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Devkota H.P.,Kumamoto University | Watanabe M.,Kumamoto University | Watanabe T.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | Yahara S.,Kumamoto University
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin | Year: 2010

Two new C-methyl flavonoids, (2R,3S)-6,8-di-C-methyldihydrokaempferol (1) and (2R,3R)-6,8-di-C-methyldihydrokaempferol (2) were isolated from the aerial parts of Diplomorpha canescens (MEISN.) C. A. MEYER along with eleven known flavonoids such as genkwanin (3), rhamnocitrin 3-O-b -D-glucopyranoside (4), genkwanin 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), apigenin (6), kaempferol (7), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), rhamnetin 3-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (9), luteolin (10), quercetin (11), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (12) and genkwanin 5-O-primeveroside (13). Structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. © 2010 Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.


Nomura N.,Tsukuba Botanical Garden | Ogura-Tsujita Y.,Tohoku University | Gale S.W.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden | Maeda A.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Plant Research | Year: 2013

Nervilia nipponica is a tuberous terrestrial orchid that has a highly restricted distribution within common secondary evergreen forest communities in central and western Japan. Such a limited occurrence could be attributable to a requirement for a specific mycorrhizal fungus. As part of a broader examination of this hypothesis, we sought to elucidate the mycorrhizal associations of N. nipponica. Seventy-five samples of mycorrhizae from forty individuals were collected at ten populations throughout the orchid's range in Japan. The identity of mycorrhizal fungi was investigated by sequencing two genetic markers (nrDNA ITS and nrDNA 28S LSU) and their relationships were assessed via phylogenetic analyses. The most frequently encountered mycorrhizal fungi consisted of four closely related Agaricomycetes that infected an average of 78.7 % of individuals per population. All four formed a discrete, monophyletic clade with low sequence homology to other fungi registered in GenBank, indicating that they belong to a novel, unnamed family. Two additional fungal groups, belonging to Ceratobasidiaceae and "Group B" Sebacinales, were found in 22.0 and 21.5 % of individuals per population, respectively. The orchid probably uses these two groups opportunistically, because they were found at lower densities and always in combination with the unidentified Agaricomycete. These findings suggest that a group of novel Agaricomycete fungi constitutes the dominant mycobiont of N. nipponica. © 2013 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer Japan.


Gale S.W.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | Gale S.W.,University of Sussex | Yamazaki J.,Tamagawa University | Hutchings M.J.,University of Sussex | And 2 more authors.
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2010

Orchid seed capsules typically contain several thousand seeds, but obstacles to germination and development greatly constrain the establishment of new plants. This study compares the germination response of orchid seeds from the same capsule in situ and in vitro to assess the potential of soil conditions to influence recruitment. Mature capsules of the endangered Nervilia nipponica, a terrestrial orchid endemic to Japan, were harvested from two widely separated populations. On average, over 96% of seeds from all capsules contained an embryo. 2,3,5-Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride stainability was high and, when sown in vitro and cultured for 16 weeks asymbiotically, 76-99% of seeds from all but two capsules germinated and developed rapidly. However, when buried in seed packets for 7 months at the site of the source populations, germination was spatially variable and ranged from 0% to 12% per capsule. Embryo loss in buried seed was extensive, and germination was not significantly greater after a further 14 months of incubation. These results indicate that the window for successful germination under field conditions is short, and that recruitment is limited by microsite. Conservation efforts should focus on habitat management to promote conditions conducive to seed germination, coupled with ex situ propagation. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London.


Gale S.W.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | Maeda A.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | Chen C.-I.,Taitung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station | Yukawa T.,Tsukuba Botanical Garden
Journal of Plant Research | Year: 2010

An understanding of the extent to which reproductive strategy and seed dispersal lead to the structuring of genetic diversity in space is required when planning measures towards the conservation of endangered plant species. In this study, genetic structure in the endangered terrestrial orchid Nervilia nipponica was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphisms following extensive sampling throughout the species' range in Japan and intensive sampling at a single population. Limited diversity was found within the species as a whole, but significant structuring was detected between populations. One genotype was common to two widely separated sites, possibly indicative of long-range dispersal. Significant structure was also detected at the intensively sampled site, as a result of the presence of two distinct putative clones. These findings are consistent with observations of the species' ability to set seed autogamously and propagate vegetatively. Given the strong colonising capability inferred for the species, attention should focus on identifying and securing habitat conditions conducive to seed germination and seedling establishment in the development of a conservation strategy. As presently circumscribed, N. nipponica is shown to comprise two polyphyletic taxa, both endemic to Japan, and both distinct from N. taiwaniana, a species that some authors have considered conspecific. © 2010 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.


Tanaka N.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | Sugawara T.,Tokyo Metroplitan University
Journal of Japanese Botany | Year: 2011

As part of a series of studies on the typification of botanical names published by Tomitaro Makino, proposals for the lectotypification, neotypification and the verification of other type material for 17 taxa in the Liliaceae are presented here.


Sugawara T.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Tanaka N.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | Murata J.,University of Tokyo
Journal of Japanese Botany | Year: 2011

Floral characters were examined to determine sexual system in the flowers of Morinda villosa Hook, f., a perennial woody climber occurring in Kachin State, Myanmar. The flowers are dimorphic, being either long-styled or short-styled morphs. The shortstyled morph produced stainable pollen grains, but its style did not develop stigmatic papillae on the stigma. The long-styled morph, on the other hand, developed stigmatic papillae on the stigma, but did not produce pollen grains in its anthers. Only the longstyled plants produced seeds. Based on these results, we considered that this species was morphologically distylous but functionally dioecious, and thus its sexual system may be derived from distyly.


Matoba H.,Nihon University | Tanaka N.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | Uchiyama H.,Nihon University | Koyama T.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden
Economic Botany | Year: 2011

Canna discolor Lindl. (Cannaceae), commonly known as edible canna, is often cultivated in Southeastern Asia for its starchy rhizomes. Based on morphological and karyological features, it is thought to be an allotriploid plant originated from hybridization between the closely allied C. coccinea Mill., C. patens Roscoe, C. plurituberosa T. Koyama & Nb. Tanaka, C. speciosa Roscoe, or C. indica L. In this study, to clarify the origin of triploid edible canna, physical mapping of 5S and 18S rDNA probes in C. discolor and its closely related five putative parental species was conducted. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique provided a useful chromosomal marker for discriminating among the diploid putative parental Canna species, and supported the hybrid origin of C. discolor between C. indica var. indica and C. plurituberosa. © 2011 The New York Botanical Garden.


PubMed | Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of plant research | Year: 2010

An understanding of the extent to which reproductive strategy and seed dispersal lead to the structuring of genetic diversity in space is required when planning measures towards the conservation of endangered plant species. In this study, genetic structure in the endangered terrestrial orchid Nervilia nipponica was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphisms following extensive sampling throughout the species range in Japan and intensive sampling at a single population. Limited diversity was found within the species as a whole, but significant structuring was detected between populations. One genotype was common to two widely separated sites, possibly indicative of long-range dispersal. Significant structure was also detected at the intensively sampled site, as a result of the presence of two distinct putative clones. These findings are consistent with observations of the species ability to set seed autogamously and propagate vegetatively. Given the strong colonising capability inferred for the species, attention should focus on identifying and securing habitat conditions conducive to seed germination and seedling establishment in the development of a conservation strategy. As presently circumscribed, N. nipponica is shown to comprise two polyphyletic taxa, both endemic to Japan, and both distinct from N. taiwaniana, a species that some authors have considered conspecific.


Tanaka N.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | Kadota Y.,National Museum of Nature and Science | Murata J.,University of Tokyo
Journal of Japanese Botany | Year: 2010

In the course of a floristic study of Mt. Victoria, western Myanmar, 84 specimens of Ranunculaceae have thus far been collected. As a result of identifications, the enumeration of the family occurring in Mt. Victoria are presented here for material for the Flora of Myanmar. In total 17 taxa in the Ranunculaceae, belonging to the genera; Aconitum, Anemone, Delphinium, Clematis, Ranunculus and Thalictrum, were recorded from Mt. Victoria, and of these Aconitum jin-muratae Kadota & Nb. Tanaka, Clematis pseudopterantha Kadota & Nb. Tanaka and Thalictrum tamurae Kadota & Nb. Tanaka are described and illustrated as new to science. Anemone tomentosa and Delphinium caeruleum are newly recorded from Myanmar.


Tanaka N.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | Ohi-Toma T.,University of Tokyo | Murata J.,University of Tokyo
Blumea: Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography | Year: 2010

Argostemma victorianum (Rubiaceae) is described and illustrated as a new species from the Natma Taung (Mt Victoria) National Park, western Myanmar. It is characterized by the combination of solitary or 2-flowered inflorescence with indistinct peduncle, relatively large, white, bell-shaped flowers in comparison with the small size of the plant, and having globose tubers. This species is epiphytic on wet and densely mossy tree trunks at c. 2500 m altitude on Mt Victoria. © 2010 Nationaal Herbarium Nederland.

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