Kogarah, Australia
Kogarah, Australia

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Kus B.,University of Technology, Sydney | Kandasamy J.,University of Technology, Sydney | Vigneswaran S.,University of Technology, Sydney | Shon H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Moody G.,Kogarah Municipal Council
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2012

This paper presents the results of the granular medium filter and membrane (Ultra Flo membrane) filter experiments conducted with raw stormwater collected from a stormwater canal at Carlton, in Sydney. The filter medium experimented were granular activated carbon (GAC), anthracite and sand. Each was used as a single medium in a 1 m filter column. The filter columns were operated at filtration velocity 10 m h−1. The GAC filter column was capable of significantly reducing the influent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. After GAC filtration of stormwater, the average concentration of DOC was 1.76 mg l −1, measured using LC-OCD, which represents a 70% removal of all types of organic. Membrane filtration removed a small additional amount of organics. The GAC filter as a pre-treatment to membrane filtration performed effectively with significant removals in most heavy metals although their influent concentrations were low. The treatment train of GAC filter column followed by membrane filtration was able to reduce the turbidity by 99%. The GAC filter by itself was able to reduce turbidity to an average of 84%. The GAC filter by itself and with the membrane filter both achieved turbidity levels below the ADWG (2004) limits of 5 NTU. © 2012 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.


Kus B.,University of Technology, Sydney | Johir M.,University of Technology, Sydney | Kandasamy J.,University of Technology, Sydney | Vigneswaran S.,University of Technology, Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2012

Abstract: This paper discusses laboratory scale and pilot scale treatment systems used to in treat water from a stormwater canal in Carlton, Sydney. The laboratory scale pre-treatment systems investigated included flocculation, GAC filtration and fibre filter prior to laboratory scale steriflow stainless steel membrane filter. The results showed that these pre-treatments improved the quality of the filtrate as measured by the turbidity and TOC removal efficiency. The use of pre-treatment improved the TOC removal efficiency from 10% to 90%. Among the three pretreatment methods, GAC filter resulted in the highest TOC removal efficiency (88%). Pilot scale experiments were also carried out using stainless steel membrane filtration and GAC filtration at Carlton, Sydney. Pilot scale experiments showed that the Steri-Flow membrane filter treatment without any pre-treatment achieved an effluent filtrate turbidity of between 0.79–0.99 NTU which were well below the 5 NTU ADWG (2004) limit [1]. The influent raw stormwater had generally low concentrations of heavy metals. Following membrane filtration the concentration of all heavy metals were reduced to very low levels and well within the ADWG (2004) [1] limits. The membrane filter could not remove TOC in significant amounts. GAC adsorption used as post-treatment following Steri-flow membrane treatment effectively reduced the TOC influent feed levels. GAC filtration of stormwater provided a 70% removal of organics. It removed all types of organic. The GAC filter did not provide any further improvement to the turbidity level or heavy metal concentration following treatment with the Steri-flow membrane system. © 2012, Desalination Publications.


Kus B.,University of Technology, Sydney | Kandasamy J.,University of Technology, Sydney | Vigneswaran S.,University of Technology, Sydney | Shon H.K.,University of Technology, Sydney | Moody G.,Kogarah Municipal Council
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2013

The characterisation of rainwater in metropolitan Sydney and in rural New South Wales was undertaken. The results showed that factors such as the lack of vehicular traffic, air pollution and urban contamination meant that rural rainwater water quality was better. The rain water collected in both metropolitan and rural areas generally complied with the 2004 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines except for parameters such as the pH in both the metropolitan and rural rainwater tanks and the turbidity, and lead levels from the metropolitan tanks. This paper also reports the results of a laboratory and a pilot scale study with a deep bed filter (granular activated carbon, GAC) and microfiltration (MF) hollow fibre membrane filter system used to treat raw rainwater collected from a metropolitan rainwater tank. The results of the laboratory experiment and pilot scale systems focus on the non-compliant parameters of the sampling program, i.e. turbidity, lead and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). It was found that rainwater treated by the GAC filter removed the majority of the turbidity and organic substances. The treatment system reduced the concentration of turbidity, lead and DOC to below the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines limits. The pilot plant experiment demonstrated that a GAC filter system and gravity driven membrane could result in low cost and low maintenance operation. © IWA Publishing 2013.


Kus B.,University of Technology, Sydney | Kandasamy J.,University of Technology, Sydney | Vigneswaran S.,University of Technology, Sydney | Shon H.K.,University of Technology, Sydney | Moody G.,Kogarah Municipal Council
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2013

This paper presents the results of a pilot scale study consisting of pre-treatment with a granular activated carbon (GAC) filter followed by membrane filtration. Detailed characterisation of rainwater tanks has highlighted that turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and heavy metals, in particular lead, were not compliant with the 2004 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG). Further, organic matter present in the water causes membrane fouling and leads to carcinogenic compounds upon chlorination. A GAC filter was used as a first step to remove dissolved organic matter (measured in terms of DOC) in particular and also to reduce the concentration, of turbidity and lead. Membrane filtration can remove any remaining solids reducing the concentrations of turbidity and microorganisms. In this study a pilot scale rainwater treatment system consisting of a gravity fed GAC filter and membrane filter (Ultra Flo) was operated for a period of 120 days. The performance of this system was assessed in terms of membrane flux and improvement in water quality measured against the 2004 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. Determination of the flux especially in the later stages of membrane operation was important to be able to size the filters in a manner that meets the expected demand. The treatment system of GAC filter and membrane filter was effective in reducing the turbidity, DOC and heavy metals. The system reduced the turbidity to levels of 0.3- 0.4 NTU, below the ADWG limit of 1 NTU. The concentration of DOC was reduced to below the 2004 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines limit of 0.2 mg/L. The concentration of lead was reduced to less than 0.005 mg/L, and below the ADWD limit of 0.01 mg/L. The concentrations of all other heavy metals were well within the ADWG limits. Further, the GAC filter removed a majority of the organic substances from raw rainwater collected from the roof. After the initial flux decline, the stable flux achieved was 0.47 L/m2/h consistently over the final 60 days of the experiment. © IWA Publishing 2013.

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