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Komori T.,Kohkin Chemical Co. | Saito K.,Kohkin Chemical Co. | Sawa N.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | Shibasaki Y.,Nihon University | And 9 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2015

Background: Oral administration of lipopoly - saccharide (LPS), a major outer-membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, has been found to prevent infection in mammals and fish. Oral administration of LPS is believed to increase phagocytic activity and promote cytokine production, thus associating it with priming. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of oral administration of LPS in birds, which phylogenetically lie between fish and mammals, using chickens as a model. Materials and Methods: LPS derived from Pantoea agglomerans (LPSp) was added to the feed or water for oral administration to broiler chickens. For the survival assay and gene expression analysis (Genopal), LPSp was administered at a dose of 10 μg/kg of body weight (BW)/day. LPSp was administered at a dose of 0.2 μg/kg or 200 μg/kg to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear phagocytosis (latex beads) and nitric oxide (NO) production. Results: LPSp (10 μg/kg BW/day) administration significantly inhibited mortality in broiler chickens on commercial farms. Furthermore, oral administration resulted in a transient increase in phagocytic activity and improved the ability to produce NO. On examining splenic cytokine induction following intraperitoneal administration of LPS derived from Escherichia coli (LPSe), we found significantly increased interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA expression. Conclusion: Innate immunity activation in chickens, as seen in infection prevention, was induced by oral administration of LPSp. This infection prevention involved increased phagocytic activity and enhanced gene expression and appears to be a phylogenetically-preserved innate immunity mechanism.


Lokaewmanee K.,Kasetsart University | Yamauchi K.-E.,Kagawa University | Komori T.,Kohkin Chemical Co. | Saito K.,Kohkin Chemical Co.
Italian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

The present study aims to investigate the effects of dietary Pantoea-6® (extract of fermented wheat flour with Pantoea agglomerans) and plant extracts (red clover and garlic) on eggshell quality and structure and intestinal histology. Sixty-six Boris Brown laying hens (30 weeks old) were allotted to 3 groups, each with eleven replicates of two chickens. The control group was fed a basal diet (18% crude protein, 2850 kcal/kg ME) and the other groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.1% Pantoea-6® (including 0.06 g/kg lipopolysaccharide) and 0.1% plant extracts, respectively. There were no significant differences in laying performance and egg quality. However, these adverse effects occurred in the egg and albumen weight and eggshell breaking strength of the Pantoea-6® and plant extracts groups (P<0.05). Shell weight of the Pantoea- 6® group was significantly higher than the other groups (P<0.05). Compared with the control, eggshell structure tended to have greater thickness in both dietary Pantoea-6® and plant extracts groups. The duodenum and jejunum of both Pantoea-6® and plant extracts groups showed higher values for cell area than those of the control (P<0.05). Moreover, cells on the villus tip surface were protuberated in both dietary Pantoea-6® and plant extracts groups, resulting in a rough surface. This study shows that Pantoea-6® and plant extracts at a 0.1% level might have a beneficial effect on egg and albumen weight, eggshell quality and structure parameters, as well as on small intestine histological parameters. © K. Lokaewmanee et al.


Lokaewmanee K.,Kagawa University | Yamauchi K.,Kagawa University | Komori T.,Kohkin Chemical Co. | Saito K.,Kohkin Chemical Co.
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2011

Enhancing egg yolk color by feeding laying hens paprika extract (Color-Up, Kohkin Chemical Co. Ltd., Higashiosaka, Japan; 5 g of xanthophylls/kg) and potentially accelerating the process by concurrent feeding of a probiotic (Balantol powder, Kohkin Chemical Co. Ltd.; 107 of lactic acid bacterium Enterococcus faecium BIO-4R/g) was examined. A total of 144 twenty-five-week-old laying hens were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a basal diet group (17.5% CP, 2,750 kcal of ME/kg; control), the basal diet plus 0.1% dietary paprika group, and the basal diet plus 0.1% dietary paprika plus 0.1% probiotic group. Each group consisted of 4 replicates with 12 birds. Hen egg production was recorded daily from 25 to 34 wk of age. Twelve eggs per diet group were evaluated weekly for egg quality. No differences were found in any parameter measured except for egg yolk color. Egg yolk color scores were greater in the paprika group (11.69) than in the control group (9.71; P < 0.05). The egg yolk color scores of the paprika plus probiotic group (12.00) were not significantly different from those of the paprika group. We concluded that paprika extract improved egg yolk color, whereas the probiotic combined with paprika extract did not affect egg yolk color at a level of 107 cfu/g. © 2011 Poultry Science Association, Inc.


Lokaewmanee K.,Kagawa University | Yamauchi K.,Kagawa University | Komori T.,Kohkin Chemical Co. | Saito K.,Kohkin Chemical Co.
Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2011

The effects of non-saponified lutein from marigold flower meal (MFM) and saponified lutein from marigold flower extract (MFE) on chicken egg yolk coloration was evaluated. A total of 90 laying hens were randomly divided into 9 groups: the basal diet (0 mg/kg lutein; control) was supplemented with 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg lutein from MFM or MFE. During the three-week feeding experiment period, birds had free access to feed and water, and feed consumption and egg production were recorded weekly. Five eggs per group were evaluated weekly for egg quality such as shell-breaking strength, shell thickness, shell ratio, albumen ratio, yolk ratio, yolk color, and Haugh units. The egg yolk color was visually examined using the Roche Yolk Color Fan. The egg yolk color was further examined for yolk color, yellow index, lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), ratio of redness to yellowness (a/b), chroma, and spectrum wavelength reflectance using a spectro-photometer, an objective method. Feed consumption, body weight, egg production, egg mass, and egg quality with the exception of egg yolk color were not affected significantly by the dietary treatments. Compared with the yolk color parameters of the control, those of the dietary treatment groups tended to be higher; and the 40 mg/kg lutein from MFM group and the 20, 30, and 40mg/kg lutein from MFE groups were significantly increased (P< 0.001). In two-way ANOVA, the visual and objective egg yolk colors, a* and a/b were improved by both the dietary lutein treatment (P< 0.05) and the lutein supplementation levels (P< 0.001). It was concluded that dietary lutein enhances egg yolk color at levels of approximately 30 to 40 mg/kg, and that saponified lutein from MFE appears to be more effective in egg yolk color than non-saponified lutein from MFM. © 2011, Japan Poultry Science Association.

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