Farooqi A.A.,Rashid Latif Medical College |
ur Rehman Z.,Kohat University of Science and Technology |
Muntane J.,University of Seville |
Muntane J.,CIBER ISCIII
OncoTargets and Therapy | Year: 2014
There is increasing progress in translational oncology and tremendous breakthroughs have been made as evidenced by preclinical and clinical trials. Data obtained from high-throughput technologies are deepening our understanding about the molecular and gene network in cancer cells and rapidly emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence is highlighting the role of antisense agents as specific inhibitors of the expression of target genes, thus modulating the response of cancer cells to different therapeutic strategies. Much information is continuously being added into various facets of molecular oncology and it is now understood that over expression of antiapoptotic proteins, oncogenes, oncogenic microRNAs (miRNA), and fusion proteins make cancer cells difficult to target. Delivery of antisense oligonucleotides has remained a challenge and technological developments have helped in overcoming hurdles by improving the ability to penetrate cells, effective and targeted binding to gene sequences, and down regulation of target gene function. Different delivery systems, including stable nucleic acid lipid particles, have shown potential in enhancing the delivery of cargo to the target site. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current progress in the development of antisense therapeutics and their potential in medical research. We partition this multi component review into introductory aspects about recent breakthroughs in antisense therapeutics. We also discuss how antisense therapeutics have shown potential in resensitizing resistant cancer cells to apoptosis by targeted inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins, oncogenic miRNAs, and BCR-ABL. © 2014 Farooqi et al.
Mashwani W.K.,Kohat University of Science and Technology |
Salhi A.,University of Essex
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2014
In recent years, hybridization of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) with traditional mathematical programming techniques have received significant attention in the field of evolutionary computing (EC). The use of multiple strategies with self-adaptation manners can further improve the algorithmic performances of decomposition-based evolutionary algorithms. In this paper, we propose a new multiobjective memetic algorithm based on the decomposition approach and the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. For brevity, we refer to our developed approach as MOEA/D-DE+PSO. In our proposed methodology, PSO acts as a local search engine and differential evolution works as the main search operator in the whole process of optimization. PSO updates the position of its solution with the help of the best information on itself and its neighboring solution. The experimental results produced by our developed memtic algorithm are more promising than those of the simple MOEA/D algorithm, on most test problems. Results on the sensitivity of the suggested algorithm to key parameters such as population size, neighborhood size and maximum number of solutions to be altered for a given subproblem in the decomposition process are also included.
Jan M.A.,Kohat University of Science and Technology |
Khanum R.A.,University of Essex
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2013
Penalty functions are frequently employed for handling constraints in constrained optimization problems (COPs). In penalty function methods, penalty coefficients balance objective and penalty functions. However, finding appropriate penalty coefficients to strike the right balance is often very hard. They are problems dependent. Stochastic ranking (SR) and constraint-domination principle (CDP) are two promising penalty functions based constraint handling techniques that avoid penalty coefficients. In this paper, the extended/modified versions of SR and CDP are implemented for the first time in the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D) framework. This led to two new algorithms, CMOEA/D-DE-SR and CMOEA/D-DE-CDP. The performance of these new algorithms is tested on CTP-series and CF-series test instances in terms of the HV-metric, IGD-metric, and SC-metric. The experimental results are compared with NSGA-II, IDEA, and the three best performers of CEC 2009 MOEA competition, which showed better and competitive performance of the proposed algorithms on most test instances of the two test suits. The sensitivity of the performance of proposed algorithms to parameters is also investigated. The experimental results reveal that CDP works better than SR in the MOEA/D framework. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hossain Z.,West Bengal State University |
Khatoon A.,Kohat University of Science and Technology |
Komatsu S.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2013
Plant response to abiotic stresses depends upon the fast activation of molecular cascades involving stress perception, signal transduction, changes in gene and protein expression and post-translational modification of stress-induced proteins. Legumes are extremely sensitive to flooding, drought, salinity and heavy metal stresses, and soybean is not an exception of that. Invention of immobilized pH gradient strips followed by advancement in mass spectrometry has made proteomics a fast, sensitive and reliable technique for separation, identification and characterization of stress-induced proteins. As the functional translated portion of the genome plays an essential role in plant stress response, proteomic studies provide us a finer picture of protein networks and metabolic pathways primarily involved in stress tolerance mechanism. Identifying master regulator proteins that play key roles in the abiotic stress response pathway is fundamental in providing opportunities for developing genetically engineered stress-tolerant crop plants. This review highlights recent contributions in the field of soybean biology to comprehend the complex mechanism of abiotic stress acclimation. Furthermore, strengths and weaknesses of different proteomic methodologies of extracting complete proteome and challenges and future prospects of soybean proteome study both at organ and whole plant levels are discussed in detail to get new insights into the plant abiotic stress response mechanism. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Khan S.A.,Saarland University |
Khan S.A.,Kohat University of Science and Technology |
Schneider M.,Saarland University
Macromolecular Bioscience | Year: 2013
An optimum nanoprecipitation technique for gelatin nanoparticles is established, based on aqueous gelatin solution and ethanolic solution containing stabilizer. Crosslinking with glutaraldehyde results in stable gelatine nanoparticles. Several factors such as the surfactant concentration, type of surfactant, type of nonsolvent and gelatin concentration are evaluated. Gelatin nanoparticles with 200-300nm can be produced using 20-30mgmL-1 of gelatin and a minimum of 7% w/v stabilizer (Poloxamer 407 or 188). Furthermore, methanol and ethanol are good nonsolvents, whereas other nonsolvents such as acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetonitrile, result in phase separation and visible precipitates. The entrapment efficiency of fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran as model drug was determined to 50% with no substantial effect on particle size. 80% of the drug is only released after enzymatic digestion. Nanocarriers for the delivery of hydrophilic drugs such as macromolecules are prepared. An improvement of the nanoprecipitation technique is reported for gelatin nanoparticles. The effects of various parameters involved in the particle formation process are investigated. The loading and release of a model hydrophilic macromolecule is studied to explore the potential of gelatin nanoparticles as a nanomaterial for the encapsulation of macromolecules. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Khan S.,Kohat University of Science and Technology |
Alrajeh N.A.,King Saud University |
Loo K.-K.,Middlesex University
Computer Networks | Year: 2012
The large scale coverage and multi-hop architecture of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) are such characteristics which are vulnerable to network layer threats. So far many secure routing techniques have been proposed but they are only capable to handle single network layer attack. In this paper, we propose a secure route selection mechanism for WMN, which is robust against a variety of multi-hop threats and performs well over a range of scenarios we tested. © 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ashiq S.,University of Peshawar |
Hussain M.,Kohat University of Science and Technology |
Ahmad B.,University of Peshawar
Fungal Genetics and Biology | Year: 2014
Medicinal plants are widely used as home remedies and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries. Herbal remedies are used in the prevention, treatment and cure of disorders and diseases since ancient times. However, use of medicinal herbs may not meet the requirements of quality, safety and efficacy. During harvesting, handling, storage and distribution, medicinal plants are subjected to contamination by various fungi, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The increasing consumption of medicinal plants has made their use a public health problem due to the lack of effective surveillance of the use, efficacy, toxicity and quality of these natural products. The increase in use of medicinal plants may lead to an increase in the intake of mycotoxins therefore contamination of medicinal plants with mycotoxins can contribute to adverse human health problems and therefore represents a special hazard. Numerous natural occurrences of mycotoxins in medicinal plants and traditional herbal medicines have been reported from various countries including Spain, China, Germany, India, Turkey and from Middle East as well. This review discusses the important mycotoxins and their natural occurrences in medicinal plants and their products. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Mashwani W.K.,Kohat University of Science and Technology
International Journal of Computing Science and Mathematics | Year: 2014
Over the past few years, differential evolution (DE) is generally considered as a reliable, accurate and robust population-based evolutionary algorithm (EA). It is capable of handling non-differentiable, non-linear, multi-modal and constrained optimisation problems. However, it suffers from slow convergence rate and takes large computational time for optimising the computationally expensive objective functions including problems dimensionality, several local and global optimums. Over the last few years, several attempts have been made to overcome these drawbacks of simple DE by employing the key features of some existing evolutionary algorithms either self-adaptively and have been formed in the forms of enhanced versions of DEs. This paper reviews those efforts and gathered state-of-the-art survey of the DEs that included some novel self-adaptive mechanisms, different ensemble techniques, efficient local search optimisers and various constrained handling techniques. Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Tariq A.,Kohat University of Science and Technology |
Mussarat S.,Kohat University of Science and Technology |
Adnan M.,Kohat University of Science and Technology
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015
Ethnopharmacological relevance Himalayan plants have 6500 years old history of being using as traditional medicines. Inhabitants of the region use indigenous knowledge for the preparation of various herbal recipes in order to treat different kinds of cancer. The aim of this review is to provide ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and toxicological overview of Himalayan medicinal plants having anticancer potential. This will provide a baseline for the discovery of new anticancer drugs. Material and methods In total, 155 articles (mostly published) were reviewed by using online search engines like PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and floras of different Himalayan countries. Results Sixty four anticancer medicinal plants were documented belonging to 59 genera and 37 families. Majority of 42 plants were reported from India followed by 17 from Pakistan. Traditional healers in the region mostly prepare ethnomedicinal recipes from leaves (32% plants) and roots (30% plants) in the form of decoction. Thirty plants had reported anticancer related pharmacological and phytochemical activities. Of these, 27 plants were tested in-vitro on cellular models while 16 plants for in-vivo activities. Methanolic, ethanolic and ethylacetate extracts of plants have shown excellent cytotoxic activities against breast, stomach and blood cancers' cell lines. Total 14 active secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, glycosides, terpenoids, lignans and alkynes from the studied plants were reported active against different cancer cell lines. Plants such as Bergenia ciliata, Argemone mexicana, Capsella bursa-pastoris and Centella asiatica had toxic effects on the living systems at higher doses when studied in-vivo. Conclusions Certain Himalayan medicinal plants present therapeutic properties against different types of cancer. However, not all of the plants have been fully analysed for in vitro, in vivo and toxicological activities, and isolation of secondary metabolites. Further ethnomedicinal studies would help in identifying potential medicinal plant species in the region to be analysed for detailed anticancer activities. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Ullah R.,Kohat University of Science and Technology
Life Science Journal | Year: 2013
Phytochemical study on the chemical constituents of the whole plant of Phlomis bracteosa (Labiatea) has resulted in the isolation of fourteen known compounds. These compounds were identified as benzoic acid (1), chrysin (2), henicosanoic acid methyl ester (3), thymine (4), hexadecyl ethers of glycerol (5), azukisaponin V (6), astragaloside VIII (7), quercetin (8), 5,4'-dihydroxy-3,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (9), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (10), tenaxin II (11), 5,7,2'- trihydroxyflavone (12), lupeol (13) and taraxasterol (14). Their structures were confirmed on the basis of spectroscopic technique and by the comparisons with reported data.