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Giri T.K.,Kolkata Group of Institutions
Advanced Composite Materials | Year: 2015

In the presence of catalytic amount of ammonium persulfate as initiator, the grafting of polyacrylamide (PAAm) onto gellan gum (GG) was carried out using microwave irradiation. The grafting condition was optimized by varying the microwave power, exposure time, and concentrations of initiator, monomer, and GG. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy analysis were employed to confirm that PAAm has been grafted onto the GG backbone. The intrinsic viscosity of pure and grafted samples has been measured by using Oswald viscometer. Swelling behavior of graft copolymer has been investigated and pH sensitivity of the graft copolymer was obtained. The flocculation characteristics of grafted and ungrafted polysaccharides have been evaluated in coal (coking and non-coking) suspensions. Graft copolymer shows better flocculation efficacy compared to the base polysaccharides. © 2014 Japan Society for Composite Materials, Korean Society for Composite Materials and Taylor & Francis.


Grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto kappa-carrageenan (KC) was carried out using microwave irradiation in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator. The effect of reaction variables including the concentration of APS, AAm, and KC; time duration; and microwave power was studied. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were carried out to characterize the graft copolymer. The graft copolymer possesses slightly sensitive activities to external pH and shows reversible on-off switching swelling characteristics. Flocculation efficacy of the graft copolymer was studied in coal fine suspension toward potential application as a flocculent. The acute oral toxicity study of the graft copolymer was evaluated as per OECD guidelines. Mice administered the graft copolymer did not show anomalous behavior during the 14-day study. No mortality was observed during the 14 days following treatment with the graft copolymer. © TÜBİTAK.


PubMed | Kolkata Group of Institutions
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of pharmacology | Year: 2016

Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats.The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into five groups. Four groups were subjected to chronic mild stress induced by using various stressors randomly scheduled in a week and continued for a period of 3 weeks. The stressed rodents were subjected to sertraline treatment for 9 weeks in different human therapeutic doses extrapolated to animal doses. Behavioral changes were monitored, assessed, and evaluated throughout the treatment phase with the help of tests such as locomotor activity test, forced swim test, tail suspension test, antianxiety test, and sucrose preference test (SPT).All tests except SPT, demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) reduction in depressive-like activity in the stressed rodents by the mid-treatment phase, followed by an abrupt onset of the depressive state by the end of the treatment phase. SPT showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in sucrose consumption throughout the treatment phase.Behavioral changes following chronic sertraline administration conferred gradual remission of depression state on initial treatment phase, followed by a reversal of effect on chronic use.


Dutta S.,Kolkata Group of Institutions
International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2015

Improvement in treatment has led to decreased death in youth with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developed countries. Despite this, youth with HIV are still at risk for increased mortality and morbidity compared with their uninfected counterparts. In developing countries, high numbers of youth die from acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses due to lack of access to consistent anti retroviral treatment. As a result, pediatric palliative care is a relevant topic for those providing care to youth with HIV. A systematic review was conducted to gather information regarding the status of the literature related to pediatric palliative care and medical decision-making for youth with HIV. This review article focused primarily on physical aspects of care, with less attention paid to psychological, social, ethical, and cultural aspects of care. It recommends that future research focuses on broadening the evaluation of pediatric palliative care among youth with HIV by directly evaluating the psychological, social, ethical, and cultural aspects of care and investigating the needs of all involved stakeholders. © 2015, International Journal Of Pharmacy and Technology. All rights reserved.


Giri T.K.,Kolkata Group of Institutions | Giri A.,Ram Eesh Institute of Vocational & Technical Education | Barman T.K.,Kolkata Group of Institutions | Maity S.,Kolkata Group of Institutions
Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2016

Nano-liposomes are the newly developed delivery systems for cancer therapy that are finding a position particularly suitable as peptide and protein carriers. These are three-layered self-assembled structures with nanoparticulate carrier systems. The overall pharmacological properties of commonly used protein and peptide in cancer therapy can be improved by the incorporation of protein and peptide into the nano-liposome. The surface modifications can be made liposomes to make compatible with targeting ligands has made these nanocarriers for targeted delivery. This review discusses the method of preparation and characterization of liposome based protein peptide delivery for the treatment of cancer. This review also explores latest work intended for targeted treatment of cancer by nano-liposomal protein and peptide delivery system. This type of delivery is targeting protein and peptide to tumor site by avoiding the reticuloendothelial system. Methods of nano-liposome delivery containing protein and peptide are also highlighted. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.


Biswas G.R.,Kolkata Group of Institutions | Majee S.B.,Kolkata Group of Institutions
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2015

The aim of the current investigation is to study the kinetics of drug release pattern from buccal swellable, controlled release tablets of amoxicillin trihydrate. Buccal tablets were prepared with modified gum karaya in 5-20% concentration. Drug release from the formulated amoxicillin trihydrate loaded buccal tablets followed Zero order kinetics resulting in regulated and controlled release for a given time from all the batches. Swelling index increased with increase in concentration of modified gum karaya. The drug release mechanism was confirmed by Korsmeyer-Peppas exponential equation. It was also observed that among the four batches, the tablets with 5-15% modified gum karaya obeyed Fickian diffusion mechanism, whereas the other (20%) showed the relaxation mechanism. Further for proper clarification the data were fitted to Kopcha mathematical model. This finding is supported by evaluation of the ratios of the exponents A/B (i.e., diffusional factor A and erosional factor B) derived from the Kopcha model, which were greater than 1 in all cases. A/B were found to be much higher (35-40) in the tablets with 5-15% of modified gum karaya suggesting that drug release from the buccal tablets is primarily controlled by a Fickian diffusion process. In the buccal tablets with 20 % of modified gum karaya A/B was found to be quite less (24) than the previous batches. Due to the high water affinity of the gum there will be a greater rate of polymer swelling, which is reflected in the drug diffusion mechanism.


PubMed | Kolkata Group of Institutions
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current drug delivery | Year: 2016

Cancer is the major cause of fatality and the number of new cases is increasing incessantly. Conventional therapies and existing anticancer agents cause serious side effects and expand the patients lifespan by a few years. There is the need to exploit alternative anticancer agents and novel drug delivery system to deliver these agents to the tumor site for the prevention of cancer. Recently, biologically active compounds isolated from plants used for the management of cancer have been the heart of interest. Capsaicin is a major pungent agent present in the chili peppers that is heavily consumed in the world. Capsaicin has demonstrated effectiveness as an anticancer agent, but a restraining factor is its pungency, extremely low aqueous solubility, and poor oral bioavailability which impede its use as an anticancer agent. Many technologies have been developed and applied to conquer this drawback. We bring to light the benefits of this phytoconstituent for treating different types of cancer. We also discussed some of the delivery approaches that have already made an impact by either delivering a drug to target tissue or increasing its bioavailability by many folds.


PubMed | Kolkata Group of Institutions
Type: | Journal: Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society | Year: 2016

Application of transdermal reverse iontophoresis for diagnostic purpose is a relatively new concept but its short span of research is full of ups and downs. In early nineties, when the idea was floated, it received a dubious welcome by the scientific community. Yet to the disbelief of many, 2001 saw the launching of GlucoWatch G2 Biographer, the first device that could measure the blood sugar level noninvasively. Unfortunately, the device failed to match the expectation and was withdrawn in 2007. However, the concept stayed on. Research on reverse iontophoresis has diversified in many fields. Numerous in vitro and in vivo experiments confirmed the prospect of reverse iontophoresis as a noninvasive tool in therapeutic drug monitoring and clinical chemistry. This review provides an overview about the recent developments in reverse iontophoresis in the field of therapeutic drug monitoring.


PubMed | Kolkata Group of Institutions
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry | Year: 2016

Nano-liposomes are the newly developed delivery systems for cancer therapy that are finding a position particularly suitable as peptide and protein carriers. These are three-layered self-assembled structures with nanoparticulate carrier systems. The overall pharmacological properties of commonly used protein and peptide in cancer therapy can be improved by the incorporation of protein and peptide into the nano-liposome. The surface modifications can be made liposomes to make compatible with targeting ligands has made these nanocarriers for targeted delivery. This review discusses the method of preparation and characterization of liposome based protein peptide delivery for the treatment of cancer. This review also explores latest work intended for targeted treatment of cancer by nano-liposomal protein and peptide delivery system. This type of delivery is targeting protein and peptide to tumor site by avoiding the reticuloendothelial system. Methods of nano-liposome delivery containing protein and peptide are also highlighted.


PubMed | Kolkata Group of Institutions
Type: | Journal: International journal of biological macromolecules | Year: 2016

The intention of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nanocapsulated food constituent capsaicin in protection of liver oxidative stress. We had prepared phospholipid vesicle (nanoliposome) by formation of thin lipid film followed by hydration when the mean vesicle diameter was found to be 277.7nm. Protection from sodium fluoride (NaF) induced oxidative stress by capsaicin loaded nanoliposomal formulation were tested in rats where a single dose of capsaicin in free and nanoliposome forms were administered after two hour of exposure to NaF. Membrane in hepatic cells were damaged by NaF and it was evaluated by estimating reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and catalase activity when it was observed that free capsaicin produced mild protection whereas liposomal capsaicin exerted a significant result. This can be suggested that liposome encapsulating capsaicin acts as a promising therapeutic agent in reducing liver oxidative stress produced by different stress factors.

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