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Nagoya-shi, Japan

Takeuchi A.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | Matsushima E.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | Kato M.,Keio University | Konishi M.,Keio University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes Investigation | Year: 2012

Aims/Introduction: It has been suggested that type 2 diabetes is associated with cognitive impairment. We investigated the neuropsychological profile of inpatients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and assessed the effects of clinical factors on neuropsychological functions. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients with type 2 diabetes and 32 non diabetic control subjects were matched for age, sex ratio, and level of education. Attention & working memory, processing speed, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, visuoconstruction, and executive function were tested. Information about physical function, alcohol use, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and myocardial infarction was retrieved from personal interviews and medical records. Results: Diabetic patients demonstrated mild cognitive deterioration in attention & working memory, processing speed, verbal memory, and executive function. In particular, neuropsychological decline became prominent when tasks related with speed and verbal stimuli became unstructured and complex. Age was significantly associated with the majority of neuropsychological tests, whereas tasks dealing with working memory and executive function were associated with age only in the diabetic group. Duration of diabetes was associated with Backward Digit Span. Conclusions: Accelerated aging had a major influence on cognitive decline in the diabetic group, whereas diminished performance in working memory and executive function might have been more related to diabetes-related cognitive impairment. © 2011 Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source

Teramoto H.,Kojin Hospital | Kamahora T.,Tottori University | Makino M.,National Sanatorium Oku Komyo En
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) outbreak that occurred between 1940 and 1999 in a closed leprosy sanatorium located on a small island in Japan was analyzed. The analysis of 318 nucleotides in the NS5B region of HCV allowed us to establish the existence of at least three different HCV strains in this sanatorium. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Vaque J.P.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Dorsam R.T.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Feng X.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Feng X.,University of Sichuan | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2013

Activating mutations in GNAQ and GNA11, encoding members of the Gαq family of G protein α subunits, are the driver oncogenes in uveal melanoma, and mutations in Gq-linked G protein-coupled receptors have been identified recently in numerous human malignancies. How Gαq and its coupled receptors transduce mitogenic signals is still unclear because of the complexity of signaling events perturbed upon Gq activation. Using a synthetic-biology approach and a genome-wide RNAi screen, we found that a highly conserved guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Trio, is essential for activating Rho- and Rac-regulated signaling pathways acting on JNK and p38, and thereby transducing proliferative signals from Gαq to the nucleus independently of phospholipase C-β. Indeed, whereas many biological responses elicited by Gq depend on the transient activation of second-messenger systems, Gq utilizes a hard-wired protein-protein-interaction-based signaling circuitry to achieve the sustained stimulation of proliferative pathways, thereby controlling normal and aberrant cell growth. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Teramoto H.,Kojin Hospital | Shimizu T.,RTech Corporation | Yogo H.,Kojin Hospital | Nishimiya Y.,Kojin Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Experimental Physiology | Year: 2012

Gastric emptying is achieved by co-operation between gastric and duodenal motor activity. Therefore, evaluation of gastric emptying and its associated mechanisms would benefit clinical therapy as well as medical research. Healthy volunteers underwent rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen along the coronal plane after ingestion of a liquid meal. The gastric fundal and duodenal areas were quantified semi-automatically by self-developed segment software. The average gastric fundal area determined by the serosal end in 40 sequential images was reduced to ~81% 30 min after and to ~70% 60 min after ingestion of a liquid meal. The average duodenal area also decreased to ~86% after 30 min and to 83% after 60 min. In contrast, changes in the centre of gravity increased to about fivefold after 30 min and to about threefold after 60 min. The mean velocity of the duodenal wall mimicked changes in the centre of gravity. The application of metoclopramide, a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, accelerated gastric emptying, presumably due to facilitated duodenal activity even immediately after liquid meal ingestion. The ingestion of water caused fast gastric emptying in 30 min, accompanied by high duodenal motility, but it ceased after 60 min, presumably reflecting complete gastric emptying. A rapid MRI scan visualized the association between gastric emptying and duodenal motility that could be modified by calories and dopaminergic neurotransmission. Changes in the centre of gravity and mean velocity of the duodenal wall appear to quantify the motility obtained from cine MRI accurately. © 2012 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2012 The Physiological Society. Source

Teramoto H.,Kojin Hospital | Morita Y.,Kojin Hospital | Shimomura R.,Red Cross | Kamahora T.,Tottori University | Makino M.,National Sanatorium Oku Komyo En
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2010

Oku-Komyo-En is one of the national leprosy sanatoria, located on a small island in Setouchi city, Okayama prefecture of Japan since 1938. Since autopsies were carried out routinely on almost all patients who had died in the sanatorium up to 1980, approximately 1,000 formalin-fixed autopsy tissue samples were available for analysis. When these samples were reviewed, the pathological data indicated a sharp rise in the death rate caused by cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) since 1960 and 1970, respectively. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common cause of HCC in Japan. The presence of HCV RNA was demonstrated in paraffin sections prepared from the autopsied liver tissue fixed in formalin for a prolonged period of time, by employing nested RT-PCR using type-specific primers. The data showed that HCV RNA was detectable in samples of the liver archived as early as 1940, representing the liver tissues kept in formalin for up to 67 years. HCV genotypes 1b and 2a were found by RT-PCR at 85.7% and 14.3%, respectively, in patients with leprosy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

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