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Koforidua, Ghana

Koforidua Polytechnic is a public tertiary institution in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Wikipedia.

Arthur R.,Koforidua Polytechnic | Baidoo M.F.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

Methane emission from livestock manure is increasingly contributing to the global green house gas emissions. In this paper the methane emission from cattle, pig, sheep, goat and chicken manure in four West African countries; Nigeria, Ghana, Burkina Faso and Mali were estimated. A systematic estimation of the methane emission was done based on the livestock production projections by FAO from 1998 to 2008 and guidelines provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). During this period, cattle were found to have emitted more methane followed by pigs, goats, sheep and chicken in that order. A total of about 845 Gg of methane was emitted by the livestock during the period of which cattle contributed about 40%, whereas pigs, goats, sheep and chicken contributed 21.2%, 18.7%, 13.1% and 6.6% respectively. The methane emission from manure management in these countries increased from 64.1 Gg in 1998 to 90.5 Gg in 2008, with an annual growth rate of 3.4% y -1. The methane estimated from livestock manure over the period was shown to be consistent with the linear group model which predicts that in 2018, 2.4 Mt CO 2-eq will be emitted increasing to 3.0 Mt CO 2-eq in 2028 if the mechanism of manure management remains unchanged. This paper reveals that generating methane from the manure produced by the livestock under controlled conditions could supplement the energy needs, increase Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and consequently reduce the direct impact of methane on climate change. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Amoah M.,University of Education, Winneba | Appiah-Yeboahand J.,University of Education, Winneba | Okai R.,Koforidua Polytechnic
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2012

This study investigated the physical and mechanical properties of branch, stem and root wood of iroko (Milicia excelsa) and emire (Terminalia ivorensis). The basic density, MOE and MOR were determined in accordance with BS 373:1957. Fifty samples from the wood types of each species were used for each test. The study showed that the root wood of iroko and emire exhibited the highest basic density of 760 and 620 kg/m 3, respectively, while the basic densities of the branch and stem wood of emire (537 kg/m 3) were comparable. The differences in the MOE values among the wood types of iroko and emire were found to be statistically insignificant. The MOR value of the branch wood of emire (73 MPa) was found to be significantly higher than that of the stem wood (71 MPa). However, there was no significant difference between the MOR values of the branch and stem wood of iroko (67 MPa). Basic density of all wood types was found to be a good predictor of MOE in static. With exception of the root wood of emire, significant but low correlations were found for the regression relationships between MOE and MOR. For the emire stem wood, MOE explained about 41% of the variation in the MOR of that wood type. The study concludes that it is possible to substitute the branch and root wood of iroko and emire for stem wood in many applications. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2012. Source

Afrane G.,University of Ghana | Ntiamoah A.,Koforidua Polytechnic
Journal of Industrial Ecology | Year: 2011

Standard life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology has been used to determine and compare the environmental impacts of three different cooking fuels used in Ghana, namely, charcoal, biogas, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A national policy on the use of cooking fuels would have to look at the environmental, social, and cost implications associated with the fuel types. This study looked at the environmental aspect of using these fuels. The results showed that global warming and human toxicity were the most significant overall environmental impacts associated with them, and charcoal and LPG, respectively, made the largest contribution to these impact categories. LPG, however, gave relatively higher impacts in three other categories of lesser significance-that is, eutrophication, freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity potentials. Direct comparison of the results showed that biogas had the lowest impact in five out of the seven categories investigated. Charcoal and LPG had only one lowest score each. From the global warming point of view, however, LPG had a slight overall advantage over the others, and it was also the most favorable at the cooking stage, in terms of its effect on humans. © 2011 by Yale University. Source

Afrane G.,University of Ghana | Ntiamoah A.,Koforidua Polytechnic
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the life-cycle costs and environmental impacts of fuels used in Ghanaian households for cooking. The analysis covered all the common cooking energy sources, namely, firewood, charcoal, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, electricity and even biogas, whose use is not as widespread as the others. In addition to the usual costing methods, the Environmental Product Strategies approach (EPS) of Steen and co-workers, which is based on the concept of 'willingness-to-pay' for the restoration of degraded systems, is used to monetise the emissions from the cookstoves. The results indicate that firewood, one of the popular woodfuels in Ghana and other developing countries, with an annual environmental damage cost of US$ 36,497 per household, is more than one order of magnitude less desirable than charcoal, the nearest fuel on the same scale, at US$ 3120. This method of representing the results of environmental analysis is complementary to the usual gravimetric life-cycle assessment (LCA) representation, and brings home clearly to decision-makers, especially non-LCA practitioners, the significance of environmental analysis results in terms that are familiar to all. © 2012. Source

Arthur R.,Koforidua Polytechnic | Glover K.,DBFZ German Biomass Research Center
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

The palm oil industry experienced significant improvement in its production level from 2002 to 2009 from the established companies, medium scale mills (MSM), small scale and other private holdings (SS and OPH) groups. However, the same cannot be said for treatment of the palm oil mill effluent (POME) produced. The quantity of crude palm oil (CPO) produced in Ghana from 2002 to 2009 and IPCC guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, specifically on industrial wastewater were used in this study. During this period about 10 million cubic metres of POME was produced translating into biomethane potential of 38.5 millionm 3 with equivalent of 388.29GWh of energy. A linear growth model developed to predict the equivalent carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions indicates that if the biomethane is not harnessed then by 2015 the untreated POME could produce 0.58 million tCO 2-eq and is expected to increase to 0.70 million tCO 2-eq by 2020. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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