Copenhagen, Denmark
Copenhagen, Denmark

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Godskesen B.,Kobenhavns Energi A S | Godskesen B.,Technical University of Denmark | Zambrano K.C.,Kobenhavns Energi A S | Trautner A.,Kobenhavns Energi A S | And 11 more authors.
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to evaluate three different water systems of the water sector in Copenhagen, Denmark, including technologies within water supply, facilities recycling water and treatment of sewer overflow. In these three water systems LCA was used to evaluate the environmental impacts of each of the processes involved. The overall conclusion was that LCA is suitable as a decision support tool in the water sector as it provides a holistic evaluation platform of the considered alternatives categorised in environmental impact categories. The use of LCA in the water sector of this region has limitations since it does not yet consider impact categories assessing freshwater scarcity and ecological sustainability. © IWA Publishing 2011.


Godskesen B.,Kobenhavns Energi A S | Godskesen B.,Technical University of Denmark | Zambrano K.C.,Kobenhavns Energi A S | Trautner A.,Kobenhavns Energi A S | And 8 more authors.
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2010

Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to evaluate three different water systems of the water sector in Copenhagen, Denmark, including technologies within water supply, facilities recycling water and treatment of sewer overflow. In these three water systems LCA was used to evaluate the environmental impacts of each of the processes involved. The overall conclusion was that LCA is suitable as a decision support tool in the water sector as it provides a holistic evaluation platform of the considered alternatives categorized in environmental impact categories. The use of LCA in the water sector of this region has limitation since it not yet considers impact categories assessing freshwater scarcity and ecological sustainability. © IWA Publishing 2010.


Godskesen B.,Technical University of Denmark | Hauschild M.,Technical University of Denmark | Rygaard M.,Technical University of Denmark | Zambrano K.,Kobenhavns Energi A S | Albrechtsen H.-J.,Technical University of Denmark
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2012

Many consumers prefer softened water due to convenience issues such as avoidance of removing limescale deposits from household appliances and surfaces, and to reduce consumption of cleaning agents and laundry detergents leading to lower household expenses. Even though central softening of drinking water entailed an increased use of energy, sand and chemicals at the waterworks, the distributed and softened drinking water supported a decrease in consumption of energy and chemical agents in the households along with a prolonged service life of household appliances which heat water. This study used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the environmental impacts of central softening of drinking water considering both the negative effects at the waterworks and the positive effects imposed by the changed water quality in the households. The LCA modeling considered central softening of drinking water from the initial hardness of the region of study (Copenhagen, Denmark) which is 362 mg/L as CaCO 3 to a final hardness as CaCO 3 of 254 (a softening depth of 108) mg/L or 145 (a softening depth of 217) mg/L. Our study showed that the consumer preference can be met together with reducing the impact on the environment and the resource consumption. Environmental impacts decreased by up to 3 mPET (milli Personal Equivalent Targeted) and the break-even point from where central softening becomes environmentally beneficial was reached at a softening depth of only 22 mg/L as CaCO 3. Both energy-related and chemically related environmental impacts were reduced as well as the consumption of resources. Based on scarcity criteria, nickel was identified as the most problematic non-renewable resource in the system, and savings of up to 8 mPR (milli Person Reserve) were found. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Kobenhavns Energi A S
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research | Year: 2011

Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to evaluate three different water systems of the water sector in Copenhagen, Denmark, including technologies within water supply, facilities recycling water and treatment of sewer overflow. In these three water systems LCA was used to evaluate the environmental impacts of each of the processes involved. The overall conclusion was that LCA is suitable as a decision support tool in the water sector as it provides a holistic evaluation platform of the considered alternatives categorised in environmental impact categories. The use of LCA in the water sector of this region has limitations since it does not yet consider impact categories assessing freshwater scarcity and ecological sustainability.

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