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Tokarev O.V.,Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company | Kuzenkov M.V.,Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company | Udalov A.E.,Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University
Gornyi Zhurnal

The Zhdanov copper-nickel ore deposit is composed of 7 ore bodies of sublatitudinal elongation and echelon occurrence. The ore reserves at the top of the deposit have been mined out with three open pit mines down to a limit depth of 420 m (Tsentralny OPM). The open pit mining in the overall output of Kola MMC made 80%. As the open pits were approaching their ultimate limits, it was decided in 2000 to extract the remaining reserves with an underground method. The prime selection criteria for a mining method were: high productivity owing to employment of self-propelled equipment and integrated mechanization of mining; minimized amount of development work; efficient extraction of ore reserves at the minimum loss and dilution. These criteria are to the best covered by a two-stage mining approach: sublevel caving with room-and-pillar mining. At the first stage (when open pit and underground mining methods are used concurrently), the room-and-pillar system is used. At the second stage (upon open pit mining completion), rib pillars and crown pillars are broken with the sublevel caving technology and frontal ore drawing. Source

Tokarev O.V.,Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company | Kuzenkov M.V.,Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company | Rastorguev R.G.,Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company | Overchenko M.N.,Orica CIS
Gornyi Zhurnal

In 1998 in the industrial infrastructure area of Pechenganickel (now Kola MMC), under the contract with Dyno Nobel company (project designer), a shop was constructed for manufacturing emulsion explosives for open pit mining. Open pit mining with only emulsion explosives (EE) showed considerable advantages of the latter over powder explosives. Based on the results of using Subtek EE, it has been concluded that: • EE efficiency and ore fragmentation quality are higher than with explosive Grammotol-20 of in-house manufacture; • In wet holes with water inflow up to 10 l/min, Subtek keeps stability, preserves its properties and ensures the required ore fragmentation quality; • Labor content of hole charging is decreased as no hand loading of EE in a charging plant is required; • The crowing advantage is the high safety of blasting due to the use of non-explosive components of EE prior to their mixing and charging; • Toxic emissions in the mine air are considerably reduced as EE oxygen balance is close to zero; • Working conditions of blasting personnel are substantially improved since no dust is generated during EE charging; • Subtek EE manufacturing and application costs are lower than the same values of Grammotol-20; • With Subtek EE, drilling-and-blasting patterns have enlarged spacing of fans of holes and individual holes, which offers extra high economical effect due to cut down cost of drilling-and-blasting. In 2015 hole blasting of ore has been entirely switched to Subtek EE, and it is planned to change to Subtek EE hole charging in heading operations. Source

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