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Nomura N.,Tsukuba Botanical Garden | Ogura-Tsujita Y.,Tohoku University | Gale S.W.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden | Maeda A.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Plant Research | Year: 2013

Nervilia nipponica is a tuberous terrestrial orchid that has a highly restricted distribution within common secondary evergreen forest communities in central and western Japan. Such a limited occurrence could be attributable to a requirement for a specific mycorrhizal fungus. As part of a broader examination of this hypothesis, we sought to elucidate the mycorrhizal associations of N. nipponica. Seventy-five samples of mycorrhizae from forty individuals were collected at ten populations throughout the orchid's range in Japan. The identity of mycorrhizal fungi was investigated by sequencing two genetic markers (nrDNA ITS and nrDNA 28S LSU) and their relationships were assessed via phylogenetic analyses. The most frequently encountered mycorrhizal fungi consisted of four closely related Agaricomycetes that infected an average of 78.7 % of individuals per population. All four formed a discrete, monophyletic clade with low sequence homology to other fungi registered in GenBank, indicating that they belong to a novel, unnamed family. Two additional fungal groups, belonging to Ceratobasidiaceae and "Group B" Sebacinales, were found in 22.0 and 21.5 % of individuals per population, respectively. The orchid probably uses these two groups opportunistically, because they were found at lower densities and always in combination with the unidentified Agaricomycete. These findings suggest that a group of novel Agaricomycete fungi constitutes the dominant mycobiont of N. nipponica. © 2013 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer Japan. Source

Devkota H.P.,Kumamoto University | Watanabe M.,Kumamoto University | Watanabe T.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | Yahara S.,Kumamoto University
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin | Year: 2010

Two new C-methyl flavonoids, (2R,3S)-6,8-di-C-methyldihydrokaempferol (1) and (2R,3R)-6,8-di-C-methyldihydrokaempferol (2) were isolated from the aerial parts of Diplomorpha canescens (MEISN.) C. A. MEYER along with eleven known flavonoids such as genkwanin (3), rhamnocitrin 3-O-b -D-glucopyranoside (4), genkwanin 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), apigenin (6), kaempferol (7), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), rhamnetin 3-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (9), luteolin (10), quercetin (11), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (12) and genkwanin 5-O-primeveroside (13). Structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. © 2010 Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. Source

Tanaka N.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | Ohi-Toma T.,University of Tokyo | Murata J.,University of Tokyo
Blumea: Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography | Year: 2010

Argostemma victorianum (Rubiaceae) is described and illustrated as a new species from the Natma Taung (Mt Victoria) National Park, western Myanmar. It is characterized by the combination of solitary or 2-flowered inflorescence with indistinct peduncle, relatively large, white, bell-shaped flowers in comparison with the small size of the plant, and having globose tubers. This species is epiphytic on wet and densely mossy tree trunks at c. 2500 m altitude on Mt Victoria. © 2010 Nationaal Herbarium Nederland. Source

Tanaka N.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | Kadota Y.,National Museum of Nature and Science | Murata J.,University of Tokyo
Journal of Japanese Botany | Year: 2010

In the course of a floristic study of Mt. Victoria, western Myanmar, 84 specimens of Ranunculaceae have thus far been collected. As a result of identifications, the enumeration of the family occurring in Mt. Victoria are presented here for material for the Flora of Myanmar. In total 17 taxa in the Ranunculaceae, belonging to the genera; Aconitum, Anemone, Delphinium, Clematis, Ranunculus and Thalictrum, were recorded from Mt. Victoria, and of these Aconitum jin-muratae Kadota & Nb. Tanaka, Clematis pseudopterantha Kadota & Nb. Tanaka and Thalictrum tamurae Kadota & Nb. Tanaka are described and illustrated as new to science. Anemone tomentosa and Delphinium caeruleum are newly recorded from Myanmar. Source

Sugawara T.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Tanaka N.,Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden | Murata J.,University of Tokyo
Journal of Japanese Botany | Year: 2011

Floral characters were examined to determine sexual system in the flowers of Morinda villosa Hook, f., a perennial woody climber occurring in Kachin State, Myanmar. The flowers are dimorphic, being either long-styled or short-styled morphs. The shortstyled morph produced stainable pollen grains, but its style did not develop stigmatic papillae on the stigma. The long-styled morph, on the other hand, developed stigmatic papillae on the stigma, but did not produce pollen grains in its anthers. Only the longstyled plants produced seeds. Based on these results, we considered that this species was morphologically distylous but functionally dioecious, and thus its sexual system may be derived from distyly. Source

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