Koforidua, Ghana
Koforidua, Ghana

Koforidua Polytechnic is a public tertiary institution in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Wikipedia.

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Osei G.,Koforidua Polytechnic | Arthur R.,Koforidua Polytechnic | Afrane G.,University of Ghana | Agyemang E.O.,Koforidua Polytechnic
Renewable Energy | Year: 2013

Developed countries are aspiring to increase the production of biofuels in order to reduce dependence on crude oil and also improve energy security, developing countries such as Ghana can adopt biofuel technologies to provide supports for rural developments. Bioethanol has been identified as one of the biofuels that can be developed in order to meet the targets as stipulated in Ghana's Strategic National Energy Plan (SNEP) up to 2020. The focus of this study was to identify the available feedstocks and their quantities for bioethanol production that can support this policy. The potential energy crops identified were cassava, yam and maize. However, cassava was identified to be the most suitable feedstock for bioethanol production since an average of less than 50% of its domestic supply is consumed as food. Even if best farming practices were adapted, bioethanol from yam and maize would not be significant compared to that of cassava. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Afrane G.,University of Ghana | Ntiamoah A.,Koforidua Polytechnic
Journal of Industrial Ecology | Year: 2011

Standard life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology has been used to determine and compare the environmental impacts of three different cooking fuels used in Ghana, namely, charcoal, biogas, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A national policy on the use of cooking fuels would have to look at the environmental, social, and cost implications associated with the fuel types. This study looked at the environmental aspect of using these fuels. The results showed that global warming and human toxicity were the most significant overall environmental impacts associated with them, and charcoal and LPG, respectively, made the largest contribution to these impact categories. LPG, however, gave relatively higher impacts in three other categories of lesser significance-that is, eutrophication, freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity potentials. Direct comparison of the results showed that biogas had the lowest impact in five out of the seven categories investigated. Charcoal and LPG had only one lowest score each. From the global warming point of view, however, LPG had a slight overall advantage over the others, and it was also the most favorable at the cooking stage, in terms of its effect on humans. © 2011 by Yale University.

Afrane G.,University of Ghana | Ntiamoah A.,Koforidua Polytechnic
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the life-cycle costs and environmental impacts of fuels used in Ghanaian households for cooking. The analysis covered all the common cooking energy sources, namely, firewood, charcoal, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, electricity and even biogas, whose use is not as widespread as the others. In addition to the usual costing methods, the Environmental Product Strategies approach (EPS) of Steen and co-workers, which is based on the concept of 'willingness-to-pay' for the restoration of degraded systems, is used to monetise the emissions from the cookstoves. The results indicate that firewood, one of the popular woodfuels in Ghana and other developing countries, with an annual environmental damage cost of US$ 36,497 per household, is more than one order of magnitude less desirable than charcoal, the nearest fuel on the same scale, at US$ 3120. This method of representing the results of environmental analysis is complementary to the usual gravimetric life-cycle assessment (LCA) representation, and brings home clearly to decision-makers, especially non-LCA practitioners, the significance of environmental analysis results in terms that are familiar to all. © 2012.

Arthur R.,Koforidua Polytechnic | Baidoo M.F.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

Methane emission from livestock manure is increasingly contributing to the global green house gas emissions. In this paper the methane emission from cattle, pig, sheep, goat and chicken manure in four West African countries; Nigeria, Ghana, Burkina Faso and Mali were estimated. A systematic estimation of the methane emission was done based on the livestock production projections by FAO from 1998 to 2008 and guidelines provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). During this period, cattle were found to have emitted more methane followed by pigs, goats, sheep and chicken in that order. A total of about 845 Gg of methane was emitted by the livestock during the period of which cattle contributed about 40%, whereas pigs, goats, sheep and chicken contributed 21.2%, 18.7%, 13.1% and 6.6% respectively. The methane emission from manure management in these countries increased from 64.1 Gg in 1998 to 90.5 Gg in 2008, with an annual growth rate of 3.4% y -1. The methane estimated from livestock manure over the period was shown to be consistent with the linear group model which predicts that in 2018, 2.4 Mt CO 2-eq will be emitted increasing to 3.0 Mt CO 2-eq in 2028 if the mechanism of manure management remains unchanged. This paper reveals that generating methane from the manure produced by the livestock under controlled conditions could supplement the energy needs, increase Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and consequently reduce the direct impact of methane on climate change. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Amoah M.,University of Education, Winneba | Appiah-Yeboahand J.,University of Education, Winneba | Okai R.,Koforidua Polytechnic
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2012

This study investigated the physical and mechanical properties of branch, stem and root wood of iroko (Milicia excelsa) and emire (Terminalia ivorensis). The basic density, MOE and MOR were determined in accordance with BS 373:1957. Fifty samples from the wood types of each species were used for each test. The study showed that the root wood of iroko and emire exhibited the highest basic density of 760 and 620 kg/m 3, respectively, while the basic densities of the branch and stem wood of emire (537 kg/m 3) were comparable. The differences in the MOE values among the wood types of iroko and emire were found to be statistically insignificant. The MOR value of the branch wood of emire (73 MPa) was found to be significantly higher than that of the stem wood (71 MPa). However, there was no significant difference between the MOR values of the branch and stem wood of iroko (67 MPa). Basic density of all wood types was found to be a good predictor of MOE in static. With exception of the root wood of emire, significant but low correlations were found for the regression relationships between MOE and MOR. For the emire stem wood, MOE explained about 41% of the variation in the MOR of that wood type. The study concludes that it is possible to substitute the branch and root wood of iroko and emire for stem wood in many applications. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2012.

Arthur R.,Koforidua Polytechnic | Baidoo M.F.,Koforidua Polytechnic | Brew-Hammond A.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Bensah E.C.,Kumasi Polytechnic
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

Apart from waste treatment, anaerobic digestion is a reliable method for biogas generation. The digested sludge from anaerobic digesters can also be used to enhance the fertility of the soil. This paper assesses the biogas potential from the sewage generated in four public universities in Ghana for the 2008/2009 academic year. In the estimation of the amount of sewage generated in each university, the population was used and was categorized into residential and non-residential staff and students. The population of the universities varies throughout the year due to the vacation periods hence the sewage generated varies accordingly. The estimated population for the four universities was 100,313 when in session and 20,903 on vacation and the estimated daily sewage generated is 1379.9 m3 and 327.8 m3, when the universities were in session and on vacation respectively. This study revealed that an annual biogas potential of about 815,109 m3 could be obtained which is equivalent to about 4,891 MWh of energy or can replace about 4532 tonnes of firewood or 326.4 tonnes of LPG which can reduce the pressure on the forest and the use of LPG. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Ayetor G.K.,Koforidua Polytechnic | Sunnu A.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Parbey J.,Koforidua Polytechnic
Alexandria Engineering Journal | Year: 2015

In this study, the effect of H2SO4 on viscosity of methyl esters from Jatropha oil (JCME), palm kernel oil (PKOME) from Elaeis guineensis species, and coconut oil (COME) has been studied. Effect of methanol to oil molar mass ratio on yield of the three feedstocks has also been studied. Methyl ester yield was decreased by esterification process using sulphuric acid anhydrous (H2SO4). Jatropha methyl ester experienced a viscosity reduction of 24% (4.1-3.1 mm2/s) with the addition of 1% sulphuric acid. In this work palm kernel oil (PKOME), coconut oil (COME) and Jatropha oil (JCME) were used as feedstocks for the production of biodiesel to investigate optimum parameters to obtain high yield. For each of the feedstock, the biodiesel yield increased with increase in NaOH concentration. The highest yield was obtained with 1% NaOH concentration for all. The effect of methanol in the range of 4:1-8:1 (molar ratio) was investigated, keeping other process parameters fixed. Optimum ratios of palm kernel oil and coconut oil biodiesels yielded 98% each at methanol:oil molar ratio of 8:1. The physiochemical properties obtained for each methyl showed superior properties compared with those reported in published data. © 2015 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

Atsu D.,Koforidua Polytechnic | Agyemang E.O.,Koforidua Polytechnic | Tsike S.A.K.,Koforidua Polytechnic
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

Limited fossil resources, the continuous increment in fuel prices and severe environmental problems require new sustainable electricity generation options, which utilize renewable energies. Solar photovoltaic generation is a proven renewable energy technology and has the potential to become cost-effective in the future, for it produces electricity from the solar radiation. In Ghana, the electricity demand is rapidly increasing at a rate of 10% annually. In the attempt to change the conventional energy intensive economical development and its negative impact on the environment, the government has begun to support the development of the solar photovoltaic technology strongly. In this paper, the state of solar photovoltaic, the challenges facing the industry, the potential of the technology, the policies and strategies to promote development of the technology have been presented. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Arthur R.,Koforidua Polytechnic | Glover K.,DBFZ German Biomass Research Center
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

The palm oil industry experienced significant improvement in its production level from 2002 to 2009 from the established companies, medium scale mills (MSM), small scale and other private holdings (SS and OPH) groups. However, the same cannot be said for treatment of the palm oil mill effluent (POME) produced. The quantity of crude palm oil (CPO) produced in Ghana from 2002 to 2009 and IPCC guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, specifically on industrial wastewater were used in this study. During this period about 10 million cubic metres of POME was produced translating into biomethane potential of 38.5 millionm 3 with equivalent of 388.29GWh of energy. A linear growth model developed to predict the equivalent carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions indicates that if the biomethane is not harnessed then by 2015 the untreated POME could produce 0.58 million tCO 2-eq and is expected to increase to 0.70 million tCO 2-eq by 2020. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Arthur R.,Koforidua Polytechnic | Baidoo M.F.,Koforidua Polytechnic | Antwi E.,Kumasi Polytechnic
Renewable Energy | Year: 2011

The associated harmful environmental, health and social effects with the use of traditional biomass and fossil fuel has enhanced the growing interest in the search for alternate cleaner source of energy globally. Ghana, a developing country depends heavy on woodfuel as a source of fuel contributing about 72% of the primary energy supply with crude oil and hydro making up the rest. Biogas generation has simply been seen as a by-product of anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Having proven to be a practicable and promising technology, it has been very successful and a very reliable and clean source of energy when proper management programmes are followed. There are vast biomass resources including organic waste in Ghana that have the potential for use as feedstock for biogas production to reduce the over reliance of woodfuel and fossil fuel, and to help reduce the it would reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may be affecting climate change. Ghana having the technical potential of constructing about 278,000 biogas plants, only a little over 100 biogas plants has so far been established. This paper presents the energy situation and the status of the biogas technology and utilization in Ghana. It also presents the potential benefits, prospects and challenges of the biogas technology. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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