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Zakharova L.A.,Koltsov Institute of Developmental Biology
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology | Year: 2010

Cross-regulatory effects of immune and neuroendocrine systems on their appearance and functioning occur during a whole life period. At different stages of ontogenesis, the functions of these systems are diverse. In perinatal ontogenesis hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters control the processes of growth and differentiation of various embryo tissues, particularly lymphoid. In the postnatal period, their functions are mostly in homeostasis maintaining of the immune system in response to changes of the environment. Conversely, transmitters of the immune system, such as cytokines, whose synthesis is increased in inflammation, and thymic peptides, program the development of the neuroendocrine system of the embryo. The perinatal period is crucial for final appearance of these systems. Changes in one of the interacting systems, caused by negative environmental factors at this stage, usually provoke changes in other developing systems for a long period. Plasticity of physiological systems in perinatal development allows the organism to adapt to changed conditions. However, these changes can limit physiological functions in interacting systems and induce the appearance of various pathologies in postnatal life. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

A structural analysis of two lactate dehydrogenase M4 protein forms has been performed. These structures are the protein products of two lactate dehydrogenase gene (LDH-A) copies in the weatherfish Misgurnus fossilis genome after thermal adaptation (acclimation) to 5°C and 18°C. The localization of three earlier identified amino acid substitutions (Gly214Val, Leu304Ile, Asp312Glu) has been determined, and the molecular dynamics simulation and computer modeling of two forms of the enzyme from skeletal muscles LDH-M4 have been carried out. After molecular dynamics trajectory calculations carried out at 5, 18, and 25°C, the intersubunit distances for all structures used in calculations have been determined. It has been found that the Gly214Val substitution localized in the intersubunit region leads to a new intersubunit interaction, which plays a role in the stabilization of tetrameric enzyme structure after the adaptation to 18°C. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Pavlyuchenkova S.M.,Moscow State University | Zakhidov S.T.,Moscow State University | Makarov A.A.,National Research University Higher School of Economics | Marshak T.L.,Koltsov Institute of Developmental Biology
Biology Bulletin | Year: 2012

It has been shown that a single intratesticular injection of the chemical mutagen dipin (experiment) or saline (control) into mice resulted in significant but reversible morphohistological damage of the spermatogenic epithelium. However, unlike the controls, in mutagenized testes these damages were more pronounced. Thus, the process of restoring a normal pattern of spermatogenesis was slower. In addition, on day 35 of fixation, mature gametes were almost completely absent in the cauda epididymis and a large number of sperm cells with abnormal head shape (58.5 versus 1.7% in the controls) appeared in the testes. Using spermatogonial and meiotic micronucleus assay, we found that dipin did not induce a rise in the number of gross chromosomal mutations in the spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs): on days 35, 56, and 100 postinjection, the incidence of aberrant spermatogonia and round spermatids was not significantly different from the saline control. The degree of gametic chromatin decondensation was evaluated after treatment of the cauda epididymal sperm with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dithiothreitol (DTT). Judging by the results of the in vitro sperm chromatin decondensation on days 7, 14, 35, 56, and 100 after the injection of dipin or saline, the number of decondensed nuclei decreased sharply in the studied samples as compared with the sperm from intact animals where sperm cells with fully decondensed chromatin prevailed. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Shabarina A.N.,Koltsov Institute of Developmental Biology
Genetika | Year: 2013

The results of investigating the functions of different barrier elements, including insulators and MARs/SARs and the models of their effect, are described. The functions of neDNA (DNA from the nuclear envelopes) as a barrier element that protects the transgene from position-effect variegation and its interaction with insulators are discussed. The possible mechanisms of the functioning of structural and functional units of eukaryotic chromosomes of different species are suggested. Source

Voronezhskaya E.E.,Koltsov Institute of Developmental Biology | Ivashkin E.G.,Koltsov Institute of Developmental Biology
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology | Year: 2010

It has been demonstrated by us and other authors that first nervous cells in developing larvae from various trochozoan groups differentiate at the periphery. These pioneer neurons are distinguished by the set of characters. They are located outside the forming central ganglia; outgrowing fibers of central neurons use their processes as a "scaffolding" transmitter expression in these neurons is transient. On the one hand, pioneer neurons mark the "frame" of the adult nervous system and thus play a limiting role. On the other hand, pioneering navigation provides possible mechanisms for evolutional plasticity of the nervous system in adults. In addition, pioneer neurons can underlie functional adaptation of trochophore animals, which minimizes fitness decrease during the transition from the larval to the adult form during metamorphosis. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

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