Kobe, Japan
Kobe, Japan

Kobe University , also known in the Kansai region as Shindai , is a leading national university located in Kobe, Hyōgo, Japan. It was established in 1949, but the academic origins of Kobe University trace back to the establishment of Kobe Higher Commercial School in 1902, which was renamed as Kobe University of Commerce, and Kobe University of Economics.Kobe University comprises 14 graduate schools and 11 undergraduate faculties. The university holds a total of about 16,000 students enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs. The institution welcomes overseas students, which accounted for a total of 1,108 students, as of 2011. It also has 3,300 staff members, including professors, associate professors and administrative officials.Located beside the foothills of Mount Rokkō, the university provides a view of the city and port of Kobe, providing an environment for the pursuit of academic studies, especially social science areas. Kobe University is one of the oldest and largest national universities in Japan. It is consistently one of the highest ranking national universities in Japan that is not one of Japan's National Seven Universities.Kobe Higher Commercial School was one of the oldest institution with business and economics majors in Japan. Especially, the Graduate School of Economics benefits fully from a century of the history and the tradition. Kobe is also the first collegiate business school in Japan. Therefore, Kobe is called the birthplace of Japanese higher education in economics and business administration, and it has always been the center of Japanese business studies.Furthermore, the Graduate School of Law was also established with the legal studies section of the former Kobe University of Economics. It has become a leading institution of high academic institution in the field of legal and political studies, and has been successful in becoming a reputable academic center.The Research Institute for Economics and Business Administration, founded in 1919, has a history as a high-level research institution for international economics and international management. The Institute has been highly regarded internationally for its outstanding achievements in theoretical, historical, empirical, and quantitative research.In the meantime, Kobe Hospital was established in 1869; it was a training center for medical practitioners, which was one of the oldest institutions in the modern medical education in Japan.In 1990, they made new changes as one of the major universities specializing in graduate research and education.Under the Japanese Ministry of Education and Science, it has started a new Center of Excellence projects, the "Research and Education Center of New Japanese Economic Paradigms", "Development and Education Center for Advanced Business Systems", and "Research Center for Dynamic Legal Processes of Advanced Market Societies". Wikipedia.


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The present invention provides a method of modifying a targeted site of a double stranded DNA, including a step of contacting a complex wherein a nucleic acid sequence-recognizing module that specifically binds to a target nucleotide sequence in a selected double stranded DNA and a nucleic acid base converting enzyme are bonded, with the double stranded DNA, to convert one or more nucleotides in the targeted site to other one or more nucleotides or delete one or more nucleotides, or insert one or more nucleotides into the targeted site, without cleaving at least one chain of the double stranded DNA in the targeted site.


Patent
Kobe University and Integral Geometry Science Inc. | Date: 2017-01-18

A scattering tomography method includes: radiating waves to an object from a plurality of transmitting antenna elements aligned on a side surface of a case; receiving scattered waves by a plurality of receiving antenna elements aligned on the side surface of the case; and reconstructing an image relating to information on an interior of the object using scattered wave data representing the scattered waves received by the plurality of receiving antenna elements. In the reconstructing, a reconstruction function for reconstructing the image relating to the information on the interior of the object is set in advance for a three-dimensional space having the same shape as the case, an asymptotic equation which an asymptotic expression of the reconstruction function satisfies is constructed, a visualization function that is obtained by solving the asymptotic equation is derived from the scattered wave data, and the image relating to the information on the interior of the object is reconstructed using the visualization function.


Patent
System Instruments Co., Hirosaki University and Kobe University | Date: 2017-03-29

An automatic analyzing apparatus 10 includes a chip rack 11 that stores a pipette chip, a pipette 12 into which a specimen is injected, a conveyance unit that conveys the pipette 12 by parallel translation, a reagent rack 14, a reaction unit 15, a detection unit 16, and a detection block unit 17. The pipette chip stored by the chip rack 11 has a planar structure to directly and optically detect the specimen. The chip rack 11 includes, in a hole that receives the pipette chip, a guide corresponding to the structure of the pipette chip. The pipette 12 sucks or discharges the specimen via the pipette chip mounted onto the tip thereof by a drive of a pump. In the detection unit 16, a measurement is carried out with the pipette chip arranged so that the plane that receives light is vertical to an optical axis.


The present invention provides a method of modifying a targeted site of a double stranded DNA, including a step of contacting a complex wherein a nucleic acid sequence-recognizing module that specifically binds to a target nucleotide sequence in a selected double stranded DNA and a nucleic acid base converting enzyme are bonded, with the double stranded DNA, to convert one or more nucleotides in the targeted site to other one or more nucleotides or delete one or more nucleotides, or insert one or more nucleotides into the targeted site, without cleaving at least one chain of the double stranded DNA in the targeted site.


News Article | May 18, 2017
Site: phys.org

The discovery was made by a joint research team led by Associate Professor TACHIKAWA Takashi (Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University) and Professor MAJIMA Tetsuro (Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University). Their findings were published on April 6 in the online version of Angewandte Chemie International Edition. When light is applied to photocatalysts, electrons and holes are produced on the surface of the catalyst, and hydrogen is obtained when these electrons reduce the hydrogen ions in water. However, in traditional photocatalysts the holes that are produced at the same time as the electrons mostly recombine on the surface of the catalyst and disappear, making it difficult to increase conversion efficiency. Professor Tachikawa's research group developed a photocatalyst made of mesocrystal, deliberately creating a lack of uniformity in size and arrangement of the crystals. This new photocatalyst is able to spatially separate the electrons and electron holes to prevent them recombining. As a result, it has a far more efficient conversion rate for producing hydrogen than conventional nanoparticulate photocatalysts (approximately 7 percent). The team developed a new method called "topotactic epitaxial growth" that uses the nanometer-sized spaces in mesocrystals. Based on this synthesis method they were able to synthesize strontium titanate (SrTiO3) from a compound with a different structure, titanium oxide (TiO2), using a simple one-step hydrothermal reaction. By lengthening the reaction time, they could also grow larger particles near the surface while preserving their crystalline structure. When they attached a co-catalyst to the synthesized mesocrystal and applied ultraviolet light in water, the reaction occurred with approximately 7 percent light energy conversion efficiency. Under the same conditions, SrTiO3 nanoparticles which had not been converted into mesocrystals reached a conversion efficiency of less than 1 percent, proving that the reaction efficiency increased tenfold under the mesocrystal structure. When each particle was examined under a fluorescent microscope, the team found that the electrons produced during the reaction gathered around the larger nanocrystals. When exposed to ultraviolet light, the electrons in this newly-developed photocatalyst move smoothly between the nanoparticles inside the mesocrystal, gather around the larger nanocrystals generated on the surface of the crystal, and efficiently reduce the hydrogen ions to create hydrogen. The discovery of this powerful photocatalyst started with the researchers' idea to "deliberately break down the ordered structure of mesocrystals," a concept that could be applied to other materials. The strontium titanate used this time is a cubic crystal, which means there is no variation in molecular adsorption or the reaction strength for each crystal plane. By regulating the size and spatial arrangement of the nanocrystals, which form the building blocks for this structure, it may be possible to greatly increase the light energy conversion efficiency of the existing system. Using these findings, the research group plans to apply mesocrystal technology to realizing the super-efficient production of hydrogen from solar energy. The perovskite metal oxides, including strontium titanate, the target of this study, are the fundamental materials of electronic elements, so their results could be applied to a wide range of fields. Explore further: Novel design strategy for hydrogen-generating molecular photocatalysts More information: Peng Zhang et al. Topotactic Epitaxy of SrTiOMesocrystal Superstructures with Anisotropic Construction for Efficient Overall Water Splitting, Angewandte Chemie International Edition (2017). DOI: 10.1002/anie.201702223


News Article | May 18, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Hydrogen is an alternative source of energy that can be produced from renewable sources of sunlight and water. A group of Japanese researchers has developed a photocatalyst that increases hydrogen production tenfold. The discovery was made by a joint research team led by Associate Professor TACHIKAWA Takashi (Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University) and Professor MAJIMA Tetsuro (Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University). Their findings were published on April 6 in the online version of Angewandte Chemie International Edition. When light is applied to photocatalysts, electrons and holes are produced on the surface of the catalyst, and hydrogen is obtained when these electrons reduce the hydrogen ions in water. However, in traditional photocatalysts the holes that are produced at the same time as the electrons mostly recombine on the surface of the catalyst and disappear, making it difficult to increase conversion efficiency. Professor Tachikawa's research group developed a photocatalyst made of mesocrystal, deliberately creating a lack of uniformity in size and arrangement of the crystals. This new photocatalyst is able to spatially separate the electrons and electron holes to prevent them recombining. As a result, it has a far more efficient conversion rate for producing hydrogen than conventional nanoparticulate photocatalysts (approximately 7%). The team developed a new method called "Topotactic Epitaxial Growth" that uses the nanometer-sized spaces in mesocrystals. Based on this synthesis method they were able to synthesize strontium titanate (SrTiO3) from a compound with a different structure, titanium oxide (TiO2), using a simple one-step hydrothermal reaction. By lengthening the reaction time, they could also grow larger particles near the surface while preserving their crystalline structure. When they attached a co-catalyst to the synthesized mesocrystal and applied ultraviolet light in water, the reaction occurred with approximately 7% light energy conversion efficiency. Under the same conditions, SrTiO3 nanoparticles which had not been converted into mesocrystals reached a conversion efficiency of less than 1%, proving that the reaction efficiency increased tenfold under the mesocrystal structure. When each particle was examined under a fluorescent microscope, the team found that the electrons produced during the reaction gathered around the larger nanocrystals. When exposed to ultraviolet light, the electrons in this newly-developed photocatalyst move smoothly between the nanoparticles inside the mesocrystal, gather around the larger nanocrystals generated on the surface of the crystal, and efficiently reduce the hydrogen ions to create hydrogen. The discovery of this powerful photocatalyst started with the researchers' idea to "deliberately break down the ordered structure of mesocrystals," a concept that could be applied to other materials. The strontium titanate used this time is a cubic crystal, which means there is no variation in molecular adsorption or the reaction strength for each crystal plane. By regulating the size and spatial arrangement of the nanocrystals, which form the building blocks for this structure, it may be possible to greatly increase the light energy conversion efficiency of the existing system. Using these findings, the research group plans to apply mesocrystal technology to realizing the super-efficient production of hydrogen from solar energy. The perovskite metal oxides, including strontium titanate, the target of this study, are the fundamental materials of electronic elements, so their results could be applied to a wide range of fields.


News Article | May 18, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Hydrogen is an alternative source of energy that can be produced from renewable sources of sunlight and water. A group of Japanese researchers has developed a photocatalyst that increases hydrogen production tenfold. The discovery was made by a joint research team led by Associate Professor TACHIKAWA Takashi (Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University) and Professor MAJIMA Tetsuro (Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University). Their findings were published on April 6 in the online version of Angewandte Chemie International Edition. When light is applied to photocatalysts, electrons and holes are produced on the surface of the catalyst, and hydrogen is obtained when these electrons reduce the hydrogen ions in water. However, in traditional photocatalysts the holes that are produced at the same time as the electrons mostly recombine on the surface of the catalyst and disappear, making it difficult to increase conversion efficiency. Professor Tachikawa's research group developed a photocatalyst made of mesocrystal, deliberately creating a lack of uniformity in size and arrangement of the crystals. This new photocatalyst is able to spatially separate the electrons and electron holes to prevent them recombining. As a result, it has a far more efficient conversion rate for producing hydrogen than conventional nanoparticulate photocatalysts (approximately 7%). The team developed a new method called "Topotactic Epitaxial Growth" that uses the nanometer-sized spaces in mesocrystals. Based on this synthesis method they were able to synthesize strontium titanate (SrTiO3) from a compound with a different structure, titanium oxide (TiO2), using a simple one-step hydrothermal reaction. By lengthening the reaction time, they could also grow larger particles near the surface while preserving their crystalline structure. When they attached a co-catalyst to the synthesized mesocrystal and applied ultraviolet light in water, the reaction occurred with approximately 7% light energy conversion efficiency. Under the same conditions, SrTiO3 nanoparticles which had not been converted into mesocrystals reached a conversion efficiency of less than 1%, proving that the reaction efficiency increased tenfold under the mesocrystal structure. When each particle was examined under a fluorescent microscope, the team found that the electrons produced during the reaction gathered around the larger nanocrystals. When exposed to ultraviolet light, the electrons in this newly-developed photocatalyst move smoothly between the nanoparticles inside the mesocrystal, gather around the larger nanocrystals generated on the surface of the crystal, and efficiently reduce the hydrogen ions to create hydrogen. The discovery of this powerful photocatalyst started with the researchers' idea to "deliberately break down the ordered structure of mesocrystals", a concept that could be applied to other materials. The strontium titanate used this time is a cubic crystal, which means there is no variation in molecular adsorption or the reaction strength for each crystal plane. By regulating the size and spatial arrangement of the nanocrystals, which form the building blocks for this structure, it may be possible to greatly increase the light energy conversion efficiency of the existing system. Using these findings, the research group plans to apply mesocrystal technology to realizing the super-efficient production of hydrogen from solar energy. The perovskite metal oxides, including strontium titanate, the target of this study, are the fundamental materials of electronic elements, so their results could be applied to a wide range of fields.


News Article | May 18, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Opitz G/BBB (Opitz) syndrome is a hereditary disorder that affects people in different ways, causing malformations in medial (midline) organs and structures, intellectual disability and developmental disorders. Scientists have revealed a new control mechanism for the gene that causes this disorder, a discovery that could help in developing treatment for the syndrome. The findings were published on May 16 in the online edition of Development. A group of scientists led by Associate Professor UEYAMA Takehiko and Professor SAITO Naoaki (both from the Kobe University Biosignal Research Center) and members of Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine carried out this research. Professor Ueyama expressed his hopes that this discovery would contribute to "revealing the underlying mechanism that explains the range of symptoms caused by Opitz syndrome, a disease that has different effects on individual patients, even within the same family". Opitz syndrome occurs for at least 1 in every 10,000-50,000 people. It is a hereditary disorder that causes a wide range of physical malformations in midline structures of organs, including in the brain, the face, the heart, the larynx and pharynx, the trachea and esophagus, urinary organs and genitals. Previous findings identified Midline 1 (MID1) as the gene responsible for Opitz syndrome. The functional decline of MID1 causes the congenital disorders described above, but it is still unclear why these symptoms are so varied among individual patients. Treatment methods are yet to be fixed, and surgical therapy is currently the main treatment. The research team focused on cerebellar granule neurons, a type of neurons with the largest population in the brain, and a signaling protein/molecule called Rac which functions in cerebellar granule neurons during cerebellar development. The team created a "knockout" mouse with the Rac protein deleted. They discovered that this mouse experienced severe walking impairment because of the loss of the internal granule layer in the medial cerebellum. Next, they extracted the cerebellar granule neurons affected by the deleted Rac from the medial cerebellum. Using DNA microarrays they examined these neurons and discovered reduced expression of MID1, the causative gene of Opitz syndrome. This showed that Rac had been regulating the expression of Mid1, and when Rac was deleted, MID1 stopped functioning correctly in the mouse. They also discovered a cell signaling pathway in which Rac-Mid1-mTOR form a complex and contribute to the differentiation and maturation of cerebellar granule cells. The individual variability in these cell signaling pathways could be a cause of the broad range in the symptoms caused by Opitz syndrome. These findings could lead to development of a new treatment for Opitz syndrome that targets cell signaling.


News Article | May 19, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Opitz G/BBB (Opitz) syndrome is a hereditary disorder that affects people in different ways, causing malformations in medial (midline) organs and structures, intellectual disability and developmental disorders. Scientists have revealed a new control mechanism for the gene that causes this disorder, a discovery that could help in developing treatment for the syndrome. The findings were published on May 16 in the online edition of Development. A group of scientists led by Associate Professor UEYAMA Takehiko and Professor SAITO Naoaki (both from the Kobe University Biosignal Research Center) and members of Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine carried out this research. Professor Ueyama expressed his hopes that this discovery would contribute to "revealing the underlying mechanism that explains the range of symptoms caused by Opitz syndrome, a disease that has different effects on individual patients, even within the same family." Opitz syndrome occurs for at least 1 in every 10,000-50,000 people. It is a hereditary disorder that causes a wide range of physical malformations in midline structures of organs, including in the brain, the face, the heart, the larynx and pharynx, the trachea and esophagus, urinary organs and genitals. Previous findings identified Midline 1 (MID1) as the gene responsible for Opitz syndrome. The functional decline of MID1 causes the congenital disorders described above, but it is still unclear why these symptoms are so varied among individual patients. Treatment methods are yet to be fixed, and surgical therapy is currently the main treatment. The research team focused on cerebellar granule neurons, a type of neurons with the largest population in the brain, and a signaling protein/molecule called Rac which functions in cerebellar granule neurons during cerebellar development. The team created a "knockout" mouse with the Rac protein deleted. They discovered that this mouse experienced severe walking impairment because of the loss of the internal granule layer in the medial cerebellum. Next, they extracted the cerebellar granule neurons affected by the deleted Rac from the medial cerebellum. Using DNA microarrays they examined these neurons and discovered reduced expression of MID1, the causative gene of Opitz syndrome. This showed that Rac had been regulating the expression of Mid1, and when Rac was deleted, MID1 stopped functioning correctly in the mouse. They also discovered a cell signaling pathway in which Rac-Mid1-mTOR form a complex and contribute to the differentiation and maturation of cerebellar granule cells. The individual variability in these cell signaling pathways could be a cause of the broad range in the symptoms caused by Opitz syndrome. These findings could lead to development of a new treatment for Opitz syndrome that targets cell signaling.


Aikawa Y.,Kobe University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

Cores are subject to gravitational instability; they are massive enough to collapse due to their own gravity. The cores are supported against collapse by a pressure gradient due to the combination of thermal, magnetic, and turbulent pressure. The cores start collapse to form stars, once the gravity overwhelms the pressure gradient. The core before star formation is called a prestellar core, whereas the core harboring protostar(s) are called a protostellar core. Molecular line observations in radio wavelength is a very powerful tool to investigate the core structure, since millimeter radiation suffer much less attenuation than shorter wavelength. High spectral resolution of radio telescopes also enable us to investigate dynamics of the core.

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