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Ahmad K.E.,Royal North Shore Hospital | Fraser C.L.,University of Sydney | Sue C.M.,Kolling Institute for Medical Research | Barton J.J.S.,University of British Columbia
Survey of Ophthalmology | Year: 2016

A 45-year-old woman presented with acute sequential optic neuropathy resulting in bilateral complete blindness. No significant visual recovery occurred. Past medical history was relevant for severe preeclampsia with resultant renal failure, diabetes mellitus, and sudden bilateral hearing loss when she was 38 years old. There was a family history of diabetes mellitus in her mother. Testing for common causes of bilateral optic neuropathy did not reveal a diagnosis for her illness. The maternal and personal history of diabetes and deafness prompted testing for mitochondrial disease. The 3 primary mitochondrial DNA mutations responsible for Leber hereditary optic neuropathy were absent, but the patient was subsequently found to have a disease causing mitochondrial DNA mutation, m.13513G>A. The case illustrates the importance of early testing for mitochondrial disease and demonstrates that Leber hereditary optic neuropathy-like presentations may be missed if testing is limited to the 3 primary mutations. © 2016.

Che Y.,University of Sydney | Best O.G.,Kolling Institute for Medical Research | Zhong L.,University of New South Wales | Kaufman K.L.,University of Sydney | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2013

The proteomic effects of the Hsp90 inhibitor, SNX-7081, have been determined on the p53-mutated B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell line, MEC1. Following SNX-7081 treatment (500 nM, 24 h), 51 proteins changed abundance by more than 2-fold (p < 0.05); 7 proteins increased while 44 proteins decreased. Proteins identified as differentially abundant by LC-MS/MS were validated by Western blotting (DDB1, PCNA, MCM2, Hsp90, Hsp70, GRP78, PDIA6, HLA-DR). RT-PCR showed that SNX-7081 unexpectedly modulates a number of these proteins in MEC1 cells at the mRNA level (PCNA, MCM2, Nup155, Hsp70, GRP78, PDIA6, and HLA-DR). Pathway analysis determined that 3 of the differentially abundant proteins (cyclin D1, c-Myc and pRb) were functionally related. p53 levels did not change upon SNX-7081 treatment of p53 wild-type Raji cells or p53-mutated MEC1 and U266 cells, indicating that SNX-7081 has a p53-independent mechanism. The decreases in DDB1, MCM2, c-Myc, and PCNA and increases of pRb and cyclin D1 were confirmed in MEC1, U266, Raji, and p53 null HL60 cells by Western blotting. These data suggest that SNX-7081 arrests the cell cycle and inhibits DNA replication and r epair and provides evidence for the mechanism of the observed synergy between Hsp90 inhibitors and drugs that induce DNA strand breaks. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Kaufman K.L.,University of Sydney | Kaufman K.L.,Brain and Mind Center | Jenkins Y.,University of Sydney | Alomari M.,University of Sydney | And 7 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

Clinical trials of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors have been limited by high toxicity. We previously showed that the Hsp90 inhibitor, SNX-7081, synergizes with and restores sensitivity to fludarabine nucleoside (2-FaraA) in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells with lesions in the p53 pathway (Best OG, et al., Leukemia Lymphoma 53:1367-75, 2012). Here, we used label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics and comprehensive bioinformatic analysis to determine the mechanism of this synergy. We propose that 2-FaraA-induced DNA damage is compounded by SNX- 7081-mediated inhibition of DNA repair, resulting in enhanced induction of apoptosis. DNA damage responses are impaired in part due to reductions in checkpoint regulators BRCA1 and cyclin D1, and cell death is triggered following reductions of MYC and nucleolin and an accumulation of apoptosis-inducing NFkB2 p100 subunit. Loss of nucleolin can activate Fas-mediated apoptosis, leading to the increase of pro-apoptotic proteins (BID, fas-associated factor-2) and subsequent apoptosis of p53-negative, 2-FaraA refractory CLL cells. A significant induction of DNA damage, indicated by increases in DNA damage marker gH2AX, was observed following the dual drug treatment of additional cell lines, indicating that a similar mechanism may operate in other p53-mutated human B-lymphoid cancers. These results provide valuable insight into the synergistic mechanism between SNX-7081 and 2-FaraA that may provide an alternative treatment for CLL patients with p53 mutations, for whom therapeutic options are currently limited. Moreover, this drug combination reduces the effective dose of the Hsp90 inhibitor and may therefore alleviate any toxicity encountered.

Christopherson R.I.,University of Sydney | Mactier S.,University of Sydney | Almazi J.G.,University of Sydney | Kohnke P.L.,University of Sydney | And 2 more authors.
Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids | Year: 2014

Fludarabine (2-FaraAMP) is a purine analog that is effective against chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL). For some cases of CLL, 2-FaraAMP as a single agent can clear the blood of leukemia cells, but leukemia stem cells usually remain protected in sanctuary sites. It is clear that 2-FaraAMP has multiple mechanisms of action that may collectively result in strand breaks in DNA, accumulation of phosphorylated p53 and apoptosis. We have demonstrated using the human Burkitt's lymphoma B-cell line, Raji, that p53, p63 and p73 all accumulate in the nucleus, following treatment of cells with fludarabine nucleoside (2-FaraA). In addition, phosphorylated p53 accumulates in the cytosol and at mitochondria. Using sophisticated methods of proteomic analysis with mass spectrometry, proteins that become differentially abundant after treatment of cells with 2-FaraA have been identified, providing considerable additional information about the cellular responses of B-lymphoid cancers to this purine analog. The levels of proteins involved in the unfolded protein response increase, indicating that endoplasmic reticulum stress is likely to be one mechanism for induction of apoptosis. The levels of a number of proteins found on the outer plasma membrane change on cells treated with 2-FaraA, suggesting that signaling from the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is stimulated, resulting in induction of apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway. Increased levels of the cell surface proteins, CD50, CD100 and ECE-1, would promote survival of these cells; the balance between these survival and death responses would determine the fate of the cell. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Tseng H.-Y.,University of Newcastle | Tseng H.-Y.,Hunter Medical Research Institute | Chen L.H.,University of Newcastle | Chen L.H.,Hunter Medical Research Institute | And 11 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2012

Emerging evidence has pointed to biological roles of melanoma-associated antigens (MAGEs) in cancer development, progression and resistance to treatment. However, the mechanisms involved remain to be fully elucidated. In this report, we show that one of the MAGE proteins, MAGE-D2, suppresses the expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) and plays an important role in protecting melanoma cells from apoptosis induced by TRAIL. MAGE-D2 was commonly expressed at increased levels in melanoma cells compared with melanocytes. Although its inhibition by small interfering RNA (siRNA) did not cause cell death, it rendered melanoma cells more sensitive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. This was associated with enhanced formation of TRAIL death-inducing signaling complex and up-regulation of TRAIL-R2, and was blocked by a recombinant TRAIL-R2/Fc chimeric protein or siRNA knockdown of TRAIL-R2. Regulation of TRAIL-R2 by MAGE-D2 appeared to be mediated by p53, in that knockdown MAGE-D2 did not up-regulate TRAIL-R2 in p53-null or mutant p53 melanoma cells. In addition, inhibition of MAGE-D2 did not result in up-regulation of TRAIL-R2 in wild-type p53 cell lines with p53 inhibited by short hairpin RNA. Indeed, knockdown of MAGE-D2 led to up-regulation of p53 due to a transcriptional increase. The regulatory effect of MAGE-D2 on TRAIL-R2 expression and TRAIL-induced apoptosis was recapitulated in studies on fresh melanoma isolates. Taken together, these results identify the expression of MAGE-D2 as an important mechanism that inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis and suggest that targeting MAGE-D2 may be a useful strategy in improving the therapeutic efficacy of TRAIL in melanoma. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

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