Tokyo, Japan
Tokyo, Japan

Kokushikan University is a private university in Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan.Combined teams of the Graduate School of Engineering and the Department of Science and Engineering competed against 130 team and came in 11th place in the 27th Formula SAE in 2007. This is the highest order at the participation university from Japan at present. The origins of Kokushikan University lie in the Kokushikan private academy, founded in Tokyo’s Azabu district in 1917, midway through Japan’s turbulent Taisho period. Founder Tokujiro Shibata and his young colleagues envisaged that this academy would cultivate competent individuals endowed with wisdom and courage.Kokushikan, which has already produced over 146,000 graduates active in all spheres of society, will be celebrating its 100th anniversary in 2017. Since its foundation in 1917, Kokushikan University has been working diligently to realize the educational philosophy, which is aimed to cultivate students so that they can contribute to the world peace and development. In the statement of the purport for establishing Kokushikan University, the significance of spiritual civilization is noted, lamenting the social malady of material civilization. Also, the university has been working consistently to instill a spirit of "knowledge and action", which has become a tradition over the years, and at present, the university offers education based on this principle. Wikipedia.

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Kubo K.,University of Tokyo | Ikebukuro T.,Kokushikan University
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2012

Acute and chronic effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on blood circulation of human muscle and tendon in vivo. J Strength Cond Res 26(10): 2765-2770, 2012-This study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on blood circulation of human muscle and tendon in vivo. Using nearinfrared spectroscopy and red laser lights, we determined acute changes in blood volume (THb) and oxygen saturation (StO2) of the medial gastrocnemius muscle and Achilles tendon during 60 minutes of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (1.3 atm absolute and 50% O2, experiment 1). In addition, we determined the chronic effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (60 minutes, 2 times per week, 6 weeks) on THb and StO2 of muscle and tendon (experiment 2). In experiment 1, THb of the muscle increased gradually from resting level, but StO2 did not change. On the other hand, THb and StO2 of the tendon increased during hyperbaric oxygen therapy. In experiment 2, the pattern of changes in the measured variables during 60 minutes of therapy was similar for both the muscle and tendon between the first and last therapies. During resting, THb and StO2 of the tendon were significantly lower after 6 weeks of therapy, although those of the muscle were not. In conclusion, oxygen saturation of the tendon increased during hyperbaric oxygen therapy, whereas that of the muscle did not. This result would be related to the difference in the treated effects between muscle and tendon. However, oxygen saturation of the tendon, but not the muscle, during resting decreased after 6 weeks of therapy. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Ohashi T.,Kokushikan University
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2016

This paper proposes a new filling material, fiber-reinforced ice (FRI), for tube bending. In tube bending, lead and low temperature melting alloys have conventionally been utilized as the filling medium to prevent defects and to alleviate flattening of the tube's cross section. However, these alloys are usually harmful to the environment (e.g., Pb, Bi-Pb-Sn-In, or Pb-Cd system alloys) or are expensive (e.g., In-Sn system alloys). In this study, the author utilized ice reinforced with the fiber of wastepaper for 3-point bending of JIS G 3452 SGP 32A steel tubes. Compression tests were conducted to analyze whether these tubes have crushing strength comparable to that of conventional fillings and sufficient ductility in low-speed deformation. The filling medium with more fiber effectively yielded less flattening. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Nikawa Y.,Kokushikan University
IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest | Year: 2016

Microwave heating is one of the key technologies in medicine such as sterilization, synthesis of pharmacy and also uses in diagnostic and treatment. In application, it is necessary to obtain temperature dependent complex permittivity of material. For accurate measurement, one way is to apply a cylindrical cavity resonator. To apply microwave heating using the cavity resonator, it becomes possible to measure the temperature dependent permittivity of liquid material. In this study, TM010 cylindrical cavity resonator is designed of 2.45GHz band and developed the system to measure complex permittivity of liquid material in various temperatures. The cylindrical cavity resonator allows high microwaves power excitation and it can heat the sample dynamically with the measurement. The characteristics of the material as the temperature are measured by measuring transmission coefficient of the cylindrical cavity resonator with high power transmission. © 2016 IEEE.

Kitamura T.,Kyoto University | Iwami T.,Kyoto University | Kawamura T.,Kyoto University | Nagao K.,Nihon University | And 2 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in public places can improve the rate of survival among patients who have had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS: From January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2007, we conducted a prospective, population-based, observational study involving consecutive patients across Japan who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in whom resuscitation was attempted by emergency responders. We evaluated the effect of nationwide dissemination of public-access AEDs on the rate of survival after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The primary outcome measure was the 1-month rate of survival with minimal neurologic impairment. A multivariate logistic-regression analysis was performed to assess factors associated with a good neurologic outcome. RESULTS: A total of 312,319 adults who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were included in the study; 12,631 of these patients had ventricular fibrillation and had an arrest that was of cardiac origin and that was witnessed by bystanders. In 462 of these patients (3.7%), shocks were administered by laypersons with the use of public-access AEDs, and the proportion increased, from 1.2% to 6.2%, as the number of public-access AEDs increased (P<0.001 for trend). Among all patients who had a bystander-witnessed arrest of cardiac origin and who had ventricular fibrillation, 14.4% were alive at 1 month with minimal neurologic impairment; among patients who received shocks from public-access AEDs, 31.6% were alive at 1 month with minimal neurologic impairment. Early defibrillation, regardless of the type of provider (bystander or emergency-medical-services personnel), was associated with a good neurologic outcome after a cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation (adjusted odds ratio per 1-minute increase in the time to administration of shock, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89 to 0.92; P<0.001). The mean time to shock was reduced from 3.7 to 2.2 minutes, and the annual number of patients per 10 million population who survived with minimal neurologic impairment increased from 2.4 to 8.9 as the number of public-access AEDs increased from fewer than 1 per square kilometer of inhabited area to 4 or more. CONCLUSIONS: Nationwide dissemination of public-access AEDs in Japan resulted in earlier administration of shocks by laypersons and in an increase in the 1-month rate of survival with minimal neurologic impairment after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.

Kitamura T.,Kyoto University | Iwami T.,Kyoto University | Kawamura T.,Kyoto University | Nagao K.,Nihon University | And 2 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2010

Background: Although chest compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is effective for adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) of cardiac origin, it remains uncertain whether bystander-initiated rescue breathing has an incremental benefit for OHCA of noncardiac origin. Methods and results: A nationwide, prospective, population-based, observational study covering the whole population of Japan and involving consecutive OHCA patients with emergency responder resuscitation attempts was conducted from January 2005 through December 2007. The primary outcome was neurologically intact 1-month survival. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the contribution of bystander-initiated CPR to better neurological outcomes. Among a total of 43 246 bystander-witnessed OHCAs of noncardiac origin, 8878 (20.5%) received chest compression-only CPR, and 7474 (17.3%) received conventional CPR with rescue breathing. The conventional CPR group (1.8%) had a higher rate of better neurological outcome than both the no CPR group (1.4%; odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 1.96) and the compression-only CPR group (1.5%; odds ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.69). However, the compression-only CPR group did not produce better neurological outcome than the no CPR group (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.47). The number of OHCAs needed to treat with conventional CPR versus compression-only CPR to save a life with favorable neurological outcome after OHCA was 290. Conclusions: This nationwide observational study indicates that rescue breathing has an incremental benefit for OHCAs of noncardiac origin, but the impact on the overall survival after OHCA was small. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.

Kubo K.,University of Tokyo | Ikebukuro T.,Kokushikan University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2012

PURPOSE: Recent studies using ultrasonography have demonstrated that training-induced changes in the mechanical properties of tendons in plantar flexors (i.e., Achilles tendon) are lower than those in knee extensors (i.e., patellar tendon). However, the mechanisms for these phenomena are unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in blood circulation of patellar and Achilles tendons by repeated muscle contractions and heating. Methods: Eleven healthy males participated in this study. During and after repeated muscle contractions (50 repetitions at 50% of the isometric maximum voluntary contraction for 3 s with 3-s relaxations) and heating (20 min), blood volume (total hemoglobin (THb)) and oxygen saturation (StO2) of the patellar and Achilles tendons were measured using red laser lights. Results: During repeated muscle contractions, StO2 of the patellar tendon decreased significantly, but that of the Achilles tendon did not. During heating, THb and StO2 increased significantly for both tendons. Increases in THb and StO2 of the patellar tendon were significantly higher than those of the Achilles tendon (both P < 0.001). Conclusion: These Results demonstrated that changes in blood circulation of the patellar tendon during exercise and heating were higher than those of the Achilles tendon. This result appears to be related to the differences in the plasticity of the mechanical properties of the patellar and Achilles tendons. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Inui M.,Kokushikan University
Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences | Year: 2010

The mode of occurrence of garnet in pelitic schists of the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt along the Asemigara River in central Shikoku is examined. Two different types of garnets, A and B, are identified from the albite-biotite and the oligoclase-biotite zones of the Sanbagawa belt. Type-A garnets are larger than type-B garnets and show concentric normal chemical zoning. There is no evidence of disequilibrium crystal growth in type-A garnets. On the contrary, type-B garnets are small, and some of them occasionally show sector zoning, which is a strong evidence for a disequilibrium crystal growth. The chemical trend observed between the core and the rim of type-B garnets is different from that observed in the case of type-A garnets, although only some of the type-B garnets show chemical sector zoning. Type-B garnets are typically found in clusters in muscovite-rich layers or are included in albite porphyroblasts. These two types of garnets can be distinguished from each other on the basis of grain size, cluster formation, and chemical composition. Type-B grains are found only in the structurally lower part of the oligoclase-biotite zone and in the lower albite-biotite zone. These two types of garnets are thought to represent two stages of garnet growth. Further, in the case of type-A garnets (early garnet), chemical equilibrium is maintained during prograde metamorphism, and hence, these garnets are suitable for the use in thermobarometric studies.

Nikawa Y.,Kokushikan University
Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference Proceedings, APMC | Year: 2013

RF and Microwaves are non-ionizing radiation energy. They are very safe in application of medicine, especially in diagnosis and treatment. Application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has greatly progress in medical diagnosis. Microwave techniques have a great potential to help to advance MRI techniques. In this paper, microwave reflection sensing and microwave irradiation for heating treatment is introduced with using MRI. © 2013 IEEE.

Tanaka H.,Kokushikan University
Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine | Year: 2011

the last 7 years, more than 300,000 automated external defibrillators(AEDs) installed nationwide in Japan, and at least one AED has placed in 38,634 schools. Therefore, only 0.7% of bystanders used the AEDs(By-AED) in all OHCA cases with th 48 % of ROSC. In recent years, elementary and junior high school student has interested in AED results in each school has at least one AED. Therefore, introduction of CPR education starting from elementary school was extremely important. CPR education is not yet ubiquitous, and the promotion of AEDs and CPR education on a nationwide scale remains an urgent issue. Therefore, to solve this problem, we investigated the status of CPR education in schools teachers. We conducted surveys targeting for school teachers in Tokyo. Question; "What age do you think suitable for CPR training ?" Most of teachers answered"Suitable age for start CPR education from the upper grades of elementary school to a junior high school". Reason is, physically, continuous high quality chest compression could performed age of junior high. However, 'Importance of life' could teach from lower grade of elementary school because of child have a good long time memory. In this reason, CPR education is extremely important. Also teachers need 'more time', 'curriculum for CPR education and 'good CPR instruction tool for teaching'. The solution to teacher's request, we prepared follows. A 90 minutes hands only CPR curriculum should be introduced to elementary school CPR for basic CPR education. CPR +AED education should be started in lower grade of elementary school with AED trainer. In conclusion, school CPR programs are extremely important for awareness both in skill and knowledge of CPR among the entire school. Future research is warranted to improve the resuscitation rate by school CPR program.

Kitamura T.,Kyoto University | Iwami T.,Kyoto University | Kawamura T.,Kyoto University | Nagao K.,Nihon University | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2010

Background: The American Heart Association recommends cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by bystanders with chest compression only for adults who have cardiac arrests, but not for children. We assessed the effect of CPR (conventional with rescue breathing or chest compression only) by bystanders on outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in children. Methods: In a nationwide, prospective, population-based, observational study, we enrolled 5170 children aged 17 years and younger who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from Jan 1, 2005, to Dec 31, 2007. Data collected included age, cause, and presence and type of CPR by bystander. The primary endpoint was favourable neurological outcome 1 month after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, defined as Glasgow-Pittsburgh cerebral performance category 1 or 2. Findings: 3675 (71%) children had arrests of non-cardiac causes and 1495 (29%) cardiac causes. 1551 (30%) received conventional CPR and 888 (17%) compression-only CPR. Data for type of CPR by bystander were not available for 12 children. Children who were given CPR by a bystander had a significantly higher rate of favourable neurological outcome than did those not given CPR (4·5% [110/2439] vs 1·9% [53/2719]; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2·59, 95% CI 1·81-3·71). In children aged 1-17 years who had arrests of non-cardiac causes, favourable neurological outcome was more common after bystander CPR than no CPR (5·1% [51/1004] vs 1·5% [20/1293]; OR 4·17, 2·37-7·32). However, conventional CPR produced more favourable neurological outcome than did compression-only CPR (7·2% [45/624] vs 1·6% [six of 380]; OR 5·54, 2·52-16·99). In children aged 1-17 years who had arrests of cardiac causes, favourable neurological outcome was more common after bystander CPR than no CPR (9·5% [42/440] vs 4·1% [14/339]; OR 2·21, 1·08-4·54), and did not differ between conventional and compression-only CPR (9·9% [28/282] vs 8·9% [14/158]; OR 1·20, 0·55-2·66). In infants (aged <1 year), outcomes were uniformly poor (1·7% [36/2082] with favourable neurological outcome). Interpretation: For children who have out-of-hospital cardiac arrests from non-cardiac causes, conventional CPR (with rescue breathing) by bystander is the preferable approach to resuscitation. For arrests of cardiac causes, either conventional or compression-only CPR is similarly effective. Funding: Fire and Disaster Management Agency and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Japan). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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