myoblasts exposed for 24 h to high levels of oxidative stress accumulated more DNA damage than normal myoblasts, suggesting that FSHD myoblasts remain more vulnerable to oxidative stress at high doses of oxidants. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

Luchnik A.N.,Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology
Gene Regulation and Systems Biology | Year: 2014

Regulation of transcription in eukaryotes is considered in the light of recent findings demonstrating the presence of negative and positive superhelical tension in chromatin. This tension induces conformational transitions in DNA duplex. Particularly, the transition into A-form renders DNA accessible and waylaying for initiation of transcription producing RNA molecules long known to belong to the A-conformation. Competition between conformational transitions in various DNA sequences for the energy of elastic spring opens a possibility for understanding of fine tuning of transcription at a distance. © the authors, publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Limited. Source

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