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Kobe University , also known in the Kansai region as Shindai , is a leading national university located in Kobe, Hyōgo, Japan. It was established in 1949, but the academic origins of Kobe University trace back to the establishment of Kobe Higher Commercial School in 1902, which was renamed as Kobe University of Commerce, and Kobe University of Economics.Kobe University comprises 14 graduate schools and 11 undergraduate faculties. The university holds a total of about 16,000 students enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs. The institution welcomes overseas students, which accounted for a total of 1,108 students, as of 2011. It also has 3,300 staff members, including professors, associate professors and administrative officials.Located beside the foothills of Mount Rokkō, the university provides a view of the city and port of Kobe, providing an environment for the pursuit of academic studies, especially social science areas. Kobe University is one of the oldest and largest national universities in Japan. It is consistently one of the highest ranking national universities in Japan that is not one of Japan's National Seven Universities.Kobe Higher Commercial School was one of the oldest institution with business and economics majors in Japan. Especially, the Graduate School of Economics benefits fully from a century of the history and the tradition. Kobe is also the first collegiate business school in Japan. Therefore, Kobe is called the birthplace of Japanese higher education in economics and business administration, and it has always been the center of Japanese business studies.Furthermore, the Graduate School of Law was also established with the legal studies section of the former Kobe University of Economics. It has become a leading institution of high academic institution in the field of legal and political studies, and has been successful in becoming a reputable academic center.The Research Institute for Economics and Business Administration, founded in 1919, has a history as a high-level research institution for international economics and international management. The Institute has been highly regarded internationally for its outstanding achievements in theoretical, historical, empirical, and quantitative research.In the meantime, Kobe Hospital was established in 1869; it was a training center for medical practitioners, which was one of the oldest institutions in the modern medical education in Japan.In 1990, they made new changes as one of the major universities specializing in graduate research and education.Under the Japanese Ministry of Education and Science, it has started a new Center of Excellence projects, the "Research and Education Center of New Japanese Economic Paradigms", "Development and Education Center for Advanced Business Systems", and "Research Center for Dynamic Legal Processes of Advanced Market Societies". Wikipedia.

Sehaqui H.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Ezekiel Mushi N.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Morimune S.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Salajkova M.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2012

To exploit the mechanical potential of native cellulose fibrils, we report on the preparation of nanopaper with preferred orientation of nanofibrillated cellulose (TEMPO-NFC) by cold drawing. The preparation route is papermaking-like and includes vacuum filtering of a TEMPO-oxidated NFC water dispersion, drawing in wet state and drying. The orientation of the fibrils in the nanopaper was assessed by AFM and wide-angle X-ray diffraction analysis, and the effect on mechanical properties of the resulting nanopaper structure was investigated by tensile tests. At high draw ratio, the degree of orientation is as high as 82 and 89% in-the-plane and cross-sectional planes of the nanopaper, respectively, and the Young's modulus is 33 GPa. This is much higher than mechanical properties of isotropic nanopaper. The cold drawing method can be also applied to NFC nanocomposites as demonstrated by preparation of TEMPO-NFC/hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) nanocomposites. The introduction of the soft HEC matrix allows further tailoring of the mechanical properties. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Yoshizawa A.,Kyoto University | Yoshizawa A.,Shinshu University | Sumiyoshi S.,Kyoto University | Sonobe M.,Kyoto University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2013

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to validate the utility of the new histological classification proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and European Respiratory Society (ERS) for identifying the prognostic subtypes of adenocarcinomas in Japanese patients; correlations between the classification and the presence of EGFR or KRAS mutation status were also investigated. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 440 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, who underwent resection. The tumors were classified according to the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification. EGFR and KRAS mutations were detected using the established methods. RESULTS: Five-year disease-free survival rates were: 100% for adenocarcinoma in situ (n = 20) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (n = 33), 93.8% for lepidic-predominant adenocarcinoma (n = 36), 88.8% for invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (n = 10), 66.7% for papillary-predominant adenocarcinoma (n = 179), 69.7% for acinar-predominant adenocarcinoma (n = 61), 43.3% for solid-predominant adencoarcinoma (n = 78), and 0% for micropapillary-predominant adenocarcinoma (n = 19). Multivariate analysis revealed that the new classification was an independent predictor of disease-free survival. EGFR and KRAS mutations were detected in 90 cases (53.9%) and 21 cases (13.3%), respectively; EGFR mutations were significantly associated with adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, lepidic-and papillary-predominant adenocarcinoma, and KRAS mutations adenocarcinomas with mucinous tumor subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification identified prognostic histologic subtypes of lung adenocarcinomas among Japanese patients. Histologic subtyping and molecular testing for EGFR and KRAS mutations can help predict patient prognosis and select those who require adjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2012 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.

Morimune S.,Kobe University | Nishino T.,Mitsubishi Group | Goto T.,Mitsubishi Group
Polymer Journal | Year: 2012

Graphene, a single layer of graphite, has recently attracted a large amount of attention because of its extremely high electronic and thermal properties, as many nanoscale materials are based on individual graphene. Graphene oxide (GO), which is the intermediate during the chemical processing of graphene, consists of graphene functionalized with oxygen-containing functional groups that imparts the desirable solution-processability to the neat graphene. Herein, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), a hydrophilic polymer, was selected as the matrix, and PVA/GO nanocomposites were prepared by a simple and environment friendly process using water as the proceeding medium. In the PVA matrix, GO was exfoliated and nanodispersed. We found that the nanocomposites constructed by the incorporation of GO up to 1% by weight possess remarkable properties, such as significantly high mechanical and thermal properties. These excellent reinforcement effects were achieved not only by the rigid structure and high aspect ratio of the exfoliated GO but also by the strong interaction between PVA and GO. Furthermore, owing to the sheet-like structure of GO, the barrier properties of the nanocomposites were found to be dramatically increased. © 2012 The Society of Polymer Science, Japan (SPSJ) All rights reserved.

Sonoda H.,Kobe University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

Given an arbitrary Wilson action of a real scalar field, we discuss how to construct the energy-momentum tensor of the theory. Using the exact renormalization group, we can determine the energy-momentum tensor implicitly, but we are short of obtaining an explicit formula in terms of the Wilson action. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Usui T.,Soka University | Takeuchi K.,Kobe University
Environmental and Resource Economics | Year: 2014

Municipalities introduced unit-based pricing (UBP) with the aim of achieving a decrease in household waste generation and for the replacement of unsorted waste with recycling. Although many studies have shown that UBP has a short-run effect on recycling, few works have tackled the long-run effect on waste generation and recycling. By using panel data for 665 Japanese cities over 8 years, we examine the long-run effect of UBP on waste generation and recycling. The estimation results in waste generation suggest that there is a rebound effect, though a small one. We confirm that the effect of UBP on recycling sustains for the long run. We also find that the short- and long-run responses to an economic incentive for recycling activities differ with income groups. Recycling among the high-income group has not been promoted by implementation of UBP, but people in that group are willing to participate in recycling without an economic incentive. In contrast, recycling activity within the low-income group is strongly motivated by UBP for many years. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Nishita M.,Kobe University
Clinical calcium | Year: 2013

Signal transduction, elicited by Wnt-family of secreted proteins, can be classified intoβ-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt signaling and -independent non-canonical Wnt signaling. Non-canonical Wnt signaling contains planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway and Ca (+ +) pathway, which play central roles in developmental morphogenesis, by regulating cellular functions, including cell polarity and cell migration. In this article, we will overview the molecular basis of non-canonical Wnt signaling, with a particular emphasis on the roles of non-canonical Wnt signaling mediated by Wnt5a and its cognate receptors, Ror-family of receptor tyrosine kinases (Ror1, Ror2) , and will introduce up-to-date information on non-canonical Wnt signaling obtained from recent studies about pathological conditions, including cancer progression and chronic inflammation.

A hydrogen-bonded assembly composed of ferrocenylpyrimidine (FcPM) and bromanilic acid (BA), represented as [FcPM](BA)(acetone)0.5, was prepared and crystallographically characterized. The asymmetric unit of the crystal contained two crystallographically independent molecules of FcPM and BA, which were alternately connected to form one-dimensional zigzag chains via OH⋯N hydrogen bonds. The BA molecules were stacked to form one-dimensional columns. No charge transfer was observed between FcPM and BA. Acetone molecules, which were located in channels, were desorbed at 433 K. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kuboki K.,Kobe University
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan | Year: 2015

We study surface states of high-TC cuprate superconductor YBCO using the bilayer t-J model. Calculations based on the Bogoliubov de Gennes method show that a flux phase that breaks time-reversal symmetry (T) may arise near a (110) surface where the dx2-y2-wave superconductivity is strongly suppressed. It is found that the flux phase in which spontaneous magnetic fields in two layers have opposite directions may be stabilized in a wide region of doping rate, and split peaks in the local density of states appear. Near the surface, spontaneous magnetic field may not be observed experimentally, because the contributions from two layers essentially cancel out. This may explain the absence of local magnetic field near the (110) surface of YBCO, for which the sign of T violation has been detected. ©2015 The Physical Society of Japan.

Nagata M.,Kobe University
IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences | Year: 2012

Substrate noise coupling has been seriously concerned in the design of advanced analog and radio frequency (RF) integrated circuits (ICs). This paper reviews recent advancements in the modeling, analysis, and evaluation of substrate noise coupling at IC chip level. Noise generation from digital circuits and propagation to the area of analog circuits are clearly visualized both by full-chip simulation as well as by on-chip measurements, for silicon test vehicles. The impacts of substrate noise coupling are also in-depth discussed at device, circuit, as well as system levels. Overall understanding of substrate noise coupling will then provide the basics for highly reliable design of analog and RF ICs. Copyright © 2012 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers.

Mochida T.,Kobe University | Yoza K.,Bruker
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry | Year: 2010

An X-ray structural determination of decamethylferrocene- acenaphthenequinone charge-transfer complex at 293 K and 193 K revealed that the first-order phase transition at 257 K is associated with ordering of the disordered pentamethylcyclopentadienyl rings in decamethylferrocene. The pentamethylcyclopentadienyl rings exhibit two-fold rotational disorder in the room temperature phase, where the dominant form is an eclipsed conformation. In the low temperature phase, the molecular structure is ordered with a staggered conformation. The space groups were determined to be Cmcm and Pnma in the respective phases. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Yanagida S.,Kobe University
Journal of Mathematical Physics | Year: 2010

This paper deals with the five-dimensional pure SU(2) Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa (AGT) conjecture proposed by Awata and Yamada [J. High. Energy Phys. 1001, 125 (2010)]. We give a conjecture on a recursive formula for the inner product of the deformed Gaiotto state. We also show that the K-theoretic pure SU(2) Nekrasov partition function satisfies the same recursion relation. Therefore the five-dimensional AGT conjecture is reduced to our conjectural recursive formula. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Setsune J.-I.,Kobe University
Yuki Gosei Kagaku Kyokaishi/Journal of Synthetic Organic Chemistry | Year: 2014

Unique cyclooligopyrroles with fi gure of 8 conformation were prepared from useful pyrrole intermediates such as bis(azafulvene)s and 2-borylpyrrole. [32]Octaphyrin-( 1 with 32π-cycloconjugation exists in a P, P- and a M, M-helical form, which are rapidly interchanged by the stretching-compressing mechanism. Cyclooctapyrrole 1 was successfully applied to a chirality sensor for determining absolute confi guration of chiral carboxylic acids taking advantage of the unique chiroptical property. Calix[8]phyrin 2 having interrupted π-conjugation also undergoes rapid conformational change in solution, but its dinuclear Cu II complex 2Cu2 was resolved into enantiomers by HPLC on chiral phase. Metal insertion into 2 in the presence of (R)-(+)-1-(phenyl)ethylamine caused helix sense bias to the P, P-helicity. Cyclotetrapyrroletetrapyridine 3 composed of eight heterocycles also takes helical conformation and provides dual monoanionic tridentate coordination environment. Its dinuclear Co II complexes 3Co 2L2 with an amino acid anion (L-) at each metal site could be isolated to show full helix sense bias in the case of Thr, Phe, Tyr, and Trp. An open chain oligopyrrole was also studied to generate helix sense bias. Dinuclear Pd II complex 4Pd2 of hexapyrrole-α, ω-dialdehyde was reacted with (R)-(-)-1-cyclohexylethylamine to give the corresponding α,ω-diimines with 85% diastereoselectivity in favor of the P helical conformation, the chiroptical property of which could be tuned by redox.

Katayama Y.,Kobe University
Clinical calcium | Year: 2016

Bone marrow(BM)and thymus are known as the primary lymphoid organs for B and T cells, respectively. However, the cell fate for T cell lineage commitment is already determined in the BM. Thus, the lymphopoiesis is critically controlled in the BM and, according to the recent advances in genetic mouse models, it appears that this process is strictly regulated by a series of osteolineage mesenchymal populations.

Fedorov D.G.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Asada N.,Kyoto University | Nakanishi I.,Kinki University | Kitaura K.,Kobe University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

ConspectusChemists routinely work with complex molecular systems: solutions, biochemical molecules, and amorphous and composite materials provide some typical examples. The questions one often asks are what are the driving forces for a chemical phenomenon? How reasonable are our views of chemical systems in terms of subunits, such as functional groups and individual molecules? How can one quantify the difference in physicochemical properties of functional units found in a different chemical environment? Are various effects on functional units in molecular systems additive? Can they be represented by pairwise potentials? Are there effects that cannot be represented in a simple picture of pairwise interactions? How can we obtain quantitative values for these effects?Many of these questions can be formulated in the language of many-body effects. They quantify the properties of subunits (fragments), referred to as one-body properties, pairwise interactions (two-body properties), couplings of two-body interactions described by three-body properties, and so on. By introducing the notion of fragments in the framework of quantum chemistry, one obtains two immense benefits: (a) chemists can finally relate to quantum chemistry, which now speaks their language, by discussing chemically interesting subunits and their interactions and (b) calculations become much faster due to a reduced computational scaling. For instance, the somewhat academic sounding question of the importance of three-body effects in water clusters is actually another way of asking how two hydrogen bonds affect each other, when they involve three water molecules. One aspect of this is the many-body charge transfer (CT), because the charge transfers in the two hydrogen bonds are coupled to each other (not independent).In this work, we provide a generalized view on the use of many-body expansions in fragment-based methods, focusing on the general aspects of the property expansion and a contraction of a many-body expansion in a formally two-body series, as exemplified in the development of the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method. Fragment-based methods have been very successful in delivering the properties of fragments, as well as the fragment interactions, providing insights into complex chemical processes in large molecular systems. We briefly review geometry optimizations performed with fragment-based methods and present an efficient geometry optimization method based on the combination of FMO with molecular mechanics (MM), applied to the complex of a subunit of protein kinase 2 (CK2) with a ligand. FMO results are discussed in comparison with experimental and MM-optimized structures. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

The Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake of 1995 and has moved through the various phases into the recovery stage. After the earthquake we conducted two surveys involving approximately 8000 families with pre-school aged children and 466 families with disabled children. Symptoms related to PTSD were found more frequently in the small children whose houses had been severely damaged one year after the earthquake. Although the symptoms decreased, they were still present more frequently in the children and their mothers with severely damaged homes in 1998. Our results show children with intellectual or emotional disabilities displayed many behavioral problems. The physically disabled children required medical resources and specialized support in a structured environment. Both groups voiced the need to set up specialized facilities for people with disabilities. Following the Central Java Earthquake in 2006, we have engaged in "children house" activities in the disaster stricken area in collaboration with Gadjah Mada University. Through this activity, we have been able to share what works in helping children with disabilities and their families. From our experience we have found exchanging of information among the people in the disaster stricken areas helps to reduce the psychological damage of the children and aids in their recovery process. © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology.

Kitajima K.,Kobe University | Murphy R.C.,Mayo Medical School | Nathan M.A.,Mayo Medical School
Annals of Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2013

Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with [11C]- and [18F]-labeled choline derivates has emerged as a promising molecular imaging modality for the evaluation of prostate cancer. 11C- and 18F-choline PET/CT are used successfully for restaging prostate cancer in patients with biochemical recurrence of disease after definitive therapy, especially when the serum prostate-specific antigen level is >1.0 ng/mL. 11C- and 18F-choline PET/CT have more limited roles for the initial staging of prostate cancer and for the detection of tiny lymph node metastases due to the low spatial resolution inherent to PET. Overall, these modalities are most useful in patients with a high pre-test suspicion of metastatic disease. The following is a review of the current clinical roles of 11C- and 18F-choline PET/CT in the management of prostate cancer. © 2013 The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine.

Otsuka J.,Kobe University
Journal of Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2016

The evolutionary potential of organisms depends on how their parts are structured into a cohesive whole. A major obstacle for empirical studies of phenotypic organization is that observed associations among characters usually confound different causal pathways such as pleiotropic modules, interphenotypic causal relationships and environmental effects. The present article proposes causal search algorithms as a new tool to distinguish these different modes of phenotypic integration. Without assuming an a priori structure, the algorithms seek a class of causal hypotheses consistent with independence relationships holding in observational data. The technique can be applied to discover causal relationships among a set of measured traits and to distinguish genuine selection from spurious correlations. The former application is illustrated with a biological data set of rat morphological measurements previously analysed by Cheverud et al. (Evolution 1983, 37, 895). © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology

Hamada M.,Kobe University
Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ | Year: 2010

Identification of mutations in G6PD gene is performed as an epidemiologic investigation of G6PD deficiency in many countries. In order to understand the hereditary background of G6PD deficiency in a population, screening of mutations is required not only in exonic regions but also for intron and promoter regions. One hundred male neonatal samples diagnosed as with G6PD deficiency by newborn screening in Singapore were used in this study. The multiplex PCR using the multiple tandem forward primers and common reverse primer (MPTP) method was carried out to detect the common 11 mutations in south-east Asia such as Gaohe 95A>G, Orissa 131C>G, Vanua-Lava 383T>C, Mahidol 487G>A, Mediterranean 563C>T, Coimbra 592C>T, Viangchan 871G>A, Chatham 1003G>A, Union 1360C>T, Canton 1376G>T and Kaiping 1388G>A. Samples whose mutations were unidentified by MPTP method were scanned at cording region, intron and promoter region by direct sequencing.Out of 100 samples, 90 samples (90.0%) were identified with one of the above mentioned common mutations. Eight out of 10 samples whose mutations were unidentified by MPTP method carried exonic mutations which had been previously reported such as Murcia 209A>G, Quing Yuan 392G>T, Nankang 517T>C, Chinese5 1024C>T. Two novel mutations were identified in these samples: one had a novel mutation (25C>T); the remaining sample carried a 49 bp deletion in intron 12.

Mori A.,Kobe University
Yuki Gosei Kagaku Kyokaishi/Journal of Synthetic Organic Chemistry | Year: 2011

Recent progress in the C-H coupling reactions of heteroaromatic compounds in our group is summarized. Coupling of thiophene derivatives occurs in the presence of a nickel or palladium catalyst with a base as an additive. Lithium /-butoxide and several magnesium amides are effective for the coupling reaction of aryl chlorides, bromides, and iodides. Coupling at the C-H bond of thiophene with thienyl halides also occurs smoothly forming a thiophene-thiophene bond. The reaction is successfully applied to the polymerization of 2-halo-3-substituted thiophenes leading to highly regioregular head-to-tail-type poly(3-substituted thiophene). The reaction of thiazole at the C-H bond (2-position) with several secondary amines induces C-H, N-H coupling with a copper catalyst.

Iryo T.,Kobe University
Networks and Spatial Economics | Year: 2015

Uniqueness is an important characteristic of network user equilibrium. Uniqueness in dynamic user equilibrium (DUE) has been shown to exist under certain conditions, whereas a case with multiple Wardrop equilibria has been found in a twofold symmetric network with two bottlenecks. This setting is very special, and therefore, it is worthwhile to investigate the factors that are essential to obtain non-unique solutions in this case in order to discuss the implication of this special example for real network problems. The asymmetric structure of the network, stochastic user equilibrium (SUE), and whole-link model were employed to check whether these factors affect the existence of multiple equilibria. It was shown that placing bottlenecks with equivalent capacities causes the singularity of the linear equation system that describes Wardrop’s first principle in a particular network structure called as a loopy network. Then, it was shown that this singularity causes the existence of multiple equilibria. On the other hand, this singularity was not found in SUE or the whole-link cases, and therefore, non-unique solutions were not found in them. It was also shown that the singularity does not appear to be the only source of non-uniqueness by presenting another example in which at least three equilibrium solutions exists when either the bottleneck model or the whole-link model is employed. © 2013, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Yoshikawa Y.,Kobe University | Sakurai H.,Suzuka University of Medical Science | Crans D.C.,Colorado State University | Micera G.,University of Sassari | Garribba E.,University of Sassari
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2014

This study presents the first systematic investigation of the anti-diabetic properties of non-oxido VIV complexes. In particular, the insulin-mimetic activity of [VIV(taci)2]4+, [VIV(inoH-3)2]2-, [V IV(dhab)2], [VIV(hyphPh) 2], [VIV(cat)3]2- and [V IV(pdbh)2]-where taci is 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy- cis-inositol, ino is cis-inositol, H2dhab is 2,2′- dihydroxyazobenzene, H2hyphPh is 3,5-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)- 1H-1,2,4-triazole, H2cat is catechol and H2pdbh is pentan-2,4-dione benzoylhydrazone-was evaluated in terms of free fatty acid (FFA) release. Among the six compounds examined, only [VIV(pdbh) 2], [VIV(cat)3]2- and [V IV(hyphPh)2], which at the physiological pH convert to the corresponding VIVO complexes, were found to exhibit a significant insulin-mimetic activity compared to VOSO4. In contrast, [V(taci)2]4+, [V(inoH-3)2] 2- and [V(dhab)2], which at pH 7.4 keep their 'bare' non-oxido structure, did not cause any inhibition of FFA. The results, therefore, suggest that a VIVO functionality is necessary for vanadium complexes to exhibit anti-diabetic effects. This agrees with the notion that the biotransformations of V compounds in the organism are more important than the nature of the species. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Recently, many investigators have reported that treatment with vitamin D improves outcomes of patients with chronic kidney disease. Though the detailed mechanisms have remained unclear, it has been speculated that such a treatment may prevent progression of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. It has been reported that Vitamin D may attenuate renal injury and ameliorate renal function and proteinuria. In addition, several studies have shown that vitamin D may prevent progression of atherosclerosis, vascular calcification and left ventricular hypertrophy. The emerging experimental and clinical evidence has suggested that vitamin D may protect kidney and cardiovascular system.

Fujishiro T.,Kobe University
Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong) | Year: 2012

To measure preoperative hip flexion under general anaesthesia in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip and analyse its correlation with leg-length change. 79 women and 6 men aged 27 to 82 (mean, 59) years underwent 92 total hip arthroplasties for severe developmental dysplasia of the hip of Crowe types II (n=60), III (n=17), and IV (n=15). All such patients had severe pain and/or considerable difficulty in walking and performing daily activities. 16 of the hips were treated with transverse subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy, whereas the remaining 76 had no femoral osteotomy. Preoperative passive hip flexion was measured under general anaesthesia with a goniometer by a single investigator. Its mean value in patients with Crowe type-III deformity was 60.3o. Therefore, >60o of flexion was defined as high. Postoperative leg-length change was measured radiographically. The distraction of the greater trochanter was equal to the leg-length change in patients treated without femoral osteotomy, whereas leg-length change was calculated by subtracting the amount of resection of the femur from the distraction of the greater trochanter in patients treated with femoral osteotomy. Of the 16 hips treated with a transverse subtrochanteric shortening femoral osteotomy, 2, 2, and 12 were Crowe types II, III, and IV, respectively. In these 16 hips, hip flexion was high in 10 (mean, 86o) and low in 6 (mean, 36o). Leg-length change was significantly greater in the high than low flexion groups (31 vs. 13 mm, p<0.01). In the 76 hips without osteotomy, hip flexion was high in 54 (mean, 85o) and low in 22 (mean, 40o). Leg-length change was significantly greater in the high than low flexion groups (25 vs. 19 mm, p=0.016). Preoperative hip flexion under general anaesthesia correlated with leg-length change in hips with osteotomy (r=0.850, p=0.0002) and without osteotomy (r=0.267, p=0.019). Preoperative hip flexion measured under general anaesthesia may predict leg-length change after THA.

This study aimed to clarify psychosocial influences of waiting periods on patients undergoing endoscopic submucosal dissection for cancer at an advanced medical care facility in Japan. Subjects were consenting patients hospitalized from 2009 to 2010. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered about patientsʼ characteristics, disease and stage, and waiting period. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze free statements and interview data. Subjects included 154 patients with an average wait period of 46.28 days for admission. Qualitative analysis revealed the following wait period perceptions. For calmness, results indicated (1) no anxiety, (2) relief based on doctorsʼ positive judgment, (3) whatever happens/no choice, and (4) trust in doctor. For uneasiness, perceptions included (1) the sooner, the better/eagerly waiting, (2) anxiety and concern, and (3) emotional instability. Four waiting period coping types were identified: (1) making phone inquiries, (2) busy and forgot about the medical procedure, (3) relief from anxiety, and (4) unable to function well in daily life. Patients need to be educated about cancer progression and provided an estimated wait time. They also require more information about how to manage daily life such as monitoring factors from the nursing domain including physical condition, digestive symptoms, diet, and exercise.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. © 2016 by the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates, Inc.

Kakamu K.,Kobe University
Computational Economics | Year: 2015

Dagum and Singh–Maddala distributions have been widely assumed as models for income distribution in empirical analyses. The properties of these distributions are well known and several estimation methods for these distributions from grouped data have been discussed widely. Moreover, previous studies argue that the Dagum distribution gives a better fit than the Singh–Maddala distribution in the empirical analyses. This study explores the reason why Dagum distribution is preferred to the Singh–Maddala distribution in terms of the akaike information criterion through Monte Carlo experiments. In addition, the properties of the Gini coefficients and the top income shares from these distributions are examined by means of root mean square errors. From the experiments, we confirm that the fit of the distributions depends on the relationships and magnitudes of the parameters. Furthermore, we confirm that the root mean square errors of the Gini coefficients and top income shares depend on the relationships of the parameters when the data-generating processes are a generalized beta distribution of the second kind. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Miura H.,Nagoya City University | Yamamoto T.,Kobe University
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2014

Compositional zoning in chondrule phenocrysts records the crystallization environments in the early solar nebula. We modeled the growth of olivine phenocrysts from a silicate melt and proposed a new fractional crystallization model that provides a relation between the zoning profile and the cooling rate. In our model, we took elemental partitioning at a growing solid-liquid interface and time-dependent solute diffusion in the liquid into consideration. We assumed a local equilibrium condition, namely, that the compositions at the interface are equal to the equilibrium ones at a given temperature. We carried out numerical simulations of the fractional crystallization in one-dimensional planar geometry. The simulations revealed that under a constant cooling rate the growth velocity increases exponentially with time and a linear zoning profile forms in the solid as a result. We derived analytic formulae of the zoning profile, which reproduced the numerical results for wide ranges of crystallization conditions. The formulae provide a useful tool to estimate the cooling rate from the compositional zoning. Applying the formulae to low-FeO relict olivine grains in type II porphyritic chondrules observed by Wasson & Rubin, we estimate the cooling rate to be 200-2000 K s-1, which is greater than that expected from furnace-based experiments by orders of magnitude. Appropriate solar nebula environments for such rapid cooling conditions are discussed. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Nishiwaki K.,Kobe University | Oda K.-Y.,Osaka University | Okuda N.,Osaka University | Watanabe R.,Osaka University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2012

The recent up to ~2 fb -1 of data from the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at 7 TeV put an upper bound on the production cross section of a Higgs-like particle. We translate the results of the H→WW→lνlν and H→γγ as well as the combined analysis by the ATLAS and CMS into an allowed region for the Kaluza-Klein (KK) mass M KK and the Higgs mass M H for all the known Universal Extra Dimension (UED) models in five and six dimensions. Our bound is insensitive to the detailed KK mass splitting and mixing and hence complementary to all other known signatures. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Takeuchi Y.,Kobe University
Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements | Year: 2012

The recent results from Super-Kamiokande (SK) are reported. On atmospheric neutrino analysis, we have performed a full 3-flavor oscillation analysis with SK-I+II+III data. A CPT violation study on atmospheric neutrinois also done with SK-I+II+III data. On solar neutrino analysis, a 3-flavor oscillation analysis with SK-III data is performed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Masubuchi I.,Kobe University | Kurata I.,Kawasaki Heavy Industries
Automatica | Year: 2011

Gain-scheduled control via LPV system models enjoys LMI-based synthesis methods and in particular parameter-dependent Lyapunov matrices have been employed to successfully reduce conservatism. Those controllers derived via parameter-dependent Lyapunov matrices, however, end up with depending on derivatives of scheduling parameters. Though this can be avoided by approximating derivatives or restricting Lyapunov matrices to be partly constant, the former loses guarantee of performance and stability and the latter can cause conservatism. This paper proposes a synthesis method of gain-scheduled controllers that depend on filtered scheduling parameters, instead of derivatives, with a concrete guarantee of a performance level. Moreover, it is shown that the performance level of conventional derivative-dependent gain-scheduled controllers is recovered with arbitrarily small errors. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Honjo T.,Kobe University | Yamaoka-Tojo M.,Kitasato University | Inoue N.,Kobe Rosai Hospital
Current Vascular Pharmacology | Year: 2011

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an essential role in fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and the regulation of vascular tone; however, dysregulation and over-activation of the RAS lead to the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. The RAS is closely associated with NADPH oxidase, a major enzymatic source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vasculature, and angiotensin II, the final effecter of the RAS, is a potent stimulator of this oxidase. There are accumulating evidences to support the significance of NADPH oxidase in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We demonstrated that the expression of NADPH oxidase is markedly enhanced in human atherosclerotic coronary arteries, and the distribution of oxidized oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vasculature is closely associated with NAPDH oxidase and ROS. Our series of observations indicate there is a vicious circle consisting of vascular NADPH oxidase, the RAS, ROS, and oxidized LDL. Furthermore, we demonstrated that angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) significantly suppressed the expression of NADPH oxidase p22 phox in the aortic walls of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm. ARBs, widely used for treatment of hypertension and hypertension-related organ damage, have succeeded in reducing the onset of cardiovascular diseases, preventing organ damage, and cardiac death. These beneficial effects of ARBs are largely dependent upon their primary effects of blood pressure lowering. However, this group of agents exerts a wide variety of biological effects on vascular metabolism, including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory actions. These pleiotropic actions play a role in cardiovascular protection. From a viewpoint of oxidative stress, we discuss pleiotropic effects of ARBs on vascular metabolism focusing on pathogenesis of atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular diseases. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Lieshout R.,SEO Economic Research | Matsumoto H.,Kobe University
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2012

With the completion of Narita International Airport (Narita) in the Greater Tokyo Area, Tokyo International Airport (Haneda) was practically downgraded to a domestic airport. It lost its position as a key traffic hub for domestic to international air transport in Japan. Now the Japanese government is trying to expand its international role again by the resumption of international air services at the airport. A route choice probability model is applied to show how Haneda's hub competitive position in its connecting markets from Japan has changed since the resumption of these services.The results reveal that Haneda's market shares increased significantly in the markets between Japan and Asia-Oceania, between Japan and Europe and between Japan and North America. The dense domestic networks offered at Haneda appear to connect well with the newly started international flights to Asia-Oceania, Europe and North America. The competitive position of Haneda in the connecting markets from Japan is expected to increase towards 2013 when its international air networks will be expanded further. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Asano M.,Nagoya University | Iryo T.,Kobe University | Kuwahara M.,University of Tokyo
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies | Year: 2010

This study proposes a microscopic pedestrian simulation model for evaluating pedestrian flow. Recently, several pedestrian models have been proposed to evaluate pedestrian flow in crowded situations for the purpose of designing facilities. However, current pedestrian simulation models do not explain the negotiation process of collision avoidance between pedestrians, which can be important for representing pedestrian behaviour in congested situations. This study builds a microscopic model of pedestrian behaviour using a two-player game and assuming that pedestrians anticipate movements of other pedestrians so as to avoid colliding with them. A macroscopic tactical model is also proposed to determine a macroscopic path to a given destination. The results of the simulation model are compared with experimental data and observed data in a railway station. Several characteristics of pedestrian flows such as traffic volume and travel time in multidirectional flows, temporal-spatial collision avoidance behaviour and density distribution in the railway station are reproduced in the simulation. © 2010.

Kondo T.,Kobe University
Journal of Medical Case Reports | Year: 2010

Introduction. Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare myxoid mesenchymal tumor of the pelvis and perineum, which occurs almost exclusively in adult women. The tumor is especially rare in men. Case presentation. We report the case of a 68-year-old Japanese man with a slowly growing inguinal swelling. At surgery, a huge mass in the soft tissue of the inguinal region was found, not involving the adjacent organs. The morphologic picture was compatible with aggressive angiomyxoma of the inguinal region. Conclusions. Aggressive angiomyxoma is a very rare, locally infiltrative neoplasm. Thus, after surgery, close follow-up is needed because of a high risk of local recurrence. © 2010 Kondo; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Abe S.,Kobe University
International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics | Year: 2016

Sequential minimal optimization (SMO) is widely used for training support vector machines (SVMs) because of fast training. But the training slows down when a large margin parameter value is used. Training by Newton’s method (NM) accelerates training in such a situation but it slows down for a small margin parameter value. To solve this problem, in this paper we fuse SMO with NM and call it SMO-NM. Because slow training is caused by repetitive corrections of the same variables, we modify the working set selection when they are detected. We call the variables that are selected by SMO, SMO variables. At the current step, if a variable selected as an SMO variable was selected in a previous step, we consider that a loop is detected. And in addition to the SMO variables, we add, to the working set, the unbounded variables that were selected as SMO variables and correct the variables by NM. If no loop is detected, the training procedure is the same as that of SMO. As a variant of this working set strategy, we further add violating variables to the working set. We clarify that if the classification problem is not linearly separable in the feature space, the solutions of L1/L2 SVMs (with the linear sum/square sum of slack variables) are unbounded as the margin parameter value approaches infinity but that, if the mapped training data are not linearly independent in the feature space, the solution of the least squares SVM is unbounded as the margin parameter approaches infinity. We also clarify the condition, in which the increment of the objective function value by SMO-NM is larger than that by SMO. We evaluate SMO-NM for several benchmark data sets and confirm the effectiveness over SMO especially for a large margin parameter value. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Masada Y.,Kobe University | Sano T.,Osaka University
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2014

The mechanism of large-scale dynamos in rigidly rotating stratified convection is explored by direct numerical simulations (DNS) in Cartesian geometry. A mean-field dynamo model is also constructed using turbulent velocity profiles consistently extracted from the corresponding DNS results. By quantitative comparison between the DNS and our mean-field model, it is demonstrated that the oscillatory α2 dynamo wave, excited and sustained in the convection zone, is responsible for large-scale magnetic activities such as cyclic polarity reversal and spatiotemporal migration. The results provide strong evidence that a nonuniformity of the α-effect, which is a natural outcome of rotating stratified convection, can be an important prerequisite for large-scale stellar dynamos, even without the Ω-effect. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Otsuka H.,Kagoshima University | Kawano H.,Kagoshima University | Sonoda S.,Kagoshima University | Nakamura M.,Kobe University | Sakamoto T.,Kagoshima University
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2013

Purpose. We determined the cause of sterile endophthalmitis after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA). Methods. The clinical records of 21 eyes that had sterile endophthalmitis after IVTA were reviewed. Cytologic studies were performed, and cytokine and chemokine profiles in the aqueous humor were determined. The effects of a direct contact of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) particles with cultured lens epithelial cells (B3) or retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) on cytokine production were determined. Noncontact culture studies were performed in a Boyden chamber; 11-deoxycortisol was used for nonbioactive particles. Results. Inflammation appeared one day after the IVTA, and the incidence of severe sterile endophthalmitis was 13.0% (6/46), which was reduced to 4.3% (2/47) after switching to preservative-free TA. Most cells found in the aqueous humor were granulocytes. The concentrations of IL-6 (447.8-<5000 pg/mL) and IL-8 (47.2-<5000 pg/mL) were increased significantly, but IL-1β, IL-10, IL-12p70, and TNF-α were not significantly changed. In B3 cells, the level of IL-8 increased significantly when the cells made direct contact with TA particles (1.33 times that of PBS, P < 0.05, Student's t-test), but not in noncontact cultures. Similar reaction pattern was found in ARPE-19 cells. These effects also were observed when the cells were exposed to 11-deoxycortisol. Conclusions. Sterile endophthalmitis after IVTA is characterized by an immediate granulocytic infiltration and an increase of IL-6/IL-8 in the aqueous humor. Preservatives may be a factor causing this condition, and mechanical/rheologic stress by particles presumably might be a new causative factor by increasing IL-6/IL-8. © 2013 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

Funasaka Y.,Nippon Medical School | Abdel-Daim M.,Suez Canal University | Kawana S.,Nippon Medical School | Nishigori C.,Kobe University
Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2012

Chemical peeling is one of the dermatological treatments available for certain cutaneous diseases and conditions or improvement of cosmetic appearance of photoaged skin. However, it needs to be clarified whether the repetitive procedure of chemical peeling on photodamaged skin is safe and whether the different chemicals used for peeling results in similar outcomes or not. In this article, we reviewed the effect of peeling or peeling agents on the skin in relation to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The pretreatment of peeling agents usually enhance UV sensitivity by inducing increased sunburn cell formation, lowering minimum erythematous dose and increasing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. However, this sensitivity is reversible and recovers to normal after 1-week discontinuation. Using animals, the chronic effect of peeling and peeling agents was shown to prevent photocarcinogenesis. There is also an in vitro study using culture cells to know the detailed mechanisms of peeling agents, especially on cell proliferation and apoptotic changes via activating signalling cascades and oxidative stress. It is important to understand the effect of peeling agents on photoaged skin and to know how to deal with UV irradiation during the application of peeling agents and treatment of chemical peeling in daily life. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Usui H.,Tottori University | Usui H.,Research Institute for Electrical and Magnetic Materials RIEMM | Usui H.,Kobe University
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2011

A cathodic electrodeposition was potentiostatically performed in an anionic surfactant solution under various electrodeposition conditions to investigate the influence of the condition on the structure of electrodeposited products, c-axis oriented ZnO films, ZnO nanoparticles shaped like ellipsoidal grains, and lamellar-structured organic/inorganic hybrids. The single phase of the ZnO nanoparticles was obtained only at a specific electrodeposition condition which was confirmed to be the boundary condition for two phases of the c-axis oriented ZnO and the lamellar hybrids. The origin of synthesis of the ZnO nanoparticles is probably a competitive formation reaction between the products of the two phases. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Teramoto K.,Kobe University
Differential Geometry and its Application | Year: 2016

We study parallel surfaces and dual surfaces of cuspidal edges. We give concrete forms of principal curvature and principal direction for cuspidal edges. Moreover, we define ridge points for cuspidal edges by using those. We clarify relations between singularities of parallel and dual surfaces and differential geometric properties of initial cuspidal edges. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Iwata K.,Kobe University
International Journal of General Medicine | Year: 2013

Generalists and specialists are often considered two completely distinct species, which culminates in the establishment of a concept of dichotomy. However, these dichotomy can at times fuel tension and even erupt into open conflict. In order to resolve this issue, the author herein proposes the concept of a "genecialist." The genecialist refers to a hybrid comprising elements inherent to both generalists and specialists. This potentially overcomes the multitude of issues associated with both generalists and specialists in the practical aspects of medicine. The coalescence of these two contrarieties may hold the key to improving the future of health care. Mediating and integrating both categories into one consolidated entity carries the potential to stem the tide of class warfare between generalists and specialists. © 2013 Iwata, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Rosalie J.M.,Japan National Institute of Materials Science | Somekawa H.,Japan National Institute of Materials Science | Singh A.,Japan National Institute of Materials Science | Mukai T.,Kobe University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2013

The effect of pre-ageing deformation on the size and distribution of β′1 precipitates and subsequently on the resulting strength and ductility have been measured in a Mg-3.0at.%Zn-0.5at.%Y alloy. The alloy was extruded and then subjected to a T8 heat treatment comprised of a solution-treatment, cold-work and artificial ageing. Extrusion was used to introduce texture, ensuring that deformation occurred via slip rather than twinning. Samples were subjected to controlled uniaxial deformation and then isothermally aged to peak hardness. Precipitate length, diameter and number density were measured and evaluated in terms of the strength and ductility of the alloy. The nucleation of the β′1 precipitates in peak-aged condition without pre-ageing deformation (i.e. T6 treatment) was poor, with only 0.5% volume fraction, compared to approximately 3.5% in T6 treated binary Mg-3.0at.%Zn alloy. The microstructure of the Mg-Zn-Y alloy was less refined, with larger diameter precipitates and lower β′1 number densities than a binary Mg-3.0at.%Zn alloy. Deformation to 5% plastic strain increased the volume fraction of β′1 precipitates to approximately 2.3% and refined the β1′ precipitate length and diameter. The combination of these effects increased the yield strength after isothermal ageing from 217 MPa (0% cold-work) to 287 MPa (5% cold-work). The yield stress increased linearly with reciprocal interparticle spacing on the basal and prismatic planes and the alloy showed similar strengthening against basal slip to Mg-Zn. The elongation increased linearly with particle spacing. The ductility of Mg-Zn-Y alloys was similar to that of Mg-Zn for equivalently spaced particles. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hino Y.,Kobe University
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery | Year: 2013

We present our experience of total aortic arch replacement. Twenty-nine patients (21 males and 8 females; mean age 63.3 ± 13.3 years) with extended thoracic aortic aneurysms underwent graft replacement. The pathology of the diseased aorta was non-dissecting aneurysm in 11 patients, including one aortitis and aortic dissection in 18 patients (acute type A: one, chronic type A: 11, chronic type B: six). Five patients had Marfan syndrome. In their previous operation, two patients had undergone the Bentall procedure, three had endovascular stenting, one had aortic root replacement with valve sparing and 12 had hemi-arch replacement for acute type A dissection. Approaches to the aneurysm were as follows: posterolateral thoracotomy with rib-cross incision in 16, posterolateral thoracotomy extended to the retroperitoneal abdominal aorta in seven, mid-sternotomy and left pleurotomy in three, anterolateral thoracotomy with partial lower sternotomy in two and clam-shell incision in one patient. Extension of aortic replacement was performed from the aortic root to the descending aorta in 4, from the ascending aorta to the descending aorta in 17 and from the ascending to the abdominal aorta in eight patients. Arterial inflow for cardiopulmonary bypass consisted of the femoral artery in 15 patients, ascending aorta and femoral artery in seven, descending or abdominal aorta in five and ascending aorta in two. Venous drainage site was the femoral vein in 10, pulmonary artery in eight, right atrium in five, femoral artery with right atrium/pulmonary artery in four and pulmonary artery with right atrium in two patients. The operative mortality, 30-day mortality and hospital mortality was one (cardiac arrest due to aneurysm rupture), one (rupture of infected aneurysm) and one (brain contusion), respectively. Late mortality occurred in three patients due to pneumonia, ruptured residual aneurysm and intracranial bleeding. Actuarial survival at 5 years after the operations was 80.6 ± 9.0%. Freedom from the subsequent aortic events was 96.0 ± 3.9% at 5 years. Our treatment method for extensive thoracic aneurysms achieved satisfactory results using specific strategies and appropriate organ protection according to the aneurysm extension in the selected patients.

Tashman S.,University of Pittsburgh | Araki D.,University of Pittsburgh | Araki D.,Kobe University
Clinics in Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

The purposes of this article are to discuss key factors for assessing joint function, to present some recent findings, and to address the future directions for evaluating the function of the anterior cruciate ligament-injured/reconstructed knees. Well-designed studies, using state-of-the art tools to assess knee kinematics under in vivo, dynamic, high-loading conditions, are necessary to evaluate the relative performance of different procedures for restoring normal joint motion. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Akai A.,Kobe University
Nihon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu, A Hen/Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Part A | Year: 2013

In recent years, fatigue limit estimation based on dissipated energy is getting an increasing attention in various industries because of its time and cost effectiveness. Heat treatment is applied to the material and machine components for the improvement of the mechanical properties. In this study, fatigue limit estimation based on dissipated energy measurement was applied to the evaluation of heat treated materials. Fatigue limit estimation by energy dissipation and conventional fatigue tests were conducted for as-received materials and re-solution heat treated materials of JIS type 304 steel to investigate the influence of grain size and the change of mechanical properties on energy dissipation. It was found from the fatigue limit estimation by energy dissipation that the fatigue limit of the re-solution heat treated materials could be precisely estimated, although estimated fatigue limit of the as-received materials obtained by energy dissipation was conservative values compared with that obtained by conventional fatigue tests. In conventional fatigue tests, volume fraction of martensite and its changing rate in the re-solution heat treated materials are less than those in the as-received materials. Therefore, the influence of the phase transformation to the re-solution heat treated materials was smaller than that to the as-received materials. The relationship between the dissipated energy and the plastic strain energy was also investigated. The dissipated energy in both materials could plot in the same straight line against plastic strain energy. The results in type 316L also plotted in the same line. It was found that materials with the same thermal property has same relationship between dissipated energy and plastic strain, even though mechanical properties of material are different from each other; thus the energy dissipation has a close relationship with plastic deformation. © 2013 The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Sawa M.,Kobe University
Journal of Combinatorial Theory. Series B | Year: 2016

We give an inequality on the inertia of Hermitian matrices with some symmetry and discuss algebraic conditions for equality. The basic results also have various applications in the theories of graph decompositions, graph embeddings, and block designs. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Kimura H.,Kobe University | Kimura H.,Center for Planetary Science
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2016

Photoelectron emission is crucial to electric charging of dust particles around main-sequence stars and gas heating in various dusty environments. An estimate of the photoelectric processes contains an ill-defined parameter called the photoelectric quantum yield, which is the total number of electrons ejected from a dust particle per absorbed photon. Here we revisit the so-called small particle effect of photoelectron emission and provide an analytical model to estimate photoelectric quantum yields of small dust particles in sizes down to nanometers. We show that the small particle effect elevates the photoelectric quantum yields of nanoparticles up to by a factor of 103 for carbon, water ice, and organics, and a factor of 102 for silicate, silicon carbide, and iron. We conclude the surface curvature of the particles is a quantity of great importance to the small particle effect, unless the particles are submicrometers in radius or larger. © 2016 The Author Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Masada Y.,Kobe University | Takiwaki T.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | Kotake K.,Fukuoka University
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2015

Magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a convectively stable layer around the neutrinosphere is simulated by a three-dimensional model of a supernova core. To resolve MRI-unstable modes, a thin layer approximation considering only the radial global stratification is adopted. Our intriguing finding is that the convectively stable layer around the neutrinosphere becomes fully turbulent due to the MRI and its nonlinear penetration into the strongly stratified MRI-stable region. The intensity of the MRI-driven turbulence increases with magnetic flux threading the core, but is limited by the free energy stored in the differential rotation. The turbulent neutrinosphere is a natural consequence of rotating core-collapse and could exert a positive impact on the supernova mechanism. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Bricker J.D.,Tohoku University | Nakayama A.,Kobe University
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering | Year: 2014

Failure of the Utatsu concrete girder highway bridge in Minamisanriku, Miyagi Prefecture during the 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami was puzzling because the bridge decks were not pushed off their piers but rather were flipped off the landward side of the bridge piers after being deeply submerged by the surging tsunami. To determine what caused this to happen, two simulations were conducted. The first was a large-scale Delft shallow-water simulation (beginning with published tsunami source free surface deviation) to determine the behavior of the tsunami (time series of flow depth and speed) at the bridge site. The second was a small-scale two-dimensional (2D) (profile view) software volume-of-fluid (VOF) simulation of flow over the bridge deck, with boundary conditions taken from the Delft model. The VOF model then allowed calculation of lift force, drag force, and overturning moment on the bridge deck. Results show that factors contributing to failure included the presence of a seawall near the bridge, inclination (superelevation) of the deck upward toward the ocean, sediment entrained in the water, and air trapped between girders. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Iioka H.,University of Virginia | Iioka H.,Kobe University | Loiselle D.,Duke University | Haystead T.A.,Duke University | MacAra I.G.,University of Virginia
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2011

The diverse localization of transcripts in cells suggests that there are many specific RNA-protein interactions that have yet to be identified. Progress has been limited, however, by the lack of a robust method to detect and isolate the RNA-binding proteins. Here we describe the use of an RNA aptamer, scaffolded to a tRNA, to create an affinity matrix that efficiently pulls down transcript-specific RNA-binding proteins from cell lysates. The addition of the tRNA scaffold to a Streptavidin aptamer (tRSA) increased binding efficiency by ∼10-fold. The tRSA system with an attached G-quartet sequence also could efficiently and specifically capture endogenous Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), which recognizes this RNA sequence. An alternative method, using biotinylated RNA, captured FMRP less efficiently than did our tRSA method. Finally we demonstrate the identification of novel RNA-binding proteins that interact with intron2 or 3'-UTR of the polarity protein Crumbs3 transcript. Proteins captured by these RNA sequences attached to the tRNA scaffold were identified by mass spectrometry. GFP-tagged versions of these proteins also showed specific interaction with either the Crb3 intron2 or 3'-UTR. Our tRSA technique should find wide application in mapping the RNA-protein interactome. © 2010 The Author(s).

Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter; however, if GHG reductions, achieved by accounting for waste-to-energy, exceed GHG emissions, incineration can be considered as a net GHG reducer. In Japan, only 24.5% of MSW incineration plants perform energy recovery despite 80% of MSW being incinerated; therefore, there is great potential to extract more energy from MSW. In this study, the factors that should be considered to achieve net GHG reductions from incineration were analysed from a life cycle perspective. These considerations were then applied to the energy supply requirements in seven Japanese metropolises. Firstly, the carbon footprints of approximately 1500 incineration plants in Japan were calculated. Then, the incineration plants with negative carbon footprint values were classified as net GHG reducers. Next, the processes that contribute to the carbon footprint were evaluated, and two processes - plastic burning and electricity savings - were found to have the greatest influence. Based on the results, the energy supply requirements were analysed and discussed for seven metropolises (Sapporo, Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Kobe, Takamatsu and Fukuoka) taking into account the energy demands of households. In Kobe, 16.2% of the electricity demand and 25.0% of the hot water demand could be satisfied by incineration to realise a net GHG reducer, although urban design for energy utilisation would be required. © The Author(s) 2013.

Ito N.,Japan Society for the Promotion of Science | Takeuchi K.,Kobe University | Managi S.,Tohoku University
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment | Year: 2013

This study investigates potential demand for infrastructure investment for alternative fuel vehicles by applying stated preference methods to a Japanese sample. The potential demand is estimated on the basis of how much people are willing to pay for alternative fuel vehicles under various refueling scenarios. Using the estimated parameters, the economic efficiency of establishing battery-exchange stations for electric vehicles is examined. The results indicate that infrastructural development of battery-exchange stations can be efficient when electric vehicle sales exceed 5.63% of all new vehicle sales. Further, we find a complementary relationship between the cruising ranges of alternative fuel vehicles and the infrastructure established. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

A patient with malignant melanoma of the oral cavity who lived for a long period despite developing liver metastasis is presented. An 81-year-old female was referred to our hospital because of a pigmented tumor of the lower gingiva. Under the clinical diagnosis of malignant melanoma, she underwent bilateral functional neck dissection and marginal mandiblectomy. Histological diagnosis of the operation material was malignant melanoma with regional lymph node metastasis. In spite of loco-regional control, liver metastasis developed at 7 months after the surgery. She then underwent combination chemotherapies with dimethyl triazeno imidazole carboxamide (DTIC), nimustine hydrochloride (ACNU) and vincristin (DAV therapy), or cisplatin, DTIC, ACNU and tamoxifen (DAC-tam), but no marked response was obtained. Considering the advanced age of the patient, immunotherapy with a biological response modifier, OK432, alone was started. After administration of OK432, the metastatic tumor gradually decreased, and she is alive without any clinical symptoms of tumor at 46 months after the detection of liver metastasis, although it is still present on ultrasonic and CT examinations.

Quan C.,Kobe University | Ren F.,Tokushima University
Information Sciences | Year: 2016

Emotion recognition in text has attracted a great deal of attention recently due to many practical applications and challenging research problems. In this paper, we explore an efficient identification of compound emotions in sentences using hidden Markov models (HMMs). In this problem, emotion has temporal structure and can be encoded as a sequence of spectral vectors spanning an article range. The major contributions of the research include the (i) proposal of weighted high-order HMMs to determine the most likely sequence of sentence emotions in an article. The weighted high-order HMMs take into account the impact degree of context emotions with different lengths of history; (ii) introduction of a representation of compound emotions by a sequence of binary digits, namely emotion code; (iii) development of an architecture that uses the emotions of simple sentences as part of known states in the weighted high-order hidden Markov emotion models for further recognizing more unknown sentence emotions. The experimental results show that the proposed weighted high-order HMMs is quite powerful in identifying sentence emotions compared with several state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms and the standard n-order hidden Markov emotion models. And the use of emotion of simple sentences as part of known states is able to improve the performance of the weighted n-order hidden Markov emotion models significantly. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Inoue K.,Kobe University
Journal of Navigation | Year: 2011

In the maritime community, a runner-up will undertake this typical process to catch up with the front runner; first, as a nation's economy grows its domestic crew costs rise, creating a gap with those abroad, which in turn depresses the international competitiveness of shipping companies. Then, to maintain their economic strength, shipping companies have their ships fly a "flag of convenience" relying on increasing amounts of cheap foreign labour. As a result, the nation gradually loses domestic seafarers, which, in the worst case, leads to a depletion of national human resource needed for its maritime cluster to continue to exist. In that sense, the personnel shortage issue is a fate for top runners in the marine transport world, where international competitiveness is inevitable. The Japanese maritime sector is just facing this issue. In this paper, the current situation in the maritime sector and its dependence on foreign labour, the cause and process of the change and the problems of the outcomes are explained, and the possible solutions in terms of the social mechanism of personnel development and utilization are discussed. © 2011 The Royal Institute of Navigation.

Tanaka S.,Kobe University | Mochizuki Y.,Rikkyo University | Mochizuki Y.,University of Tokyo | Komeiji Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

Recent developments in the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method for theoretical formulation, implementation, and application to nano and biomolecular systems are reviewed. The FMO method has enabled ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations for large molecular systems such as protein-ligand complexes at a reasonable computational cost in a parallelized way. There have been a wealth of application outcomes from the FMO method in the fields of biochemistry, medicinal chemistry and nanotechnology, in which the electron correlation effects play vital roles. With the aid of the advances in high-performance computing, the FMO method promises larger, faster, and more accurate simulations of biomolecular and related systems, including the descriptions of dynamical behaviors in solvent environments. The current status and future prospects of the FMO scheme are addressed in these contexts. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Kuse M.,Kobe University
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Bioluminescence is a chemical reaction process for light emission in vivo. An organic substance is normally oxidized in the protein to obtain the energy required for the light emission. Determination of the structure of the substance is one of the most important parts of bioluminescent research. Photoproteins of a flying squid and a mollusk contain chromophores that are formed by connecting an apo-protein and dehydrocoelenterazine. The chromophore has a chemical structure that can emit light in a photoprotein. The structural analysis of the chromophores in the photoproteins is described. © 2014 Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry.

Kuwamura M.,Kobe University
Journal of Mathematical Biology | Year: 2015

In this paper, we study the stationary and oscillatory Turing instabilities of a homogeneous equilibrium in prey–predator reaction–diffusion systems with dormant phase of predators. We propose a simple criterion which is useful in classifying these Turing instabilities. Moreover, numerical simulations reveal transient spatio-temporal complex patterns which are a mixture of spatially periodic steady states and traveling/standing waves. In this mixture, the steady part is the stable Turing pattern bifurcated primarily from the homogeneous equilibrium, while wave parts are unstable oscillatory solutions bifurcated secondarily from the same homogeneous equilibrium. Although our criterion does not exclude the occurrence of oscillatory Turing instability, we have not yet found stable traveling/standing waves due to oscillatory Turing instability in our simulations. These results suggest that dormancy of predators is not a generator but an enhancer of spatio-temporal Turing patterns in prey–predator reaction–diffusion systems. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Yamasaki M.,Kobe University | Ideta O.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Breeding Science | Year: 2013

It is essential to elucidate genetic diversity and relationships among even related individuals and populations for plant breeding and genetic analysis. Since Japanese rice breeding has improved agronomic traits such as yield and eating quality, modern Japanese rice cultivars originated from narrow genetic resource and closely related. To resolve the population structure and genetic diversity in Japanese rice population, we used a total of 706 alleles detected by 134 simple sequence repeat markers in a total of 114 cultivars composed of 94 improved varieties and 20 landraces, which are representative and important for Japanese rice breeding. The landraces exhibit greater gene diversity than improved lines, suggesting that landraces can provide additional genetic diversity for future breeding. Model-based Bayesian clustering analysis revealed six subgroups and admixture situation in the cultivars, showing good agreement with pedigree information. This method could be superior to phylogenetic method in classifying a related population. The leading Japanese rice cultivar, Koshihikari is unique due to the specific genome constitution. We defined Japanese rice diverse sets that capture the maximum number of alleles for given sample sizes. These sets are useful for a variety of genetic application in Japanese rice cultivars.

It has been well established that the exchange partition coefficient for the exchange of Ca and Na between plagioclase and silicate melts [Kd = (Ca/Na) pl/(Ca/Na) melt] increases with increasing water content in the melt, but its atomistic interpretation is not well developed. This work presents new experimental data on the partition coefficient in an alkali basalt and a transitional tholeiite from the Oginosen volcano, southwest Japan and discusses the possible role of melt polymerization in the variations of the partition coefficient. The experiments were conducted at 0.1 MPa, and hydrous 100 MPa and 200 MPa conditions. The partition coefficient at 0.1 MPa increases from 0.8-1.4 to 1.5-1.8 over a temperature increase from 1090 °C to 1190 °C in the transitional tholeiite, and from 1.2 to 1.7 for 1090 °C to 1150 °C in the alkali basalt. The partition coefficient increases up to 4.1-4.2 in the presence of 3.4-3.5 wt% water in the melt in both basalts. The variations of the Ca-Na partition coefficient between the plagioclase and the melt is interpreted in terms of the degree of polymerization of the melt. The degree of polymerization of the melt decreases with the increase of temperature and water content, both of which increase the Ca-Na partition coefficient. The anorthite content of the core of natural plagioclase phenocrysts in the alkali basalt is 63-66 mol%, suggesting crystallization under water-undersaturated conditions. In the transitional tholeiite, some of the cores of the plagioclase phenocrysts have An81-85, which is formed in a water-supersaturated run at 100 MPa and 1085 °C; however, the significance of the presence of An81-85 is unknown and must be investigated further.

Aikawa Y.,Kobe University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

Cores are subject to gravitational instability; they are massive enough to collapse due to their own gravity. The cores are supported against collapse by a pressure gradient due to the combination of thermal, magnetic, and turbulent pressure. The cores start collapse to form stars, once the gravity overwhelms the pressure gradient. The core before star formation is called a prestellar core, whereas the core harboring protostar(s) are called a protostellar core. Molecular line observations in radio wavelength is a very powerful tool to investigate the core structure, since millimeter radiation suffer much less attenuation than shorter wavelength. High spectral resolution of radio telescopes also enable us to investigate dynamics of the core.

Nakano M.,Konan University | Tateishi-Karimata H.,Konan University | Tanaka S.,Kobe University | Sugimoto N.,Konan University
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2014

It is considered that Hoogsteen base pairs and DNA triplex structures play important roles in cellular processes even though these structures are less than duplexes of Watson-Crick base pairs. Molecular ions clearly affect the stability of DNA structures in vivo; however, the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of sodium ions, choline ions, and tetramethylammonium ions on DNA triplexes using molecular dynamics simulations. We found that nonpolar interactions, which are associated with van der Waals interactions, and solvent-accessible surface area were more important than polar or electrostatic interactions in determining the affinity of a molecular cation for the DNA groove areas. The free energy gain due to a cation that fit optimally within a DNA groove was larger than the free energy loss due to the effect of dehydration. Cations with shapes complementary to that of a particular DNA groove configuration stabilized triplex formation, but cations that disturbed hydrogen bonds between DNA bases were destabilizing. These stabilizing and destabilizing mechanisms of molecular cations were also applicable to a DNA duplex composed of Watson-Crick base pairs. The molecular-level view of cation interactions with DNA structures will guide the design of DNA devices, DNA-based drugs, and genetic therapies. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Hayashi S.,Kobe University
Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong) | Year: 2011

We present a rare case of avulsion-fracture of the anterior superior iliac spine with meralgia paresthetica in a 16-year-old male basketball player. He had sensory disturbance affecting his left lateral thigh 10 days after the injury. Tinel's sign was elicited on percussing the avulsed bony fragment of the anterior superior iliac spine. He underwent open reduction and internal fixation. The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was noted to be entrapped by one third of the avulsed bony fragment. That fragment was removed, and the remaining portion was reduced and fixed with 2 screws. At week 6, the patient had returned to basketball playing without pain. At week 8, sensory distribution in the left lateral thigh had returned to normal.

It is not until accomplishment of a variety of molecular changes during the transit through the female reproductive tract that mammalian spermatozoa are capable of exhibiting highly activated motility with asymmetric whiplash beating of the flagella (hyperactivation) and undergoing acrosomal exocytosis in the head (acrosome reaction). These molecular changes of the spermatozoa are collectively termed capacitation and promoted by bicarbonate, calcium and cholesterol acceptors. Such capacitation-promoting factors can stimulate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction in the spermatozoa. Meanwhile, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction are essential to sperm fertilization with oocytes and are apparently triggered by a sufficient increase of intracellular Ca2+ in the sperm flagellum and head, respectively. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the relationship between cAMP signal transduction and calcium signaling cascades in the spermatozoa for the purpose of understanding the molecular basis of capacitation. In this review, I cover updated insights regarding intracellular cAMP signal transduction, the acrosome reaction and flagellar motility in mammalian spermatozoa and then account for possible roles of intracellular cAMP signal transduction in the capacitation and subsequent hyperactivation of mouse and boar spermatozoa. © 2013 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.

Kanda T.,Teikyo University | Ishii K.,Kinki University | Kawaguchi H.,Teikyo University | Kitajima K.,Kobe University | Takenaka D.,Teikyo University
Radiology | Year: 2014

Purpose: To explore any correlation between the number of previous gadolinium- based contrast material administrations and high signal intensity (SI) in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1- weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved this study, waiving the requirement to obtain written informed consent. A group of 381 consecutive patients who had undergone brain MR imaging was identified for cross-sectional analysis. For longitudinal analysis, 19 patients who had undergone at least six contrast-enhanced examinations were compared with 16 patients who had undergone at least six unenhanced examinations. The mean SIs of the dentate nucleus, pons, globus pallidus, and thalamus were measured on unenhanced T1-weighted images. The dentate nucleus-to-pons SI ratio was calculated by dividing the SI in the dentate nucleus by that in the pons, and the globus pallidus-to-thalamus SI ratio was calculated by dividing the SI in the globus pallidus by that in the thalamus. Stepwise regression analysis was undertaken in the consecutive patient group to detect any relationship between the dentate nucleus-to-pons or globus pallidus-to-thalamus SI ratio and previous gadolinium-based contrast material administration or other factors. A random coefficient model was used to evaluate for longitudinal analysis. Results: The dentate nucleus-to-pons SI ratio showed a significant correlation with the number of previous gadolinium-based contrast material administrations (P < .001; regression coefficient, 0.010; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.009, 0.011; standardized regression coefficient, 0.695). The globus pallidus-to-thalamus SI ratio showed a significant correlation with the number of previous gadolinium-based contrast material administrations (P < .001; regression coefficient, 0.004; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.006; standardized regression coefficient, 0.288), radiation therapy (P = .009; regression coefficient,20.014; 95% CI: 20.025, 20.004; standardized regression coefficient, 20.151), and liver function (P = .031; regression coefficient, 0.023; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.044; standardized regression coefficient, 0.107). The dentate nucleus-topons and globus pallidus-to-thalamus SI ratios in patients who had undergone contrast-enhanced examinations were significantly greater than those of patients who had undergone unenhanced examinations (P < .001 for both). Conclusion: High SI in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted images may be a consequence of the number of previous gadolinium-based contrast material administrations. © 2014 RSNA.

Fujikura K.,Kobe University
Analytical Biochemistry | Year: 2015

The advent of DNA sequencing has significantly accelerated molecular biology and clinical genetic testing. Despite recent increases in next-generation sequencing throughput, the most popular platform for DNA sequencing is still the multi-capillary DNA sequencer, which is ideally suited for small-scale sequencing projects and is highly accurate. However, the methods remain time-consuming and laborious. Here, I describe a modified ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) method that skips the washing step in ethanol precipitation. My improvements to standard methods save labor, time, and cost per run and increase the sequence reads by 5 to 10%. This modified method will provide immediate benefits to many researchers. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

We estimated the slip-deficit rate distribution on the plate boundary between the subducting Philippine Sea plate and the continental Amurian plate along the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan. Horizontal and vertical displacement rates were calculated from land-based Global Positioning System (GPS) data during the 5-year period from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2009. We employed an inversion analysis of geodetic data using Akaike's Bayesian information criterion (ABIC), including an indirect prior constraint that slip distribution is smooth to some extent and a direct prior constraint that slip is mainly oriented in the plate-convergent direction. The results show that a large slip deficit exists at depths ranging from 15 to 20. km on the plate boundary in a belt-like form. The maximum slip-deficit rate was identified off Shikoku and reached 6. cm/year. The slip-deficit rate differed by as much as 1. cm/year when using a different geometric model of the subducting plate. On the basis of the spatial distribution of estimation errors and the resolution of the obtained slip-deficit rate on the plate boundary, we also found that the offshore slip-deficit rate cannot be estimated with sufficient accuracy using only land-based GPS data. Therefore, we tested the improvement in results when introducing hypothetical ocean-bottom GPS stations. The stations were arranged in four along-arc and across-arc spacings of 80. km and 40. km. The ocean-bottom data improved the estimation errors and resolutions, and successful results were obtained for a checkerboard with each square 75. km. ×. 76. km. Our results indicate that 40-km along-arc and across-arc two-dimensional spacing of ocean-bottom GPS stations is required to obtain reliable slip-deficit distributions near the trough axis, assuming the current estimation accuracy for ocean-bottom horizontal displacement rates. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Furukawa S.,Kyoto University | Sakata Y.,Kyoto University | Sakata Y.,Kobe University | Kitagawa S.,Kyoto University
Chemistry Letters | Year: 2013

Entangled porous coordination frameworks, wherein two or more distinct frameworks are catenated over an entire crystal, are known to demonstrate unique structural flexibilities in response to the accommodation of molecules in the voids between the frameworks. In this highlight review, we introduce key functions of entangled frameworks based on two principles of their dynamic features: shearing and displacement. We further describe strategies to control the flexibilities; one is a molecular chemistry approach to functionalize frameworks by chemical modification, and the other is a mesoscopic chemistry approach to change the physical form, in particular, the crystal size. © 2013 The Chemical Society of Japan.

Miyake H.,Kobe University
Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine | Year: 2011

Because of the progress in chemotherapy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it has become quite rare to diagnose patients with genitourinary tuberculosis. In Japan, however, the incidence of tuberculosis remains comparatively high, particularly in elderly patients, among advanced countries. Furthermore, infectious adverse events associated with intravesical instillation therapy with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which is one of the most useful agents against non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, are frequently developed. Considering these findings, it is still necessary to be well informed of the diagnosis as well as treatment for genitourinary tuberculosis. In this review, therefore, we would like to summarize the important topics concerning genitourinary tuberculosis, including BCG infection following intravesical instillation therapy for bladder cancer.

Maniwa Y.,Kobe University
Journal of Thoracic Disease | Year: 2016

Airway lesions are treated by resecting and subsequent reconstructive surgery. Tracheoplasty and bronchoplasty are applied to inflammatory stenosis, damage due to trauma, and primary tumors of the airways. The indications for lobar (bronchial) sleeve resection are commonly applied to lung cancers that develop at the proximal portion of the lobar bronchus. Recently, extended sleeve lobectomy (ESL) is widely indicated among the routine techniques used to avoid pneumonectomy because of its reliability and effectiveness. In some cases the cancer is limited to the segmental bronchi, segmental sleeve resection is sometimes performed. In the field of respiratory surgery, carinal resection-reconstruction is one of the most rare procedures and challenging issues, involving difficult surgical techniques, anesthetic techniques, and postoperative management. Tracheal surgery was generalized so that it could be applied to any type of tracheal disease that required resection, including tumors. © Journal of Thoracic Disease. All rights reserved.

Fujiwara Y.,Kobe University
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2010

Recent developments in a number of molecular profiling technologies, including genomic/genetic testing, proteomic profiling and metabolomic analysis have allowed the development of 'personalized medicine. Irinotecan is one of the models for personalized medicine based on pharmacogenetics, and a number of clinical studies have revealed significant associations between UGT1A1ß28 and irinotecan toxicity. Based on this cumulative evidence, the US FDA and pharmaceutical companies revised the irinotecan label in June 2005. However, a recommended strategy for irinotecan-dose adjustments based on individual genetic factors has not yet been fully established. This article provides an overview of recent progress in irinotecan pharmacogenetics and discusses the clinical significance of the UGT1A1 genotype/haplotype with regard to severe irinotecan toxicity. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd.

Walsh C.,Queens University of Belfast | Nomura H.,Kyoto University | Millar T.J.,Queens University of Belfast | Aikawa Y.,Kobe University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We investigate the impact of photochemistry and X-ray ionization on the molecular composition of, and ionization fraction in, a protoplanetary disk surrounding a typical T Tauri star. We use a sophisticated physical model, which includes a robust treatment of the radiative transfer of UV and X-ray radiation, and calculate the time-dependent chemical structure using a comprehensive chemical network. In previous work, we approximated the photochemistry and X-ray ionization; here, we recalculate the photoreaction rates using the explicit UV wavelength spectrum and wavelength-dependent reaction cross sections. We recalculate the X-ray ionization rate using our explicit elemental composition and X-ray energy spectrum. We find that photochemistry has a larger influence on the molecular composition than X-ray ionization. Observable molecules sensitive to the photorates include OH, HCO+, N2H+, H2O, CO2, and CH3OH. The only molecule significantly affected by the X-ray ionization is N2H+, indicating that it is safe to adopt existing approximations of the X-ray ionization rate in typical T Tauri star-disk systems. The recalculation of the photorates increases the abundances of neutral molecules in the outer disk, highlighting the importance of taking into account the shape of the UV spectrum in protoplanetary disks. A recalculation of the photoreaction rates also affects the gas-phase chemistry due to the adjustment of the H/H2 and C+/C ratios. The disk ionization fraction is not significantly affected by the methods adopted to calculate the photochemistry and X-ray ionization. We determine that there is a probable "dead zone" where accretion is suppressed, present in a layer, Z/R ≲ 0.1-0.2, in the disk midplane, within R ≈ 200AU. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Background: Cushing’s disease (CD) is caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing pituitary adenomas (ACTHomas). Drug treatment for CD consists of three strategies: pituitary tumor-targeted therapy, steroidogenesis inhibitors, and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists. All of these strategies are under development, and several new drugs have recently been approved for clinical use or are being tested in clinical trials. Pituitary-targeted drugs are a particularly important method in the treatment of CD. Available pituitary tumor-targeted drugs include a dopamine receptor agonist and a somatostatin analog. Since disrupted cell cycle signaling is clearly associated with pathogenesis of ACTHomas which express active forms of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclins, and the catalytic subunit of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), we focused on these molecules as therapeutic targets for ACTHomas.Methods: In this review, a literature search were performed using PubMed with following terms; Cushing’s disease, EGFR, CDKs, cell cycle, and targeted therapy.Conclusion: Accumulating evidence demonstrates that EGFR and cyclin E-CDK2 may be promising targets for treating ACTHomas. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Fujita M.,Konan University | Hamaguchi N.,Kobe University
Papers in Regional Science | Year: 2016

Supply chain internationalization is promoting a new cascade of agglomeration and dispersion. Headquarter tasks agglomerate in major cities in developed countries, whereas labour-intensive tasks are shed to developing countries where off-shored tasks are geographical concentrated. The entire international supply chain is productivity and welfare-enhancing, raising the efficiency of human resource use. An international supply chain can also be a route for inclusive globalization. Such benefits are offset by potential risk of volatility deriving from idiosyncratic supply shocks triggered by powerful natural disasters and other reasons and from final demand shocks. This case study of East Asia illustrates these points. © 2016 RSAI.

Kamada S.,Kobe University
Biomolecular Concepts | Year: 2013

The inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are endogenous inhibitors for apoptosis. Apoptosis is carried out by caspases, which are the family of cystein proteases. IAPs regulate caspases through two conserved regions, the baculovirus IAP repeats (BIRs) and the really interesting new gene (RING) domains. Although the BIRs are responsible for binding to caspases, the RING domain can act as a ubiquitin-E3 ligase, leading to ubiquitylation of IAPs themselves and their pro-apoptotic IAP counterparts such as caspases. Recently, it is reported that another ubiquitin-like protein, neuronal precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated protein 8 (NEDD8), is also involved in the regulation of apoptosis through neddylation of caspases mediated by IAPs. On the contrary, the results against the function of IAPs as a NEDD8-E3 ligase are also suggested. This review presents the summary of IAPs, caspases, and the ubiquitin-proteasome system and how their interactions influence the regulation of apoptosis. © 2013 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston.

Zheng Z.,Osaka University | Tachikawa T.,Osaka University | Tachikawa T.,Kobe University | Majima T.,Osaka University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

Pt-modified Au nanorods (NRs) synthesized by anisotropic overgrowth were used for producing H2 under visible and near-infrared light irradiation. The Pt-tipped sample exhibited much higher activity compared with fully covered samples. Using single-particle spectroscopies combined with transmission electron microscopy, we observed obvious quenching phenomena for photoluminescence and light scattering from individual Pt-tipped NRs. The analysis of energy relaxation of plasmon-generated hot electrons indicates the electron transfer from the excited Au to Pt. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Haruna T.,Kobe University | Haruna T.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Nakajima K.,University of Zurich
Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena | Year: 2011

We study the permutation complexity of finite-state stationary stochastic processes based on a duality between values and orderings between values. First, we establish a duality between the set of all words of a fixed length and the set of all permutations of the same length. Second, on this basis, we give an elementary alternative proof of the equality between the permutation entropy rate and the entropy rate for a finite-state stationary stochastic processes first proved in [J.M. Amigó, M.B. Kennel, L. Kocarev, The permutation entropy rate equals the metric entropy rate for ergodic information sources and ergodic dynamical systems, Physica D 210 (2005) 7795]. Third, we show that further information on the relationship between the structure of values and the structure of orderings for finite-state stationary stochastic processes beyond the entropy rate can be obtained from the established duality. In particular, we prove that the permutation excess entropy is equal to the excess entropy, which is a measure of global correlation present in a stationary stochastic process, for finite-state stationary ergodic Markov processes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kim C.W.,Kyoto University | Kawatani M.,Kobe University | Hao J.,Construction Project Consultants Inc.
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering | Year: 2012

This study is intended to investigate the feasibility of health monitoring of short span bridges based on modal parameter identification using the vibration data of the bridge induced by a moving vehicle. The idea of this study using the traffic-induced vibration of short span bridges which is a kind of non-stationary process is that the modal parameters identified repeatedly under a given moving vehicle provide a pattern which may provide useful information to decide current health condition of bridges. The autoregressive (AR) model is adopted for identifying modal parameters such as frequency and damping characteristics of the bridges. Mode shapes of bridges are obtained using multivariate AR model. Feasibility of the modal parameter identification for health monitoring of short span bridges is observed through a moving vehicle laboratory experiment. Pattern changes of identified parameters are observable by comparing the identification results between intact and damaged girders, which encourages the use of the method for long term health monitoring even for short span bridges. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

The rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake is estimated from the joint inversion of teleseismic body waves and geodetic data using multiple timewindow analysis. To enhance the reliability of the inversion solution, two important inversion-setting parameters that control the spatiotemporal slip distribution, the maximum slip duration of each subfault (Tsd) and the propagation velocity of the first time window (Vftw), are determined by objective criteria. By performing a semblance analysis of small-aperture seismic array data of near-source strong motion waveforms, Tsd is determined to be 100 s. Vftw is determined to be 2:0 km=s from the matching of the teleseismic and geodetic slip models. The spatial resolution of geodetic inversion is significantly improved by using seafloor crustal deformation data in the source area in addition to the terrestrial Global Positioning System network data. The estimated seismic moment and the maximum slip are 3:4 × 1022 N·m (Mw = 9:0) and 43 m, respectively. The total rupture duration is ~150 s. Large slip is seen in the shallow part of the fault surface, including the hypocenter, and its spatial extent along the trench axis is ~300 km. This model is consistent with the results of bathymetric surveys and the slip models from tsunami data. The relationships among the fault parameters of the characterized source model of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake suggest the possibility that saturation of fault width occurs for this huge earthquake.

Yamane T.,Institution of Biomedical Research and Innovation | Sakamoto S.,Kobe University | Senda M.,Institution of Biomedical Research and Innovation
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging | Year: 2010

Purpose: We retrospectively examined the clinical efficacy of 11C-methionine positron emission tomography (11C-MET PET) in patients with brain neoplasm, especially whether the 11C-MET PET changed the clinical management and whether the change was beneficial or detrimental. Methods: This study reviewed 89 11C-MET PET scans for 80 patients (20 scans for initial diagnosis of brain tumor and 69 scans for differentiating tumor recurrence from radiation necrosis). Final diagnosis and the effect on the intended management were obtained from the questionnaire to the referring physicians or directly from the medical records. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the 11C-MET PET were evaluated. Regarding the management impact, the rate of scans that caused changes in intended management was also evaluated. Moreover, the occurrence of scans having detrimental diagnostic impact (DDI) and beneficial diagnostic impact (BDI) were evaluated. Results: Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 11C-MET PET was 87.8, 80.0, and 85.9%. The intended management was changed in 50.0% of the scans. DDI and BDI were observed in 4.3 and 36.2% of the total relevant scans, respectively. Conclusion: 11C-MET PET can provide useful information in initial diagnosis and differentiating tumor recurrence from radiation necrosis. The intended management was changed in half of the scans. Since a few cases did not receive the requisite treatment due to false-negative results of 11C-MET PET, management decision should be made carefully, especially in the case of a negative scan. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Kawai Y.,Ritsumeikan University | Kawai Y.,Tohoku University | Ono E.,Suntory Global Innovation Center Ltd. Shimamoto | Mizutani M.,Kobe University
Plant Journal | Year: 2014

The 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2OGD) superfamily is the second largest enzyme family in the plant genome, and its members are involved in various oxygenation/hydroxylation reactions. Despite their biochemical significance in metabolism, a systematic analysis of plant 2OGDs remains to be accomplished. We present a phylogenetic classification of 479 2OGDs in six plant models, ranging from green algae to angiosperms. These were classified into three classes - DOXA, DOXB and DOXC - based on amino acid sequence similarity. The DOXA class includes plant homologs of Escherichia coli AlkB, which is a prototype of 2OGD involved in the oxidative demethylation of alkylated nucleic acids and histones. The DOXB class is conserved across all plant taxa and is involved in proline 4-hydroxylation in cell wall protein synthesis. The DOXC class is involved in specialized metabolism of various phytochemicals, including phytohormones and flavonoids. The vast majority of 2OGDs from land plants were classified into the DOXC class, but only seven from Chlamydomonas, suggesting that this class has diversified during land plant evolution. Phylogenetic analysis assigned DOXC-class 2OGDs to 57 phylogenetic clades. 2OGD genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis were conserved among vascular plants, and those involved in flavonoid and ethylene biosynthesis were shared among seed plants. Several angiosperm-specific clades were found to be involved in various lineage-specific specialized metabolisms, but 31 of the 57 DOXC-class clades were only found in a single species. Therefore, the evolution and diversification of DOXC-class 2OGDs is partly responsible for the diversity and complexity of specialized metabolites in land plants. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Fujii Y.,Kobe University
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2011

We have investigated the fact that the calculated x-ray reflectivity based on the Parratt formalism, coupled with the use of the Nevot-Croce representation of roughness, show a strange phenomenon where the amplitude of the oscillation due to interference effects increases for a rougher surface. Here, we propose that the strange result has its origin in a currently used equation due to a serious mistake in which the Fresnel transmission coefficient in the reflectivity equation is increased at a rough interface, and the increase in the transmission coefficient completely overpowers any decrease in the value of the reflection coefficient because of a lack of consideration of diffuse scattering. The mistake in Nevot and Croce's treatment originates in the fact that the modified Fresnel coefficients were calculated based on the theory which contains the x-ray energy conservation rule at surface and interface. In their discussion, the transmission coefficients were replaced approximately by the reflection coefficients by the ignoring diffuse scattering term at the rough interface, and according to the principle of conservation energy at the rough interface also. The errors of transmittance without the modification cannot be ignored. It is meaningless to try to precisely match the numerical result based on a wrong calculating formula even to details of the reflectivity profile of the experimental result. Thus, because Nevot and Croce's treatment of the Parratt formalism contains a fundamental mistake regardless of the size of roughness, this approach needs to be corrected. In the present study, we present a new accurate formalism that corrects this mistake, and thereby derive an accurate analysis of the x-ray reflectivity from a multilayer surface, taking into account the effect of roughness-induced diffuse scattering. The calculated reflectivity obtained by the use of this accurate reflectivity equation gives a physically reasonable result, and should enable the structure of buried interfaces to be analyzed more accurately. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Ho S.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Ho S.-H.,Kobe University | Chang J.-S.,National Cheng Kung University | Lai Y.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen C.N.N.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

The optimal conditions for cultivating the thermotolerant lipid-rich microalga Desmodesmus sp. F2 to achieve maximal lipid productivity were determined in this study. The conditions were light intensity, 700μmol/m2s; temperature, 35°C; cultivation nitrogen source, nitrate; initial nitrogen level, 6.6mM nitrogen. Carbon dioxide (2.5%, 0.2 vvm) was pumped into the cultures continuously. In the pre-optimized conditions, the maximal lipid productivity of this microalga was 113mg/L/d, which was raised to 263mg/L/d in the optimized conditions. This level of lipid productivity of microalgae is the highest ever reported in the literature. Fatty acid composition of the lipid produced by Desmodesmus sp. F2 in the optimal conditions was determined, in which C16 and C18 species accounted for 95% of the fatty acids. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids accounted for 38.9%, 33.1% and 22.6%, respectively. Based on the analysis, this lipid quality makes it a good feedstock for biodiesel production. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Miyagoshi T.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Kageyama A.,Kobe University | Sato T.,University of Hyogo
Physics of Plasmas | Year: 2011

Aiming at understanding of magnetic field generation process in rapidly rotating stars and planets represented by the Earth, computer simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo were performed in a rotating spherical shell geometry. Thermal convection and dynamo process with Ekman number of the order of 10-7 were studied. New structures of convection motion, dynamo-generated electrical current, and magnetic field are found. The flow is organized as a set of thin, sheet-like plumes. The current is made of small-scale coil structure with magnetic flux tubes within each of the coil. These flux tubes are connected each other to form a large scale helical magnetic field structure. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Kusumi I.,Hokkaido University | Boku S.,Kobe University | Takahashi Y.,Sapporo City General Hospital
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences | Year: 2015

The original definition of atypical antipsychotic drugs (APD) was drugs that are effective against positive symptoms in schizophrenia with no or little extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). However, atypical APD have been reported to be more effective for cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia than typical APD, which expands the definition of 'atypicality'. This article provides a critical review of the pharmacology of atypical APD, especially from the viewpoint of receptor binding profiles and neurotransmitter regulations as well as neuroprotection and neurogenesis. A variety of serotonin (5-HT) receptors, such as 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT1A, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors, may contribute to the mechanisms of action of 'atypicality'. The dopaminergic modulations, including a low affinity for dopamine D2 receptors and a partial D2 receptor agonistic action, and glutamatergic regulations may also be involved in the pharmacological backgrounds of 'atypicality'. Atypical APD, but not typical APD, may facilitate cortical neuroprotection and hippocampal neurogenesis, which might be a part of the action mechanisms of atypical APD. The facilitation of cortical neuroprotection and hippocampal neurogenesis induced by atypical APD might be mediated by an increase in the Ser9 phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). The stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors and/or the blockade of 5-HT2 receptors, which is characteristic of atypical APD, might increase Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK-3β. Moreover, atypical APD increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. BDNF increases Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK-3β and has neuroprotective and neurogenic effects, as in the case of atypical APD. These findings suggest that GSK-3β might play a role in the action mechanisms of atypical APD, in both the 5-HT-dependent and BDNF-dependent mechanisms. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

Kiuchi T.,Kyoto University | Higuchi M.,Kyoto University | Takamura A.,Tohoku University | Maruoka M.,Tohoku University | And 2 more authors.
Nature Methods | Year: 2015

We have developed a multitarget super-resolution microscopy technique called image reconstruction by integrating exchangeable single-molecule localization (IRIS). IRIS uses protein fragment-based probes that directly associate with and dissociate from their targets over durations on the order of tens of milliseconds. By integrating single-molecule localization and sequential labeling, IRIS enables unprecedented labeling density along multiple cellular structures. IRIS can be used to discern the area-specific proximity between cytoskeletal components and focal adhesions within a single cell. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Kamisawa T.,Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital | Zen Y.,Kobe University | Pillai S.,Harvard University | Stone J.H.,Harvard University
The Lancet | Year: 2015

IgG4-related disease is a protean condition that mimics many malignant, infectious, and inflammatory disorders. This multi-organ immune-mediated condition links many disorders previously regarded as isolated, single-organ diseases without any known underlying systemic condition. It was recognised as a unified entity only 10 years ago. Histopathology is the key to diagnosis. The three central pathology features of IgG4-related disease are lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. The extent of fibrosis is an important determinant of responsiveness to immunosuppressive therapies. IgG4-related disease generally responds to glucocorticoids in its inflammatory stage, but recurrent or refractory cases are common. Important mechanistic insights have been derived from studies of patients treated by B-cell depletion. Greater awareness of this disease is needed to ensure earlier diagnoses, which can prevent severe organ damage, disabling tissue fibrosis, and even death. Identification of specific antigens and T-cell clones that drive the disease will be the first steps to elucidate the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease.

Toyofuku T.,Osaka University | Nojima S.,Osaka University | Ishikawa T.,Osaka University | Takamatsu H.,Osaka University | And 5 more authors.
Genes and Development | Year: 2012

Photoreceptor cell death is the hallmark of a group of human inherited retinal degeneration. Although the causative genetic mutations are often known, the mechanisms leading to photoreceptor degeneration remain poorly defined. Here, we show that Semaphorin 4A (Sema4A), a member of axonal guidance molecule semaphorin, plays a role in Rab11/FIP2-mediated endosomal sorting in retinal pigment epithelial cells to support photoreceptor function. In response to oxidative stress, Sema4A switches the endosomal sorting of the lysosomal precursor protein prosaposin from the lysosome to the exosomal release, which prevents light-induced photoreceptor apoptosis. In the absence of oxidative stress, Sema4A sorts retinoid-binding proteins with retinoids between the cell surface and endoplasmic reticulum, by which 11-cis-retinal, a chromophore for phototransduction, is regenerated and transported back to photoreceptors. Owing to defects in these processes, Sema4A-deficient mice exhibit marked photoreceptor degeneration. Our findings therefore indicate that Sema4A regulates two distinct endosomal-sorting pathways that are critical for photoreceptor survival and phototransduction during the transition between daylight and darkness. © 2012 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Todoroki Y.,University of Shizuoka | Ueno K.,Kobe University
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in stress tolerance, stomatal closure, seed dormancy, and other physiological events. Although ABA is registered as a farm chemical (plant growth regulator), its practical use has been limited, mainly due to its weak effect in field trials, which is considered to be due to its rapid inactivation through biodegradation. Catabolic inactivation of ABA is mainly controlled by ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A), which is the cytochrome P450 catalyzing the C8'-hydroxylation of ABA into 8'-hydroxy-ABA and its more stable tautomer, phaseic acid, which has much lower hormonal activity than ABA. Thus, a specific inhibitor of CYP707A is promising not only as a chemical probe for the mechanism of ABA action, but also because of its potential use in agriculture and horticulture. This review article focuses on our recent research on the development of two types of specific inhibitors of CYP707A: the ABA analogue-type inhibitors that were designed on the basis of differences between the structural requirements for CYP707A and for ABA activity, and the azole-type P450 inhibitors that were developed by conformational restriction or enlargement of the plant growth retardant uniconazole. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Hirayama Y.,Kobe University
Housing Studies | Year: 2010

The housing system in post-war Japan has consistently driven the growth of the owner-occupied housing sector, where many people have followed a conventional life-course in terms of ascending the housing ladder towards homeownership. Since the 1990s, however, a more insecure economy combined with the reorientation of housing and social policies has led to divergence in people's housing pathways. The conservative nature of public policy has largely been maintained, advantaging middle-class family households in accessing homeownership. However, in response to economic stagnation and within the context of pervasive neo-liberalism, the government has moved sharply towards accentuating the role of the market in providing housing and mortgages. Neo-liberal policies have become more pronounced while conservative institutions have firmly been ingrained in Japan's post-war society. Conventional middle-class families, protected by conservative policies in moving up the housing ladder, have maintained their relatively advantageous positions in the market economy. Neo-liberal policy has especially affected the housing conditions of specific groups who have been beyond the protection of conservative institutions, i.e. unmarried individuals, low-income households and those in unstable employment. The combination of conservative and neo-liberal approaches in policy practices has thus had strong diverging effects on people's housing opportunities. This paper explores the fragmentation of housing paths in Japan's insecure economy with particular reference to transformations in housing and social policies. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Nakamura S.-I.,Kobe University | Yamamura H.,Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Public Health
Journal of Biochemistry | Year: 2010

It is 6 years since we received the tragic news that our great mentor Dr Yasutomi Nishizuka passed away suddenly at the age of 72 years. Dr Nishizuka made several epoch-making discoveries in his life, e.g. the tryptophan metabolism, protein synthesis, ADP-ribosylation, regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and discovery of protein kinase C (PKC). Among them his name will be remembered for a long time as a father of PKC, momentous discoveries in the twentieth century, which are still actively pursued by many laboratories worldwide. © 2010 The Authors.

Ohta H.,Tohoku University | Chiba S.,Tohoku University | Ebina M.,Tohoku University | Furuse M.,Kobe University | Nukiwa T.,Tohoku University
American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology | Year: 2012

The dysfunction of alveolar barriers is a critical factor in the development of lung injury and subsequent fibrosis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. To clarify the pathogenic roles of tight junctions in lung injury and fibrosis, we examined the altered expression of claudins, the major components of tight junctions, in the lungs of disease models with pulmonary fibrosis. Among the 24 known claudins, claudin-1, claudin-3, claudin-4, claudin-7, and claudin-10 were identified as components of airway tight junctions. Claudin-5 and claudin-18 were identified as components of alveolar tight junctions and were expressed in endothelial and alveolar epithelial cells, respectively. In experimental bleomycin-induced lung injury, the levels of mRNA encoding tight junction proteins were reduced, particularly those of claudin-18. The integrity of the epithelial tight junctions was disturbed in the fibrotic lesions 14 days after the intraperitoneal instillation of bleomycin. These results suggest that bleomycin mainly injured alveolar epithelial cells and impaired alveolar barrier function. In addition, we analyzed the influence of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, a critical mediator of pulmonary fibrosis that is upregulated after bleomycin-induced lung injury, on tight junctions in vitro. The addition of TGF-β decreased the expression of claudin-5 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and disrupted the tight junctions of epithelial cells (A549). These results suggest that bleomycin-induced lung injury causes pathogenic alterations in tight junctions and that such alterations seem to be induced by TGF-β. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.

Houlard M.,University of Oxford | Godwin J.,University of Oxford | Metson J.,University of Oxford | Lee J.,Kobe University | And 2 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2015

In addition to inter-chromatid cohesion, mitotic and meiotic chromatids must have three physical properties: compaction into 'threads' roughly co-linear with their DNA sequence, intra-chromatid cohesion determining their rigidity, and a mechanism to promote sister chromatid disentanglement. A fundamental issue in chromosome biology is whether a single molecular process accounts for all three features. There is universal agreement that a pair of Smc-kleisin complexes called condensin I and II facilitate sister chromatid disentanglement, but whether they also confer thread formation or longitudinal rigidity is either controversial or has never been directly addressed respectively. We show here that condensin II (beta-kleisin) has an essential role in all three processes during meiosis I in mouse oocytes and that its function overlaps with that of condensin I (gamma-kleisin), which is otherwise redundant. Pre-assembled meiotic bivalents unravel when condensin is inactivated by TEV cleavage, proving that it actually holds chromatin fibres together. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Hatano N.,RIKEN | Hatano N.,Kobe University | Hamada T.,Ishikawa Prefectural University
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2012

The Nepenthes species are carnivorous plants that have evolved a specialized leaf organ, the 'pitcher', to attract, capture, and digest insects. The digested insects provide nutrients for growth, allowing these plants to grow even in poor soil. Several proteins have been identified in the pitcher fluid, including aspartic proteases (nepenthesin I and II) and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins (β-1,3-glucanase, class IV chitinase, and thaumatin-like protein). In this study, we collected and concentrated pitcher fluid to identify minor proteins. In addition, we tried to identify the protein secreted in response to trapping the insect. To make a similar situation in which the insect falls into the pitcher, chitin which was a major component of the insect exoskeleton was added to the fluid in the pitcher. Three PR proteins, class III peroxidase (Prx), β-1,3-glucanase, and class III chitinase, were newly identified. Prx was induced after the addition of chitin to the pitcher fluid. Proteins in the pitcher fluid of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata probably have two roles in nutrient supply: digestion of prey and the antibacterial effect. These results suggest that the system for digesting prey has evolved from the defense system against pathogens in the carnivorous plant Nepenthes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Iijima K.,Kobe University
Pediatrics International | Year: 2011

Several therapies including immunosuppressive agents have been shown to be effective and safe for frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome/steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (FRNS/SDNS) and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in children. It is evident, however, that a substantial number of children are still refractory to treatment despite these therapies. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody, which inhibits CD20-mediated B-cell proliferation and differentiation. It was first introduced for the treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and was subsequently administered to patients with autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, or immunocomplex glomerulonephritis. Recently, a number of case reports and non-controlled clinical trials have suggested that rituximab may be effective for children with refractory nephrotic syndrome. Controlled prospective trials, however, are required to establish the value of rituximab in refractory nephrotic syndrome. The purpose of the present study was therefore to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rituximab in childhood-onset refractory nephrotic syndrome. The Research Group of Childhood-onset Refractory Nephrotic Syndrome (RCRNS) conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center clinical trial (RCRNS-01) and an open-label, multi-center, pharmacokinetic clinical trial (RCRNS-02). These two trials were investigator-initiated, registration-directed clinical trials designed to apply Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare approval for the use of rituximab for childhood-onset refractory FRNS/SDNS in Japan. RCRNS-01 could be the first study to clarify whether rituximab is effective and safe for childhood-onset refractory FRNS/SDNS. © 2011 The Author. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

Ishida J.,Kobe University
Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy | Year: 2013

A 55-year-old woman underwent subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma( PDAC) in July 2008. The final diagnosis was Stage I PDAC according to the Union for International Cancer Control( UICC) TNM classification. After the operation, adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine was administered for 6 months. The tumor marker level increased at 49 months after the operation, and 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography( PET) showed FDG accumulation in the remnant pancreas. A hypovascular tumor was revealed in the remnant pancreas on computed tomography( CT). As PDAC was diagnosed without distant metastasis, completion pancreatectomy was performed. Histopathological investigation revealed PDAC with invasion into the muscularis propria of the anastomosed jejunum and splenic plexus. The final diagnosis was T3N0M0 UICC Stage IIA metachronous PDAC. The postoperative course was uneventful. However, multiple liver metastases and local recurrence were detected on CT 2 months after resection, and the patient died 3 months after resection. Most reported cases of metachronous PDACs were diagnosed at an advanced stage despite regular follow-ups after the initial resection. Further investigation is needed to determine the adequate surveillance time and novel therapeutic strategies.

Kusakabe R.,RIKEN | Inoue K.,Kobe University
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2015

MicroRNAs (miRs) are a group of small RNAs that play a major role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In animals, many of the miRs are expressed in a conserved spatiotemporal manner. Muscle tissues, the major cellular systems involved in the locomotion and physiological functions of animals, have been one of the main sites for verification of miR targets and analysis of their developmental functions. During the determination and differentiation of muscle cells, numerous miRs bind to and repress target mRNAs in a highly specific but redundant manner. Interspecific comparisons of the sequences and expression of miRs have suggested that miR regulation became increasingly important during the course of vertebrate evolution. However, the detailed molecular interactions that have led to the highly complex morphological structures still await investigation. In this review, we will summarize the recent findings on the functional and developmental characteristics of miRs that have played major roles in vertebrate myogenesis, and discuss how the evolution of miRs is related to the morphological complexity of the vertebrates. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Kuribayashi M.,Kobe University
IH and MMSec 2013 - Proceedings of the 2013 ACM Information Hiding and Multimedia Security Workshop | Year: 2013

When a binary fingerprinting codeword is embedded into digital contents using a spread-spectrum (SS) watermarking scheme, the marking assumption is not valid anymore because it is difficult for colluders to perform the symbol-wise attack for their codewords. As discussed in the SS-type fingerprinting schemes, veraging their copies is the cost-effective attack from the signal processing point of view. In this paper, we propose an optimal detector under the averaging attack and addition of white Gaussian noise. If the detector knows the number of colluders in advance, it first estimates the variance of additive noise, and then calculates the correlation scores using a log-likelihood-based approach. However, the number of colluders is not given in a real situation. We discover in this study that the characteristic of parameters for generating codewords enables us to eliminate the number of colluders as well as the estimation of the variance of noise at the calculation of correlation score, and propose a simplified detector by analyzing the scoring function in the optimal detector. We evaluate the performance of the simplified detector through simulation using not only codewords, but also a digital image. © 2013 ACM.

Minami Y.,Kobe University
Oncology | Year: 2015

It is becoming clear that cancer cells display features of normal tissue organization in the microenvironment, where cancer stem cells (CSCs) can drive tumor growth in the tumor environment. It has been proposed that the genetic and CSC models of cancer can be harmonized by considering the role of genetic diversity and tumor heterogeneity. The concept of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) also becomes critical in understanding the pathogenesis of leukemia, and alterations in the bone marrow niche are commonly observed in blood malignancies and directly contribute to the aberrant function of disease-initiating LSCs. We describe the cutting-edge progress regarding LSC research and the promising clinical strategies with LSC-targeted therapy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Yamori W.,Tohoku University | Masumoto C.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Fukayama H.,Kobe University | Makino A.,Tohoku University | Makino A.,Chiyoda Corporation
Plant Journal | Year: 2012

Summary The role of Rubisco activase in steady-state and non-steady-state photosynthesis was analyzed in wild-type (Oryza sativa) and transgenic rice that expressed different amounts of Rubisco activase. Below 25°C, the Rubisco activation state and steady-state photosynthesis were only affected when Rubisco activase was reduced by more than 70%. However, at 40°C, smaller reductions in Rubisco activase content were linked to a reduced Rubisco activation state and steady-state photosynthesis. As a result, overexpression of maize Rubisco activase in rice did not lead to an increase of the Rubisco activation state, nor to an increase in photosynthetic rate below 25°C, but had a small stimulatory effect at 40°C. On the other hand, the rate at which photosynthesis approached the steady state following an increase in light intensity was rapid in Rubisco activase-overexpressing plants, intermediate in the wild-type, and slowest in antisense plants at any leaf temperature. In Rubisco activase-overexpressing plants, Rubisco activation state at low light was maintained at higher levels than in the wild-type. Thus, rapid regulation by Rubisco activase following an increase in light intensity and/or maintenance of a high Rubisco activation state at low light would result in a rapid increase in Rubisco activation state and photosynthetic rate following an increase in light intensity. It is concluded that Rubisco activase plays an important role in the regulation of non-steady-state photosynthesis at any leaf temperature and, to a lesser extent, of steady-state photosynthesis at high temperature. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Takebayashi H.,Kobe University | Moriyama M.,Setsunan University
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2012

The surface heat budgets of various pavement surfaces are studied with the aim of mitigating the urban heat island effect. In this study, the thermal characteristics of pavements are examined using data from observations. The net radiation, surface temperature, temperature under the surface, conduction heat flux, and core weight for each experimental surface are recorded, together with the weather conditions at the time of observation. The latent heat flux is estimated from the observed weight of the cores. The surface heat budget under the same weather conditions is examined, and the sensible heat flux from each target surface is calculated. The parameters that influence the surface heat budget, for example, solar reflectance (albedo), evaporative efficiency, heat conductivity, and heat capacity, are examined. On a typical summer day, the maximum reduction in the sensible heat flux from that on a normal asphalt surface is about 150W/m2 for an asphalt surface with water-retaining material and about 100W/m2 for a cement concrete surface with water-retaining material, depending on the albedo of each surface. Copyright © 2012 Hideki Takebayashi and Masakazu Moriyama.

Shibahara M.,Kobe University
Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2015

Overall heat transfer coefficients of the heat exchanger inserted twisted plates for CO2 were measured. The overall heat transfer coefficients increased with mass flow rates of water at the same Reynolds number in the experiment. It is considered that the helically twisting fluid motions in the twisted heat exchanger were contributed to the heat transfer enhancements. © 2015, Global Digital Central. All rights reserved.

Kondo T.,Kobe University
Journal of Medical Case Reports | Year: 2011

Introduction. Maffucci syndrome is a rare clinical entity (approximately 200 cases have been reported in the medical literature) with a combined occurrence of multiple enchondromas and vascular tumors. Case presentation. The case of a 43-year-old Japanese man with multiple chondromas and hemangiomas (Maffucci syndrome) is reported. One of the hemangiomas was removed and examined pathologically. The morphological picture was an admixture of cavernous hemangioma and spindle cell hemangioma without cytological atypia or mitosis. Sheets of vacuolated endothelial cells were also observed. Conclusion: A rare case of hemangioma associated with Maffucci syndrome, focusing on the pathologic nature of the submitted tissue, is reported. © 2011 Kondo; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

BACKGROUND:: Revascularization of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) can be essential for treating complex cerebral aneurysms in the posterior circulation, and it is considered technically challenging. To help decrease the difficulty of this technique, we developed the minimum transpetrosal approach (MTPA). OBJECTIVE:: The technical nuances of the MTPA were innovated by cadaver head dissections and an actual clinical case. METHODS:: Four sides of the formalin-fixed cadaver heads were used to investigate if the posterior cerebral artery could be exposed with this minimum retraction of the temporal lobe in the subtemporal approach and the MTPA. By using the MTPA, 1 patient harboring a ruptured PCA aneurysm underwent superficial temporal artery-PCA anastomosis followed by isolation of the aneurysm. RESULTS:: In the cadaver head dissections, we noticed that the PCAs were difficult to expose with gentle retraction of the temporal lobe in the subtemporal approach. By performing an additional retrolabyrinthine mastoidectomy, performed as the MTPA, all 4 PCAs were easily exposed in the 4 wide surgical fields. The maximum widths of the surgical fields above and below the PCA could be successfully measured in 2 cases, which were 13.3 mm and 11.2 mm, respectively (mean, 12.3 mm). Additionally, in the actual live surgery using MTPA, the PCAs were relative easy to expose with a surgical field wide enough to perform PCA bypass, which was performed without complication. CONCLUSION:: The MTPA may be the most favorable approach for PCA bypass that can be performed easily with minimal temporal lobe retraction. ABBREVIATIONS:: MTPA, minimum transpetrosal approachPCA, posterior cerebral arterySTA, superficial temporal artery © by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

Glaucomatous optic neuropathy is a primary pathological condition responsible for visual dysfunction due to glaucoma. However, how intraocular pressure and other risk factors lead to glaucomatous optic neuropathy is not fully understood. Given that static or kinetic visual field tests for evaluating visual dysfunction in glaucomatous optic neuropathy are a subjective assessments based on a psychophysical principle, the development of a tool for objective assessment of the visual field is needed. In this study, we attempt to elucidate the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic neuropathy and to refine a modality for the objective assessment of the visual dysfunction due to it. Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are located primarily in the plasma membrane. These proteins form either a homo- or hetero-tetramer and allow water to cross the plasma membrane bi-directionally. The transmembrane water movement through AQPs is critically involved in the maintenance of normal neuronal activity. Among the 13 isoforms indentified so far, AQP-4 is known to be expressed in the retrobulbar portion of the optic nerve. However, the optic nerve head, the primary pathological site of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, reportedly does not express AQP-4. We found that in control rats, astrocytes throughout the optic nerve express AQP-9. The chronic elevation of intraocular pressure due to cauterization of three episcleral veins substantially reduced both gene expression and immunoreactivity of AQP-9, whereas it did not change the AQP-4 gene or protein expression in the retrobulbar portion of the optic nerve. These findings are implicated in the chronic elevation of intraocular pressure in astrocytes. Similar findings were also observed in the eyes of a monkey with angle-laser-induced ocular hypertension and of a human with primary open-angle glaucoma. AQP-9 was also expressed in the cell bodies of retinal ganglion cells in control rats and its expression was significantly reduced in the eyes of rats with ocular hypertension. Recently, the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis has been proposed. This hypothesis suggests that lactate generated by glucose during glycolysis in astrocytes is used by neurons as an energy substrate. Given that AQP-9 belongs to an aquaglyceroporin subfamily and allows solutes other than water (e.g., lactate) to cross the plasma membrane, chronic ocular hypertension may perturb this physiological passage of lactate. Thus, lactate as the energy substrate may be unable to be transported from astrocytes to retinal ganglion cells at the cell bodies and axons due to the reduction of AQP-9 expression by astrocytes at the optic nerve head and retinal ganglion cells. The multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) is an objective visual field test, which enables the recording of cortical potential corresponding to 60 local retinal areas simultaneously. Evidence is accumulating that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has been enhanced by recording mfVEPs from multiple channels at the same time. However, previous studies evaluated the mfVEPs mostly in Caucasians. It has not yet been proven whether this strategy is applicable to Japanese people who have a skull frame that may be different from that of Caucasians. We calculated the relative position of the calcarine landmark for electrode placement during the mfVEP recording, from brain MRI images of 200 individuals, which were found to be 1 cm lower than those reported in Caucasians with a statistical significance. Then, we recorded mfVEPs from 110 normal controls using three channels and conducted receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the overlap of SNR distribution at signal and noise windows. We found that a combination of one horizontal channel straddling the inion with either one of the two perpendicular vertical channels yielded the largest area under the ROC curve (AUC). Next, we showed that the SNR-AUC exhibited a similar diagnostic performance to, and a significant correlation with, a total deviation of the Humphrey visual field in 56 eyes with mild to moderate glaucomatous damage, which exhibited a mean deviation of -15 dB or less, and in 62 control eyes. In contrast, a topographical agreement in defining abnormal locations based on probability plots between the Humphrey visual field and mfVEP testing was moderate. The SNR-AUC may be used as a global index, analogous to the mean deviation of the Humphrey visual field, to quantify diffuse functional loss due to glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in contrast to the previously proposed cluster analysis of the mfVEP probability plots, which is a strategy more suitable to diagnosing local sensitivity loss.

Kohri K.,University Graduate Center | Lin C.-M.,Kobe University | Matsuda T.,Lancaster University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

The primordial black hole (PBH) formation is studied in light of the inflating curvaton. The typical scale of the PBH formation is determined by curvaton inflation, which may generate PBH with 1014 g≤MPBH≤1038 g when curvaton inflation gives the number of e-foldings 5≤N2≤38. The non-Gaussianity of the inflating curvaton does not prevent the PBH formation. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Kimura S.-I.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies | Okamura H.,Kobe University
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan | Year: 2013

Owing to its high brilliance, infrared and terahertz synchrotron radiation (IR/THz-SR) has emerged as a powerful tool for spectroscopy under extreme (i.e., technically more difficult) experimental conditions such as high pressure, high magnetic field, high spatial resolution, and a combination of these. The methodologies for pressure- and magneticfield-dependent spectroscopy and microscopy using IR/THz-SR have advanced rapidly worldwide. By applying them to strongly correlated electron systems (SCESs), many experimental studies have been performed on their electronic structures and phonon/molecular vibration modes under extreme conditions. Here, we review the recent progress of methodologies of IR/THz-SR spectroscopy and microscopy, and the experimental results on SCESs and other systems obtained under extreme conditions. Copyright © 2013 The Physical Society of Japan.

Early stage colorectal tumors can be removed by endoscopic mucosal resection but larger such tumors (20 mm) may require piecemeal resection. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using newly developed endo-knives has enabled en-block resection of lesions regardless of size and shape. However ESD for colorectal tumor is technically difficult. Therefore, we performed EMR with small incision (EMR with SI) for more reliable EMR, ESD with snaring (simplified ESD) and ESD using the standard Flush knife and the novel ball tipped Flush knife (Flush knife BT) for easier and safer colorectal ESD. The aims of our study were (1) to compare the treatment results of the following 3 methods (EMR with SI/si-mplified ESD/ESD) for early stage colorectal tumors, and (2) to assess the performance of Flush knife BT in colorectal ESD. We treated 24/44/468 colorectal tumors and examined the clinicopathological features and treatment results such as tumor size, resected specimen size, procedure time, en-bloc resection rate, complication rate. We also treated 58 colorectal tumors (LST-NG:20, LST-G:36, other:2) using standard Flush knife and 80 colorectal tumors (LST-NG:32, LSTG:44, other:2) using Flush knife BT, and examined the clinicopathological features and treatment results mentioned above and also the procedure speed. The median tumor size (mm) (EMR with SI/ simplified EMR/ESD) was 20/17/30 (EMR with SI vs. simplified ESD: p = n.s, simplified ESD vs. ESD: p < 0.0001). The median resected specimen size (mm) was 22.5/26/41 (EMR with SI vs. simplified ESD: p = 0.0018, simplified ESD vs. ESD: p < 0.0001). The procedure time (min.) was 19/27/60 (EMR with SI vs. simplified ESD: p = n.s, simplified ESD vs. ESD: p < 0.0001) The en-block resection rate (%) was 83.3/90.9 /98.9. The complication rate (post-operative bleeding rate/perforation p=n.s). In the treatment results of ESD for LSTs by knives, there was no difference between standard Flush knife and Flush knife BT for clinicopathological features and treatment results (procedure time, complication rate and en bloc R0 resection rate). However, procedure speed (cm2/min.) of LST-G was significantly faster in the Flush knife BT than in standard Flush knife. (standard Flush knife: 0.21 vs. Flush knife BT: 0.27, p = 0.034). EMR with small incision (EMR with SI) and ESD with snaring (simplified ESD) are good option to fill the gap between EMR and ESD in the colorectum, and also considered to become the nice training for the introduction of ESD. Flush knife BT appears to improve procedure speed compared with standard Flush knife, especially for LST-G in colo-rectal ESD.

Kuboki K.,Kobe University
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan | Year: 2013

Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equations for the coexistent state of superconductivity and antiferromagnetism are derived microscopically from the t-J model with extended transfer integrals. GL equations and the GL free energy, which are obtained based on the slave-boson mean-field approximation, reflect the electronic structure of the microscopic model, especially the evolution of the Fermi surface due to the change of the doping rate. Thus they are suitable for studying the material dependence of the coexistent states in high-T C cuprate superconductors. © 2013 The Physical Society of Japan.

Ninchoji T.,Kobe University
Pediatric Emergency Care | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVE: Anaphylaxis is a systemic allergic reaction that sometimes requires prompt treatment with intramuscular adrenaline. The aim of the study was to investigate the current situation regarding anaphylaxis treatment in a representative pediatric primary emergency facility in Japan. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the medical records dating from April 2011 through March 2014 from Kobe Childrenʼs Primary Emergency Medical Center, where general pediatricians work on a part-time basis. Clinical characteristics and current treatments for patients with anaphylaxis who presented to the facility were investigated. Furthermore, we compared the clinical characteristics between anaphylaxis patients given intramuscular adrenaline and those not given it. RESULTS: During the study period, 217 patients were diagnosed with anaphylaxis. The median Sampson grade at the time of visit was 2, and 90 patients (41%) were grade 4 or higher. No patients received self-intramuscular injected adrenaline before arrival at our emergency medical center because none of the patients had been prescribed it. Further treatment during the visit was provided to 128 patients (59%), with only 17 (8%) receiving intramuscular adrenaline. Patients given intramuscular adrenaline had significantly lower peripheral saturation of oxygen at the visit (P = 0.025) and more frequent transfer to a referral hospital (P < 0.001) than those not given intramuscular adrenaline. CONCLUSIONS: Education for Japanese pediatric practitioners and patients is warranted, because no patients used self-intramuscular injected adrenaline as a prehospital treatment for anaphylaxis, and only severely affected patients who needed oxygen therapy or hospitalization received intramuscular adrenaline in a pediatric primary emergency setting. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

To investigate the rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Japanese patients with fractures of the pelvis and/or lower extremities using physical prophylaxis alone. Records of 66 men and 60 women aged 15 to 95 (mean, 57) years with fractures of the pelvis and/ or lower extremities were retrospectively reviewed. They were screened for VTE based on D-dimer values. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography and/or ultrasonography were performed when the D-dimer value did not decline predictably or exceeded 20 μg/ml even 5 days after injury or surgery. Physical prophylaxis for VTE in terms of graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression were applied for all patients. Of the 126 patients, 24 were detected to have VTE (10 of 29 with multiple fractures and 14 of 97 with single fractures). Six patients were detected to have asymptomatic pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), whereas 20 patients were detected to have deep vein thrombosis (bilaterally in 7). The rates of VTE were high in patients with multiple fractures (35%), pelvic fractures (18%), and femoral shaft fractures (50%). The rate of PTE was high in patients with pelvic fractures (12%). The rate of VTE in the Japanese patients was similar to that in western populations. Our screening method was useful for preventing fatal PTEs. Surgeons should be vigilant for VTE during the first 2 weeks after injury, especially in patients with multiple and pelvic fractures.

Ohta Y.,Kobe University
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010

The Sasa-Satsuma equation is a higher order nonlinear Schrödinger type equation which admits bright soliton solutions with internal freedom. We present the dark soliton solutions for the equation by using Gram type determinant. The dark solitons have no internal freedom and exist for both defocusing and focusing equations. ©2010 American Institute of Physics.

Takahashi Y.,Aichi Medical University | Ichinose A.,Kobe University | Kakizaki H.,Aichi Medical University
American Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Purpose To evaluate efficacy of topical rebamipide for superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK) in patients with thyroid eye disease. Design Retrospective, observational case series. Methods Thirty-three eyes from 20 thyroid eye disease patients with SLK who received topical rebamipide (Mucosta ophthalmic suspension unit dose 2%; Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd; chemical name, (2RS)-2-(4-chlorobenzoylamino)-3-(2-oxo-1, 2-dihydroquinolin-4-yl) propanoic acid) were included. The following items were evaluated before and 4 weeks after the start of treatments: presence or absence of SLK, rose bengal staining score, area and density classification of fluorescein staining, Schirmer test I results (without topical anesthesia), tear film break-up time, Hertel exophthalmometry values, and margin reflex distances 1 and 2. Results Twenty-eight eyes showed complete disappearance of SLK after treatment (84.8%; P <.001). The other 5 eyes (15.2%) demonstrated significant improvement, but had residual punctate rose bengal staining and fluorescein staining near the superior corneal limbus. All 5 eyes exhibited at least 1 of the following findings: proptosis of more than 17.7 mm and upper or lower eyelid retractions or both. Incidence of upper eyelid retraction was significantly higher in eyes with SLK than in those without SLK at the 4-week follow-up (P =.021). The severity of rose bengal staining and fluorescein staining improved significantly after treatment (P <.001). Although the Schirmer test results remained constant before and after the treatment (P =.212), tear film break-up time increased significantly in the posttherapeutic state (P =.009). No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions Topical rebamipide improved SLK in patients with thyroid eye disease, suggesting a first-line treatment in such patients. © 2014 BY ELSEVIER INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Ten-no S.,Kobe University | Ten-no S.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Noga J.,Comenius University | Noga J.,Slovak Academy of Sciences
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Molecular Science | Year: 2012

Fundamental aspects of the explicitly correlated R12 and F12 theories are summarized in the perspective of recent advances related to our contribution in this field. Starting from the basics of pair functions and second quantized formulations, the R12/F12 ansätze have been applied to MP2, coupled-cluster, and equation of motion coupled-cluster theories. Emphasis is given to approaches that use the rational generator to create the exact cusp conditions (SP ansatz). Computational aspects of the evaluation of many-electron integrals are also discussed in conjunction with the use of the Slater-type geminal, which is the predominant choice for the correlation factor in modern R12/F12 theories. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Tatsumi E.,Kobe University
The Kobe journal of medical sciences | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to determine whether occupational therapy (OT) can improve the interpersonal relationships and negative symptoms of hospitalized chronic schizophrenia patients with severe negative symptoms. Subjects were 38 patients with chronic schizophrenia. They were randomly divided into an OT group and a control group. Patients in the OT group participated in cooking activities once a week for 15 weeks, while patients in the control group did not. During this period, both groups had the usual treatment except for the cooking activities. In interviews, the patient was asked to place a chair toward the interviewer (a therapist). The angle and distance from the interviewer were taken as indicators of an ability to have interpersonal relationships. Negative symptoms were evaluated with the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Patients who received OT were able to sit at the smaller angle and shorter distance from the interviewer than before OT (p=0.015 and p=0.013, respectively). The total SANS score was lower after OT than before OT (p=0.033). In the control group, the distance from the interviewer also decreased during the experimental period (p=0.040) but the seating angle and the SANS scores did not change. The results suggest that OT can help to improve a relationship allowing the patient to face the therapist and that it might improve negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

Senzaki S.,University of Wisconsin - Green Bay | Masuda T.,University of Alberta | Ishii K.,Kobe University
Cognitive Science | Year: 2014

Previous findings in cultural psychology indicated that East Asians are more likely than North Americans to be attentive to contextual information (e.g., Nisbett & Masuda, 2003). However, to what extent and in which conditions culture influences patterns of attention has not been fully examined. As a result, universal patterns of attention may be obscured, and culturally unique patterns may be wrongly assumed to be constant across situations. By carrying out two cross-cultural studies, we demonstrated that (a) both European Canadians and Japanese attended to moving objects similarly when the task was to simply observe the visual information; however, (b) there were cultural variations in patterns of attention when participants actively engaged in the task by constructing narratives of their observation (narrative construction). These findings suggest that cultural effects are most pronounced in narrative construction conditions, where the need to act in accordance with a culturally shared meaning system is elicited. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

Kanemitsu K.,Kobe University
Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy and Percutaneous Techniques | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND:: It is debatable whether laparoscopic surgery is suitable for obstructive colorectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS:: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and oncological effectiveness of laparoscopic surgery after tube decompression for obstructive colorectal cancer in 54 patients (18 laparoscopic resections, 36 open resections). RESULTS:: There were no significant differences between groups with respect to mean size, location, depth, and stage of tumor, median operating times, or median number of lymph nodes retrieved. Abdominal wound infection rate was significantly lower in the laparoscopic than in the open group (0%:22%, P=0.02), as were mean times to first gas passage after surgery (2.3:3.4 d, P=0.002) and mean postoperative hospital stays (16:24.3 d, P=0.03). The 3-year disease-free survival rate of curative resection cases in the laparoscopic (85%) and open (72%) groups were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS:: Laparoscopic surgery after tube decompression achieves faster recovery and equal oncological outcome as open surgery and should be a treatment of choice for obstructive colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Kojima A.,Kobe University | Kojima T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Tabuchi M.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Sakai T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2012

A Li 2MnSiO 4 cathode material for lithium-ion batteries was prepared by a molten carbonate flux method. The preparation conditions such as gas atmospheres, heating temperatures and manganese sources were examined. Single phase Li 2MnSiO 4 was obtained at 500°C with two kinds of manganese sources (manganese oxalate dihydrate and manganese hydroxide), which was confirmed using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Li 2MnSiO 4 prepared using manganese hydroxide has smaller particle size (100-300 nm) and higher specific surface areas (19.4 m 2 g -1) than those prepared using manganese oxalate dihydrate (200-600 nm, 12.5 m 2 g -1). Former sample showed higher discharge capacity (156 mAh g -1), initial efficiency (89%) and capacity retention (55% on 20th cycle) than latter one (92 mAh g -1, 69 and 37 on 20th cycle). © 2012 The Electrochemical Society.

Hydrophilic poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) microporous hollow fiber membranes were prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS), polyethylene glycol with molecular weight 200(PEG200) was used as diluent. The phase diagram of PVB/PEG200 system indicated L-L phase separation. The effects of preparation condition such as take-up speed, bore liquid flow rate, air-gap, and water bath temperature on the properties of the membrane were investigated. The results showed that PVB hollow fiber membrane prepared at air-gap 5 mm had a little greater tensile strength, breaking strength and elongation than those prepared at air-gap zero, and the former had a little greater rejection but smaller water permeate. The increase of the take-up speed led to the decrease of inner diameters and thickness, the increase of the bore liquid flow rate led to the increase of inner diameter and outer diameter, but the decrease of thickness. Crown Copyright © 2010.

Yanagida M.,Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology | Ikai N.,Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology | Ikai N.,Kobe University | Shimanuki M.,Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology | Sajiki K.,Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

In dividing fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells, the balance betweenWee1 kinase and Cdc25 phosphatase which control the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) at the G2-M transition determines the rod-shaped cell length. Under nitrogen source starvation or glucose limitation, however, cell size determination is considerably modulated, and cell size shortening occurs for wild-type cells. For several mutants of kinases or phosphatases, including CDK, target of rapamycin complex (TORC) 1 and 2, stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Sty1/Spc1, MAPK kinase Wis1, calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-like Ssp1, and type 2A and 2A-related phosphatases inhibitor Sds23, this cell shortening does not normally occur. In tor1 and ssp1 mutants, cell elongation is observed. Sds23 that binds to and inhibits 2A and 2A-related phosphatases is synergistic with Ssp1 in the cell size determination and survival under low glucose and nitrogen source. Tor2 (TORC1) is required for growth, whereas Tor1 (TORC2) is needed for determining division size according to different nutrient conditions. Surprisingly, in growth-diminished tor2 mutant or rapamycin-treated cells, the requirement of separase/Cut1-securin/Cut2 essential for chromosome segregation is greatly alleviated. By contrast, defects of tor1 with secruin/cut2 or overproduction of Cut1 are additive. While Tor1 and Tor2 are opposite in their apparent functions, both may actually coordinate cell division with growth in response to the changes in nutrients. © 2011 The Royal Society.

Hirao H.,Kyoto University | Hirao H.,Kobe University | Morokuma K.,Kyoto University | Morokuma K.,Emory University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

Hydroxyethylphosphonate dioxygenase (HEPD) is a mononuclear nonheme iron enzyme that utilizes an O2 molecule to cleave a C-C bond in 2-hydroxyethylphosphonate and produce hydroxymethylphosphonate (HMP) and formic acid. Density functional theory calculations were performed on an enzyme active-site model of HEPD to understand its catalytic mechanism. The reaction starts with H-abstraction from the C2 position of 2-HEP by a ferric superoxide-type (Fe(III)-OO•-) intermediate, in a similar manner to the H-abstraction in the reaction of the dinuclear iron enzyme myo-inositol oxygenase. The resultant Fe(II)-OOH intermediate may follow either a hydroperoxylation or hydroxylation pathway, the former process being energetically more favorable. In the hydroperoxylation pathway, a ferrous-alkylhydroperoxo intermediate is formed, and then its O-O bond is homolytically cleaved to yield a complex of ferric hydroxide with a gem-diol radical. Subsequent C-C bond cleavage within the gem-diol leads to formation of an R-CH2• species and one of the two products (i.e., formic acid). The R-CH2• then intramolecularly forms a C-O bond with the ferric hydroxide to provide the other product, HMP. The overall reaction pathway does not require the use of a high-valent ferryl intermediate but does require ferric superoxide and ferric hydroxide intermediates. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Afra E.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Yousefi H.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Hadilam M.M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Nishino T.,Kobe University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

Cellulose fibers were fibrillated using mechanical beating (shearing refiner) and ultra-fine friction grinder, respectively. The fibrillated fibers were then used to make paper. Mechanical beating process created a partial skin fibrillation, while grinding turned fiber from micro to nanoscale through nanofibrillation mechanism. The partially fibrillated and nano fibrillated fibers had significant effects on paper density, tear strength, tensile strength and water drainage time. The effect of nanofibrillation on paper properties was quantitatively higher than that of mechanical beating. Paper sheets from nanofibrillated cellulose have a higher density, higher tensile strength and lower tear strength compared to those subjected to mechanical beating. Mechanical beating and nanofibrillation were both found to be promising fiber structural modifications. Long water drainage time was an important drawback of both fibrillation methods. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Haruna T.,Kobe University | Nakajima K.,ETH Zurich
European Physical Journal: Special Topics | Year: 2013

The duality between values and orderings is a powerful tool to discuss relationships between various information-theoretic measures and their permutation analogues for discrete-time finite-alphabet stationary stochastic processes (SSPs). Applying it to output processes of hidden Markov models with ergodic internal processes, we have shown in our previous work that the excess entropy and the transfer entropy rate coincide with their permutation analogues. In this paper, we discuss two permutation characterizations of the two measures for general ergodic SSPs not necessarily having the Markov property assumed in our previous work. In the first approach, we show that the excess entropy and the transfer entropy rate of an ergodic SSP can be obtained as the limits of permutation analogues of them for the N-th order approximation by hidden Markov models, respectively. In the second approach, we employ the modified permutation partition of the set of words which considers equalities of symbols in addition to permutations of words. We show that the excess entropy and the transfer entropy rate of an ergodic SSP are equal to their modified permutation analogues, respectively. © 2013 EDP Sciences and Springer.

Sugiura S.,Kobe University | Ikeda H.,Hirosaki University
Naturwissenschaften | Year: 2014

The decomposition of vertebrate carcasses is an important ecosystem function. Soft tissues of dead vertebrates are rapidly decomposed by diverse animals. However, decomposition of hard tissues such as hairs and feathers is much slower because only a few animals can digest keratin, a protein that is concentrated in hairs and feathers. Although beetles of the family Trogidae are considered keratin feeders, their ecological function has rarely been explored. Here, we investigated the keratin-decomposition function of trogid beetles in heron-breeding colonies where keratin was frequently supplied as feathers. Three trogid species were collected from the colonies and observed feeding on heron feathers under laboratory conditions. We also measured the nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope ratios of two trogid species that were maintained on a constant diet (feathers from one heron individual) during 70 days under laboratory conditions. We compared the isotopic signatures of the trogids with the feathers to investigate isotopic shifts from the feathers to the consumers for δ15N and δ13C. We used mixing models (MixSIR and SIAR) to estimate the main diets of individual field-collected trogid beetles. The analysis indicated that heron feathers were more important as food for trogid beetles than were soft tissues under field conditions. Together, the feeding experiment and stable isotope analysis provided strong evidence of keratin decomposition by trogid beetles. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Yonemura S.,RIKEN | Wada Y.,RIKEN | Watanabe T.,RIKEN | Watanabe T.,Kobe University | And 2 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2010

Adherens junctions (AJs), which are organized by adhesion proteins and the underlying actin cytoskeleton, probably sense pulling forces from adjacent cells and modulate opposing forces to maintain tissue integrity, but the regulatory mechanism remains unknown at the molecular level. Although the possibility that α-catenin acts as a direct linker between the membrane and the actin cytoskeleton for AJ formation and function has been minimized, here we show that α-catenin recruits vinculin, another main actin-binding protein of AJs, through force-dependent changes in α-catenin conformation. We identified regions in the α-catenin molecule that are required for its force-dependent binding of vinculin by introducing mutant α-catenin into cells and using in vitro binding assays. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis for α-catenin mobility and the existence of an antibody recognizing α-catenin in a force-dependent manner further supported the notion that α-catenin is a tension transducer that translates mechanical stimuli into a chemical response, resulting in AJ development. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Ohashi J.,Tokyo University of Science | Soda J.,Kobe University | Tsujikawa S.,Tokyo University of Science
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

It is known that power-law k-inflation can be realized for the Lagrangian P=Xg(Y), where X=-(∂φ)2/2 is the kinetic energy of a scalar field φ and g is an arbitrary function in terms of Y=Xeλφ/M pl (λ is a constant and Mpl is the reduced Planck mass). In the presence of a vector field coupled to the inflaton with an exponential coupling f(φ)â̂eμφ/Mpl, we show that the models with the Lagrangian P=Xg(Y) generally give rise to anisotropic inflationary solutions with Σ/H=constant, where Σ is an anisotropic shear and H is an isotropic expansion rate. Provided these anisotropic solutions exist in the regime where the ratio Σ/H is much smaller than 1, they are stable attractors irrespective of the forms of g(Y). We apply our results to concrete models of k-inflation such as the generalized dilatonic ghost condensate and the Dirac-Born-Infeld model and we numerically show that the solutions with different initial conditions converge to the anisotropic power-law inflationary attractors. Even in the de Sitter limit (λ→0) such solutions can exist, but in this case the null energy condition is generally violated. The latter property is consistent with the Wald's cosmic conjecture stating that the anisotropic hair does not survive on the de Sitter background in the presence of matter respecting the dominant/strong energy conditions. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Sonoda H.,Kobe University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

It has been known for some time that 2-loop renormalization group equations of a dimensionless parameter can be solved in a closed form in terms of the Lambert W function. We apply the method to a generic theory with a Gaussian fixed point to construct renormalization group invariant physical parameters such as a coupling constant and a physical squared mass. As a further application, we speculate a possible exact effective potential for the O(N) linear sigma model in four dimensions. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Goto Y.,Shinshu University | Kawamura Y.,Shinshu University | Miura T.,Kobe University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We study the possibility of family unification on the basis of SU(N) gauge theory on the six-dimensional space-time, M4×T2/ZN. We obtain enormous numbers of models with three families of SU(5) matter multiplets and those with three families of the standard model multiplets, from a single massless Dirac fermion with a higher-dimensional representation of SU(N), through the orbifold breaking mechanism. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Matsushita K.,Shiga University | Yamane F.,Kobe University
Energy Economics | Year: 2012

Under the scheme of the Kyoto Protocol, there are plans for the efficient reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. In the electric power sector, nuclear power generation, which emits no carbon dioxide in the process of generating electricity, has come under scrutiny. However, this energy produces a new environmental issue: the disposal of radioactive waste. First, we derive shadow prices of carbon dioxide and low-level waste as marginal abatement costs in the case of the electric power sector in Japan, employing a directional output distance function. It is found that the shadow prices are US$39 per tonne for carbon dioxide and US$1531 per liter for low-level waste. Secondly, we calculate the indirect Morishima elasticity between carbon dioxide and low-level waste in order to identify their substitutability, and it is found that the substitution of low-level waste for carbon dioxide is easier than the reverse. This result suggests that, with the amount of generated electricity fixed, carbon dioxide can be substituted more easily by low-level waste when the relative price of carbon dioxide increases, for example, as a result of implementation of a carbon dioxide tax or an emissions trading system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Tabata T.,Kobe University | Okuda T.,Nagoya University
Energy | Year: 2012

This paper discusses the effectiveness of a woody biomass utilization system that would result in increased net energy production through wood pellet production, along with energy recovery processes as they relate to household energy demand. The direct environmental load of the system, including wood pellet production and utilization processes, was evaluated. Furthermore, the indirect load, including the economic impact of converting the existing fossil-fuel-based energy system into a woody biomass-based system, on the entire society was also evaluated. Gifu Prefecture in Japan was selected for a case study, which included a comparative evaluation of the environmental load and costs both with and without coordination with the wood pellet production process and the waste-to-energy of municipal solid waste process, using the life cycle assessment methodology. If the release of greenhouse gases from the combustion of wood pellets is included in calculations, then burning wood pellets results in unfavorable environmental consequences. However, when the reduced indirect environmental load due to the utilization of wood pellets versus petroleum is included in calculations, then favorable environmental consequences result, with a net reduction of greenhouse gases emissions by 14,060 ton-CO 2eq. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kang W.,University of Tokyo | Kitamura M.,University of Tokyo | Kitamura M.,Kobe University | Arakawa Y.,University of Tokyo
Organic Electronics: physics, materials, applications | Year: 2013

We have demonstrated high performance inkjet-printed n-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs) using C60 fullerene as a channel material. Highly uniform amorphous C60 thin-film patterns were fabricated on a solution-wettable polymer gate dielectric layer by inkjet-printing and vacuum drying process. Fabricated C60 TFTs shows great reproducibility and high performance; field-effect mobilities of 2.2-2.4 cm2 V -1 s-1, threshold voltages of 0.4-0.6 V, subthreshold slopes of 0.11-0.16 V dec-1 and current on/off ratio of 10 7-108 in a driving voltage of 5 V. This is due to the efficient annealing process that extracting the solvent residue and the formation of low trap-density gate dielectric surface. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Fedorov D.G.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Kitaura K.,Kobe University
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2014

We developed a dual basis approach within the fragment molecular orbital formalism enabling efficient and accurate use of large basis sets. The method was tested on water clusters and polypeptides and applied to perform geometry optimization of chignolin (PDB: 1UAO) in solution at the level of DFT/6-31++G*, obtaining a structure in agreement with experiment (RMSD of 0.4526 Å). The polarization in polypeptides is discussed with a comparison of the α-helix and β-strand. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The relationships between the properties of urban canopy components and the radiant environment in an urban street canyon are examined considering the introduction of appropriate urban heat island mitigation technologies. Radiant heat transfers between walls and roads are calculated according to Gebhart's radiant absorption coefficients and using the Monte Carlo method. Roads are classified as either north-south or east-west; intersections are also considered. The key property of an urban street canyon is expressed by its aspect ratio W/. H. A simple street canyon model and two actual urban street canyon areas are used as the objects of examination. Distributions of surface temperatures and solar radiation gains on street canyon roofs, roads, and walls are analyzed. The top priority for the implementation of urban heat island mitigation measures concerns the buildings with large roof areas. The other high-priority areas for implementing mitigation measures focus on smaller roofs and roads for which the street canyon aspect ratio W/. H is greater than 1.5; the lowest-priority area is the walls. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Mishima T.,Kobe University | Nakaoka M.,Kyungnam University | Nakaoka M.,Yamaguchi University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2013

This paper presents the performance evaluations of a zero current soft-switching pulse width modulation (ZCS-PWM) boost dc-dc converter with a practical active edge-resonant cell (AERC). The AERC treated and discussed herein has auxiliary diodes for suppressing voltage surges and current ringings at the commutations of active switches in the dc-dc converters. The voltage surges together with the current ringings can be effectively eliminated in the AERC owing to the effect of the clamping diodes. Therefore, voltage ratings of the active switches can be considerably reduced as compared to the classical AERC without the clamping diodes, consequently the conversion efficiency can be improved in the ZCS-PWM boost dc-dc converter. The practical effectiveness of the clamping diode-assisted ZCS-PWM boost dc-dc converter is demonstrated in detail by means of experimental verifications based on a 1.6 kW-40 kHz laboratory prototype. In addition, an extended topological family of nonisolated ZCS-PWM dc-dc converters employing the practical AERC is originally described for demonstrating the high scalability of the AERC. © 2012 IEEE.

Furuse M.,Kobe University
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2010

The morphological feature of tight junctions (TJs) fits well with their functions. The core of TJs is a fibril-like proteinaceous structure within the lipid bilayer, the so-called TJ strands. TJ strands in apposing plasma membranes associate with each other to eliminate the intercellular space. A network of paired TJ strands generates a continuous belt that circumscribes each cell to establish the diffusion barrier to the solutes in the paracellular pathway throughout the cellular sheet. Identification and characterization of TJ-associated proteins during the last two decades has unveiled the nature of TJ strands and how they are spatially organized. The interplay between integral membrane proteins, claudins, and cytoplasmic plaque proteins, ZO-1/ZO-2, is critical for TJ formation and function.

Tanigawa K.,Geological Survey of Japan | Hyodo M.,Kobe University | Sato H.,University of Hyogo
Holocene | Year: 2013

This study presents relative sea-level (RSL) change from 11,200 to 500 cal. BP in the Toyooka Basin, western Japan. Diatom assemblage and sedimentary sulfur analyses were performed for 32 sediment cores obtained from thick Holocene fluvial and marine deposits. An age model was constructed based on tephrochronology and 31 radiocarbon ages from elevations of -46.85 to +1.51 m in 19 cores. The RSLs in the Toyooka Basin are -31.05 m in elevation at 10,000 cal BP, above -4.00 m at 7900 cal. BP, -0.47 m at 6700 cal. BP and +0.15 m at 3300 cal. BP. A rapid sea-level rise, at a rate of about 23 mm/yr, is observed during the period from 10,600 to 10,300 cal. BP. Relative sea-level rose at a rate of about 12 mm/yr between 10,000 and 7900 cal. BP. The rate of sea-level rise decelerated at 7900 cal. BP, from about 12 mm/yr (10,000-7900 cal. BP) to 3 mm/yr (7900-6700 cal. BP). The mid-Holocene sea-level highstand probably occurred between 7000 and 6000 cal. BP, but it remains difficult to constrain its elevation. These RSL features described here may provide a typical example of Holocene sea-level changes resulting from both eustatic and hydro-isostatic components for the Japanese islands. © The Author(s) 2013.

Tanaka S.,Kobe University | Watanabe C.,University of Tokyo | Okiyama Y.,University of Tokyo
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2013

A theoretical scheme to evaluate effective, screened interactions between fragments is proposed within the framework of the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method. In this theory, the presence of implicit, dielectric continuum solvent is not assumed, but only the information on bare, inter-fragment interaction energies obtained through the FMO calculation for explicit, molecular system is employed. The effective interactions with inclusion of entropic effect are then described and optimized as a consequence of inter-fragment correlations on the basis of classical-mechanical many-body theories. Test calculations for a simple model system and a realistic protein system are performed, and their implications are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kawakatsu H.,University of Tokyo | Yoshioka S.,Kobe University
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2011

Oceanic plates subducted at trenches penetrate into the deep mantle, and encounter a structural boundary at a depth of 410km where olivine, the dominant element of mantle rocks, transforms into a higher density form wadsleyite. This transformation may be delayed within the coldest core of subducting plates (slabs) due to kinetic effects, and it has been suggested that metastable olivine may persist deeper than 410km. Using high density seismic array data in Japan, we show the direct image of the structure corresponding to this metastable olivine wedge (MOW) beneath southwest Japan. Numerical simulation of a subducting slab, including the kinetic effect of water (H2O) on the olivine-wadsleyite transformation, indicates that the presence of the imaged MOW requires an insignificant amount of water (less than 100wt. ppm) be present in the slab mantle, thus a deep dry cold slab. We infer that the transportation of water into the deep mantle occurs along the top surface of the subducting slab, but no significant amount within the slab itself. We also demonstrate that a numerical simulation including the kinetics of 660-km phase transformation can reconcile the observed deep depression of the 660-km discontinuity with a gentle Clapeyron slope. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

In this paper, a feedback controller for a nonholonomic system with three states and two inputs is derived using an artificial potential function that has no local minima, and the stability of equilibria of the system is analyzed. Although the system with the controller has an infinite number of equilibria due to the nonholonomic constraint, those equilibria except the critical points of the potential function are unstable because of a skew-symmetric component of the controller. When the potential function has critical points of saddle type, the saddles may be stable equilibria in addition to the stable equilibrium at the minimum of the function. The controller is applied to a two-wheeled mobile robot among obstacles and modified by using a time-varying potential function in order to avoid convergence to the saddles. As a result, with the controller, the mobile robot converges to a desired position and orientation without collision with obstacles. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Matsuki T.,Tokyo Kasei University | Morii T.,Kobe University | Seo K.,Gifu City Womens College
Progress of Theoretical Physics | Year: 2010

Some claim that there are two independent mixing angles (θ = 35.3°, -54.7°) between 3P1 and 1P 1 states of heavy-light mesons in the heavy quark symmetric limit, and others claim there is only one (θ = 35.3°). We clarify the difference between these two and suggest which should be adopted. General arguments on the mixing angle between 3LL and 1LL of heavy-light mesons are given in HQET and a general relation is derived in the heavy quark symmetric limit as well as that including the first-order correction in 1/mQ.

Hackenberg D.,Donald Danforth Plant Science Center | Sakayama H.,Kobe University | Nishiyama T.,Kanazawa University | Pandey S.,Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

The lack of heterotrimeric G-protein homologs in the sequenced genomes of green algae has led to the hypothesis that, in plants, this signaling mechanism coevolved with the embryophytic life cycle and the acquisition of terrestrial habitat. Given the large evolutionary gap that exists between the chlorophyte green algae and most basal land plants, the bryophytes, we evaluated the presence of this signaling complex in a charophyte green alga, Chara braunii, proposed to be the closest living relative of land plants. The C. braunii genome encodes for the entire G-protein complex, the Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, and the REGULATOR OF G-PROTEIN SIGNALING (RGS) protein. The biochemical properties of these proteins and their cross-species functionality show that they are functional homologs of canonical G-proteins. The subunit-specific interactions between CbGα and CbGβ, CbGβ and CbGγ, and CbGα and CbRGS are also conserved, establishing the existence of functional G-protein complex-based signaling mechanisms in green algae. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Mannen H.,Kobe University
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

The fatty acid composition of adipose tissue in beef has been recognized as an important trait because of its relationship with beef quality, including favorable beef flavor and tenderness. Over the last decade, we have tried to identify the genes responsible for the fatty acid composition in cattle, and have found the following. (i) Genetic polymorphism of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is one of the responsible genes associated with fatty acid composition. The average effects of gene substitution of the SCD type A gene on the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) percentage and the melting point of intramuscular fat were approximately +1.0% and -1.0°C, respectively. (ii) Intron polymorphism of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) also affected MUFA. (iii) No effect of SCD or SREBP-1 genotypes on any representative carcass traits of Japanese Black in the field population was observed. (iv) Additional genetic markers adipocytes fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and liver X receptor α also affected the fatty acid composition. (v) SCD and FABP4 significantly affected fatty acid composition in Holstein steers. These findings will bring new insight into the fat-related carcass traits of beef cattle and will thus contribute to the beef industry. © 2011 The Author. Journal compilation © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

Tsutahara M.,Kobe University
Fluid Dynamics Research | Year: 2012

The application of the finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method in computational aero-acoustics is reviewed, mainly on the basis of the work of the author and his colleagues. Some models of thermal and isothermal fluids are described and the constraints for recovering the Euler equations and the NavierStokes equations are described. The arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian technique is used for high Mach number flows and for simulations of moving bodies. A model of gasliquid two-phase fluid is introduced in which the density difference is 800 times and the sound velocity difference is 4 times. Some applications of aero-acoustic problems are briefly described and the simultaneous simulation of underwater sound and sound propagating in air is also presented. The difference between the thermal model and the isothermal model is shown in the aero-acoustic problems. © 2012 The Japan Society of Fluid Mechanics and IOP Publishing Ltd.

Tsuda A.,Kobe University | Nagamine Y.,University of Tokyo | Watanabe R.,University of Tokyo | Nagatani Y.,Kobe City College of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Nature Chemistry | Year: 2010

The question of whether sound vibration of a medium can bring about any kind of molecular or macromolecular events is a long-standing scientific controversy. Although it is known that ultrasonic vibrations with frequencies of more than 1? MHz are able to align certain macromolecules in solution, no effect has yet been reported with audible sound, the frequency of which is much lower (20-20,000 Hz). Here, we report on the design of a supramolecular nanofibre that in solution becomes preferentially aligned parallel to the propagation direction of audible sound. This phenomenon can be used to spectroscopically visualize sound-induced vibrations in liquids and may find application in a wide range of vibration sensing technologies. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Nishisgori C.,Kobe University
Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences | Year: 2015

There is ample evidence demonstrating that solar ultraviolet light (UV) induces human skin cancers. First, epidemiological studies have demonstrated a negative correlation between the latitude of residence and incidence and mortality rates of both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers in homogeneous populations. Second, skin cancer can be produced in mice by UV irradiation; the action spectrum of photocarcinogenesis falls into UVB (280-320 nm). Third, patients with genetic disorders that lead to deficiencies in repairing UV-induced DNA damage are prone to develop cancers in sun-exposed areas of the skin. Photocarcinogenesis is a multistage process that involves initiation, promotion, and progression. In addition UV induced immunosuppression is closely involved in photocarcinogenesis. Accumulation of DNA lesions caused by UV in several cancer related genes plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis. Indeed, even in actinic keratosis, precancerous lesions, genetic alterations can be observed. A conventional knowledge demonstrated that UVB induced DNA lesion causes genetic mutation (initiation) and UVB-inflammation (sunburn) induces promotion. However recent findings revealed that the photocarcinogenesis pathway is more complex consequences where each of these processes, mediated by various cellular, biochemical, and molecular changes, are closely related to each other. The pyrimidine photoproducts that result from direct DNA damage induced by UV are involved in developing skin cancer through mutations that lead to the upregulation or downregulation of signal transduction pathways, cell cycle dysregulation, and depletion of antioxidant defenses. In addition pyrimidine dimers have been shown to trigger UV induced immunosuppression, which also plays an important role in photocarcinogenesis, partly by upregulation of IL-10, an immunosuppressive cytokine. UV also produces oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in skin cells, which cause alteration of the genes involved in the cell cycle, apoptosis and modification of cell signaling by redox regulation, resulting in inflammation. It has been shown that in Ogg1 knockout mice which are deficient in repairing 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), UVB irradiation up-regulates the inflammatory gene, implying that 8-oxoG is involved in triggering inflammation. In this review I summarize the state of the art knowledge regarding photocarcinogenesis including experimental data and implication for clinical viewpoints. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies.

Fujii Y.,Kobe University
Surface and Interface Analysis | Year: 2010

X-ray reflectometry is a powerful tool for investigations of rough surfaces and interface structures. However, in previous studies, the calculation of the X-ray reflectivity often show a strange effect where interference effects would increase at a rough surface. Here, we propose that this unexpected result of such calculations of the X-ray reflectivity originates in a neglect of the effect of a decrease in the intensity of refracted X-rays due to diffuse scattering at a rough surface and interface. In the present study, we present a new, accurate analysis of the X-ray reflectivity from a multilayer surface taking into account roughness-induced diffuse scattering. We calculated the X-ray reflectivity for the W/Si system using a reduced Fresnel transmission coefficient at a rough surface and interface. The calculated reflectivity using this approach gave a physically reasonable result. A new approach using a reduced Fresnel transmission coefficient at a rough surface and interface allowed us to calculate physically reasonable values of the X-ray reflectivity. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hayashi H.,Kobe University
British Journal of Developmental Psychology | Year: 2015

Omission bias refers to the tendency to judge acts of commission as morally worse than equivalent acts of omission. Children aged 7-8 and 11-12 years, as well as adults, made moral judgements about acts of commission and omission in two conditions in which the protagonist obtained a self-directed benefit. In the antisocial condition, the other person was harmed; in the selfish condition, the other person was not harmed. The results showed that adults and both age groups of children judged that the agent who did something (act of commission) was morally worse than the agent who did nothing (omission) for both antisocial and selfish conditions, although this judgement tendency was clearer in the selfish condition than in the antisocial condition. Agent intention was held constant across commission and omission, but most participants rated the intention of the agent who did something as stronger than that of the agent who did nothing. These results suggest that omission bias occurs regardless of differences in age and situation. In addition, perceived intention appears to change in conjunction with omission bias. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

Takebayashi M.,Kobe University
Pacific Economic Review | Year: 2011

This research applies the bi-level market model to the Asia-based international air transport markets. The model is a two-stage game in which airlines act as leaders and passengers act as followers. Airlines are assumed to control flight frequencies, and passengers are assumed to choose their optimal route. At the equilibrium point, we have subgame perfect equilibrium. We apply this model to 2003 Asia-based international air transport markets and conduct some scenario studies. We find that discounting landing charges at Narita Airport increases the passenger flow but diminishes the gateway function for trans-Pacific transport. © 2011 The Author. Pacific Economic Review © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Murakami H.,Kobe University
Pacific Economic Review | Year: 2011

This paper empirically analyzes dynamic change in inter-firm rivalry between Japanese low-cost carriers (LCC) and full-service carriers, and deduces the dynamic change in consumer surplus after an LCC enters a market. Our findings are that: (i) the conduct parameters of LCC and reacting full-service carriers were extraordinarily low when competition started; (ii) the conduct parameters were restored to, or even exceeded, the pre-entry level in the third year of LCC entry; and (iii) gains in total welfare were recognized for five of the nine markets, whereas in three markets only the airline industry benefited, and in one market, total welfare decreased. © 2011 The Author. Pacific Economic Review © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Awata H.,Nagoya University | Yamada Y.,Kobe University
Progress of Theoretical Physics | Year: 2010

We discuss an analog of the AGT relation in five dimensions. We define a q-deformation of the β-ensemble which satisfies q-W N constraint. We also show a relation with the Nekrasov partition function of 5D SU(N) gauge theory with N f = 2N.

Sonoda H.,Kobe University | Ulker K.,Feza Giirsey Research Institute
Progress of Theoretical Physics | Year: 2010

Using the exact renormalization group (ERG) differential equation, we give an elementary proof of the non-renormalization theorem for the Wess-Zumino model. We introduce auxiliary fields to linearize the supersymmetry transformation, but we do not rely on the superfield techniques. We give sufficient background material on the Wilson action and the ERG formalism to make the paper self-contained.

Nakamura T.,Gunma University | Adachi S.,Gunma University | Fujii M.,Kobe University | Miura K.,Gunma University | Yamamoto S.,Japan Atomic Energy Agency
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

The photoluminescence (PL) properties of P or B single-doped Si nanocrystals (Si-nc's) and P and B co-doped Si-nc's are studied. In the single-doped Si-nc samples, PL quenching occurs as a result of the Auger nonradiative recombination process between the photoexcited excitons and free carriers supplied by doped impurities. In the (P, B) co-doped sample, on the other hand, the donor-acceptor (D-A)-pair recombination emission is clearly observed on the long-wavelength side of the intrinsic Si-nc emission peak at ∼900 nm. The D-A-pair recombination energy is found to be smaller than the band-gap energy of bulk Si and is strongly dependent on the number of P and B impurities doped in a Si-nc. PL spectra are measured at 50 and 300 K and found to indicate that strong thermal quenching occurs in a (P, B) co-doped sample at 300 K. This quenching effect is probably because of carrier migration among the donor and acceptor states. The PL decay rate is determined as a function of the emitted-light wavelength for the pure and (P, B) co-doped Si-nc samples. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Uchino T.,Kobe University | Yoko T.,Kyoto University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We show through density functional theory calculations that extended magnetic states can inherently occur in oxides as the size of the crystals is reduced down to the nanometer scale. In nanoscale systems, some crystallographically perfect MgO crystallites paradoxically result in nonstoichiometric compositions, either cation deficient or oxygen deficient, owing to the finite number of constituting atoms. In structurally perfect but Mg-deficient substoichiometric nanocrystallites, the spin-triplet state is found to be more stable than the spin-singlet state, giving rise to an extended spin distribution that expands over the entire crystal. The further introduction of an Mg vacancy enables a higher spin-quintuplet state, enhancing the degree of spin polarization. According to this picture, long-range magnetic order arises from the combined effect of crystal symmetry and nonstoichiometry that can coexist exclusively in nanoscale systems. The idea can also give reasonable explanations for the unprecedented ferromagnetic features observed commonly in nanoscale oxides, including ubiquity, anisotropy, and diluteness. © 2012 American Physical Society.

A series of impact experiments onto solid decimeter-sized cylinders made of porous gypsum admixed with approximately 1. cm-sized pebbles have been performed. The target densities and their heterogeneous structures could be representative of those of the asteroids Ida, Eros and many others, because asteroid sub-surface could be the consolidated boulders made by self-compaction and/or by impact compaction. Impact velocities in the experiments ranged from 2.0. km/s to 6.7. km/s (collision velocity in the asteroid main belt is approximately 5. km/s). It was found that the slope of the cumulative number distribution of post-impact fragments strongly depends on the specific energy of the impact. The presence of pebbles strongly influences the impact strength of the target as well as the size distribution of the post-impact fragments. Results of the experiments presented here are aimed at identifying the analogy between the laboratory results and the damage of small asteroids or their catastrophic disruption after impacts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Introduced species negatively impact native species through competitive and trophic interactions, particularly on oceanic islands that have never been connected to any continental landmass. However, there are few studies on the relative importance of competitive interactions (resource competition with introduced species) and trophic interactions (predation or herbivory by introduced species) with respect to the negative impacts on native organisms on oceanic islands. A literature review on introduced and native species of the oceanic Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands in the western Pacific Ocean indicated that many native species (e.g., bees, beetles, damselflies, butterflies, land snails, birds, and plants) have been negatively impacted by introduced predators and herbivores (e.g., lizards, rats, flatworms, and goats). Several native plants and bees have been negatively affected by introduced competitors. However, the native species that have competed with introduced species have also suffered from either intense herbivory or predation by other introduced species. Thus, introduced predators and herbivores have had greater impacts on native species than introduced competitors in the Ogasawara Islands. © 2016, The Author(s).

Nagano T.,Kobe University
BMJ case reports | Year: 2011

Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) with erythroderma can rarely occur in the context of thymoma and is associated with a poor prognosis due to an increased risk of infection-related death. The present study describes a case of a 50-year-old man with malignant thymoma who developed sepsis in addition to skin manifestations similar to that seen in GVHD. This patient experienced marked improvement in skin lesions in response to steroids and combination chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel, with subsequent resolution of infection. The present study describes the clinical course of this patient, followed by a review of pertinent reports of thymoma associated with GVHD with particular focus on the efficacy of treatment strategies.

Hashimoto N.,Kobe University
Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan) | Year: 2011

A 60-year-old man presented with drug-resistant hypertension with hypokalemia, a high plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and suppressed plasma rennin activity (PRA). Imaging examinations showed multiple macronodules in the left adrenal gland. Endocrinological findings demonstrated autonomous aldosterone secretion and (131)I-adosterol scintigraphy demonstrated a left sided uptake. Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy normalized serum potassium levels and PAC, and substantially improved hypertension. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that these nodules were positive for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B) but not for CYP17. In addition, zona glomerulosa demonstrated "paradoxical hyperplasia", in which these cells were negative for HSD3B. All of these data indicated that the nodules in the left adrenal gland were mainly responsible for the autonomous aldosterone secretion. We conclude that the primary aldosteronism in this case was caused by multiple macronodules. This is a very rare case of primary aldosteronism caused by multiple adrenocortical macronodules.

Ishizaki K.,Kobe University
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Gas exchange is essential for multicellular organisms. In contrast to the circulatory systems of animals, land plants have tissues with intercellular spaces (ICSs), called aerenchyma, that are critical for efficient gas exchange. Plants form ICSs by two different mechanisms: schizogeny, where localized cell separation creates spaces; and lysogeny, where cells die to create ICSs. In schizogenous ICS formation, specific molecular mechanisms regulate the sites of cell separation and coordinate extensive reorganization of cell walls. Emerging evidence suggests the involvement of extracellular signaling, mediated by peptide ligands and leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases, in the regulation of cell wall remodeling during cell separation. Recent work on the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has demonstrated a critical role for a plasma membrane-associated plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase in ICS formation. In this review, I discuss the mechanism of schizogenous ICS formation, focusing on the potential role of extracellular signaling in the regulation of cell separation. © 2015 Ishizaki.

Goto H.,Kobe University
The Kobe journal of medical sciences | Year: 2011

The purpose of our study is to investigate whether there is an age-related change in T1 rho values and to evaluate the effects of weight bearing on age-related increase in T1 rho values of normal cartilage. Thirty-two asymptomatic patients were examined using a 3.0T MRI to determine knee cartilage T1 rho values. Femorotibial and patella cartilage was defined as weight-bearing cartilage (WB-C) and non-weight-bearing cartilage (NWB-C), respectively. The femoral cartilage was divided into weight-bearing (WB-P) and less-weight-bearing (LWB-P) portions. Pearson's correlation coefficient and single regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between cartilage T1 rho values and age. The slopes of the regression lines of cartilage T1 rho values and age were compared between WB-C and NWB-C and between WB-P and LWB-P. Cartilage T1 rho values correlated positively with aging for all cartilage regions and all age groups (p<0.001). In the medial femoral cartilage, the age-related increase in T1 rho values was significantly greater for WB-P than for NWB-P (p<0.05). For several cartilage regions, this increase was greater for WB-C than for LWB-C (p<0.05). The T1 rho value is very sensitive to age-related cartilage degeneration and weight bearing-related degeneration, and hence may be a very sensitive and useful measure for the early diagnosis of osteoarthritis.

About ten years have passed since the deregulation of the U.S. retail electricity market, and it is now generally accepted that the available data is adequate to quantitatively assess and compare conditions before and after deregulation. This study, therefore, estimates the changes in price elasticity in the residential electricity market to examine the changes, if any, in household sensitivity (as a result of retail electricity market deregulation policies) to residential electricity rates. Specifically, six types of panel data are prepared, based on three cross-sections-all states (except for Alaska and Hawaii) and the District of Columbia, deregulated states, and non-deregulated states-and two time series-the period before deregulation and the period after deregulation. The panel empirical analysis techniques are used to determine whether or not the variables are stationary, and to estimate price elasticity. We find that there is no substantial difference in the price elasticity between deregulated and non-deregulated states for both periods-before deregulation and after deregulation. Thus, it can be said that the deregulation of the retail electricity market has not made consumers more sensitive to electricity rates and that retail deregulation policies are not the cause of price elasticity differences between deregulated and non-deregulated states. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kurashige H.,Kobe University
Physics Procedia | Year: 2015

The recent results on Higgs particles are reported,using 4.5 fb-1 at s=7 TeV and 20.3 fb-1 of pp collisions at s=8 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. In addition, we also present status and developments of pixel trackers installed in innermost part of ATLAS detector. © 2015 The Authors.

Amano K.-I.,Kobe University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2012

We theoretically study physical properties of solutes placed in a straight line and at regular intervals. The solute is a rigid-body and has an arrow-like shape, which changes its direction up (↑) or down (↓). If the rigid solutes are immersed in a continuum solvent, nothing happens in the system (it is an obvious fact). However, the property of the directions differs in a granular solvent (e.g., hard-sphere solvent). Depending on the distance between the nearest-neighbor solutes, the directional correlation between them is periodically changed as follows: "parallel-tendency (↑↑)" ↔ "random" ↔ "antiparallel-tendency (↑↓)". Studying a newly created nanosystem, it is able to discover interesting properties hiding in the nanosystem. We believe that such an approach contributes to the development of nanotechnology. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The UGT1A1 gene encodes a responsible enzyme, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase1A1, for bilirubin metabolism. Many mutations have already been identified in patients with inherited disorders with hyperbilirubinemia, Crigler-Najjar syndrome and Gilbert's syndrome. In this study, we identified a UGT1A1 mutation in an 8-year-old Japanese girl with persistent hyperbilirubinemia who was clinically diagnosed as having Gilbert's syndrome. For the mutational analysis of UGT1A1, we performed a full sequence analysis of the gene using the patient's DNA. She was homozygous for a T to G transversion at nucleotide position 1456 in UGT1A1 exon 5 (c.1456T>G), leading to the substitution of aspartate for tyrosine at position 486 of the UGT1A1 protein (p.Y486D). In conclusion, the homozygous mutation of UGT1A1 may be responsible for persistent hyperbilirubinemia in this patient.

Harima H.,Kobe University
Physics Procedia | Year: 2015

The electronic structure and the Fermi surfaces are investigated for iso-electronic compounds NiSbS and PdBiSe, based on the band structure calculations. A mineral ullmannite NiSbS belongs to the tetrahedral class T, which is the lowest symmetry class of the isometric (cubic) system and the space group is the same as MnSi. It is a non-symmorphic cubic chiral structure. Totally 4 hole and 4 electron Fermi surfaces are obtained, which are not degenerated by spin, due to the lack of the space inversion symmetry. The electronic band structure and the topology of the Fermi surfaces of both compounds are very similar, but the magnitudes of the splitting of the Fermi surfaces are quite different. The large spin-splitting in PdBiSe is mainly caused by the strong spin-orbit interaction of Bi 6p electrons. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Bacterial extracts are widely used to synthesize recombinant proteins. Vast data volumes have been accumulated in cell-free expression databases, covering a whole range of existing proteins. It makes possible comprehensive bioinformatics analysis and identification of multiple features associated with protein solubility and aggregation. In the present paper, an approach to identify the multiple physicochemical and structural properties of amino acid sequences associated with soluble expression of eukaryotic proteins in cell-free bacterial extracts is presented. The method includes: (1) categorical assessment of expression data; (2) calculation and prediction of multiple properties of expressed sequences; (3) correlation of the individual properties with the expression scores; and (4) evaluation of statistical significance of the observed correlations. Using this method, a number of significant correlations between calculated and predicted properties of amino acid sequences and their propensity for soluble cell-free expression have been revealed © 2014 Tokmakov.

Somekawa H.,Japan National Institute of Materials Science | Mukai T.,Kobe University
Materials Letters | Year: 2012

The effect of grain boundary structures on the deformation behavior at the grain boundaries in magnesium was examined by the nanoindentation creep test. The results of the nanoindentation creep test showed that the dominant deformation mechanism around the grain boundary was grain boundary sliding; however, the occurrence of grain boundary sliding was closely related to the grain boundary energy. The grain boundary with high energy showed high strain rate sensitivity, which was the same tendency as that of the other metallic materials. Furthermore, the addition of aluminum atoms into magnesium tended to prevent the grain boundary sliding due to the decrease in grain boundary energy. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Approximately 20% of breast cancers are characterized by overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein and associated gene amplification, and the receptor tyrosine kinase is believed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of these tumors. The development and implementation of trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the extracellular domain of HER2 protein, has significantly improved treatment outcomes in patients with HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. However, despite this clinical usefulness, unmet needs for better prediction of trastuzumab's response and overcoming primary and acquired resistance remain. In this review, we discuss several potential mechanisms of resistance to trastuzumab that have been closely studied over the last decade. Briefly, these mechanisms include: impaired access of trastuzumab to HER2 by expression of extracellular domain-truncated HER2 (p95 HER2) or overexpression of MUC4; alternative signaling from insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, other epidermal growth factor receptor family members, or MET; aberrant downstream signaling caused by loss of phosphatase and tensin homologs deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN), PIK3CA mutation, or downregulation of p27; or FCGR3A polymorphisms. In addition, we discuss potential strategies for overcoming resistance to trastuzumab. Specifically, the epidermal growth factor receptor/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib partially overcame trastuzumab resistance in a clinical setting, so its efficacy results and limited data regarding potential mechanisms of resistance to the drug are also discussed. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.

Yamashita T.,Kobe University
Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine | Year: 2011

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and many kinds of inflammatory cells and their releasing molecules are profoundly associated with the initiation and progression of the disease. However, we never have clinical therapeutic methods to directly intervene the inflammation or to modulate the immune system for preventing atherosclerosis so far. This article will focus on the recent experimental anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory therapies including active vaccination and induction of immune tolerance. We introduce our new experimental trial to develop a new immune therapy against atherosclerosis. We hope some novel therapies could be applied to clinics in the near future.

Shirase K.,Kobe University
Nihon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu, C Hen/Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Part C | Year: 2013

Decision of the workpiece setting is an important issue in process planning for both 5-axis and multi-tasking machine tools. However, it is difficult to decide the workpiece setting properly and a huge amount of time and effort is required for trial-and-error verifications of NC programs using a virtual machining simulation. Still, in the worst case, the workpiece re-setting is needed to complete machining operation. In order to reduce the trial-and-error verifications, it is important to decide the workpiece setting properly first. In this study, a machinable space derivation method to find the suitable workpiece setting position is proposed. For this purpose, the reachable space of cutting tool tip is calculated based on the relative motion between the cutting tool and the machine table. In the case of 5-axis control machining, the reachable space of cutting tool tip, which changes according to the tool posture, can be visualized. Then, the machinable space can be represented by overlaying the reachable spaces obtained for different tool postures. The machinable space derived is help full to decide the workpiece setting properly at the early stage in the process planning. In the case studies for both 5-axis and multi-tasking machine tools, it is verified that the workpiece setting is decided effectively to complete machining operation by referring the machinable space. © 2013 The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Kobayashi E.,Kobe University
Journal of Marine Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Earthquakes occur due to friction between two geological plates. Historically, numerous earthquakes have occurred in the southern Sea of Japan. As of January 2008, the estimated probability of occurrence of the next Nankai or Tonankai earthquake within the next 30 years has been set at 50 or 60-70%, respectively. Should either of these earthquakes occur, a tsunami resulting in great horizontal movement and force could also result, setting numerous vessels adrift inside ports, causing destruction to port facilities, and endangering human life inside the vessels. Thus, appropriate countermeasures are required for ships because they may be forced to change locations unexpectedly. To minimize the probability of disaster should a tsunami forecast be issued, all vessels in Osaka Bay will need to evacuate immediately and proceed to safe anchorage areas before the tsunami arrives. However, the orderly evacuation of ships to safe anchorage areas would face difficulties due to traffic density within the Osaka Port area, and so appropriate improvements to ship traffic management are required. In this paper, several vessel-related issues, such as inter-ship distances, evacuation order procedures prior to the arrival of the first tsunami, and the first peak tsunami arrival time, are evaluated using general discrete event simulation. © 2010 JASNAOE.

We model dust in comets, protoplanetary disks, and debris disks as aggregates consisting of submicron-sized grains with a silicate core and an organic-rich carbonaceous mantle. By computing the infrared (IR) spectra of the aggregates, we show that the degree of carbonization determines the positions of infrared peaks characteristic of magnesium-rich crystalline silicates. We discuss our results in terms of processing of organic materials by ultraviolet irradiation, ion bombardments, and thermal devolatilization. A comparison between the model IR spectra of the aggregates and the observed spectra of dust in circumstellar disks reveals that at least one third of the organic refractory component has suffered from carbonization in a very short timescale. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Madhavan A.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Srivastava A.,Birla Institute of Technology and Science | Kondo A.,Kobe University | Bisaria V.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Lignocellulosic biomass from agricultural and agro-industrial residues represents one of the most important renewable resources that can be utilized for the biological production of ethanol. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for the commercial production of bioethanol from sucrose or starch-derived glucose. While glucose and other hexose sugars like galactose and mannose can be fermented to ethanol by S. cerevisiae, the major pentose sugars D-xylose and L-arabinose remain unutilized. Nevertheless, D-xylulose, the keto isomer of xylose, can be fermented slowly by the yeast and thus, the incorporation of functional routes for the conversion of xylose and arabinose to xylulose or xylulose-5-phosphate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can help to improve the ethanol productivity and make the fermentation process more cost-effective. Other crucial bottlenecks in pentose fermentation include low activity of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes and competitive inhibition of xylose and arabinose transport into the cell cytoplasm by glucose and other hexose sugars. Along with a brief introduction of the pretreatment of lignocellulose and detoxification of the hydrolysate, this review provides an updated overview of (a) the key steps involved in the uptake and metabolism of the hexose sugars: glucose, galactose, and mannose, together with the pentose sugars: xylose and arabinose, (b) various factors that play a major role in the efficient fermentation of pentose sugars along with hexose sugars, and (c) the approaches used to overcome the metabolic constraints in the production of bioethanol from lignocellulose-derived sugars by developing recombinant S. cerevisiae strains. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Masada Y.,Kobe University | Masada Y.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters | Year: 2011

The possible role of magnetorotational instability (MRI) and its driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the solar interior is studied on the basis of linear and non-linear theories coupled with physical parameters, assuming a solar rotation profile inverted from helioseismic observations and a standard model for the internal structure of the Sun. We find that the location of MRI is confined to the higher latitude tachocline and lower latitude near-surface shear layer. It is especially interesting that the MRI-active region around the tachocline closely overlaps with the area indicating a steep entropy rise, which is required from the thermal wind balance in the Sun. This suggests that the MRI-driven turbulence plays a crucial role in maintaining the thermal wind balance in the Sun via the exceptional turbulent heating and equatorward angular momentum transport. The warm pole existing around the tachocline might be a natural outcome of the turbulent activities energized by the MRI. © 2010 The Author Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2010 RAS.

Shimazu S.,Fukuyama University | Inui H.,Kobe University | Ohkawa H.,Fukuyama University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Molecular mechanisms of metabolism and modes of actions of agrochemicals and related compounds are important for understanding selective toxicity, biodegradability, and monitoring of biological effects on nontarget organisms. It is well-known that in mammals, cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) monooxygenases metabolize lipophilic foreign compounds. These P450 species are inducible, and both CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 are induced by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) combined with a ligand. Gene engineering of P450 and NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (P450 reductase) was established for bioconversion. Also, gene modification of AhRs was developed for recombinant AhR-mediated β-glucronidase (GUS) reporter assay of AhR ligands. Recombinant P450 genes were transformed into plants for phytoremediation, and recombinant AhR-mediated GUS reporter gene expression systems were each transformed into plants for phytomonitoring. Transgenic rice plants carrying CYP2B6 metabolized the herbicide metolachlor and remarkably reduced the residues in the plants and soils under paddy field conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying recombinant guinea pig (g) AhR-mediated GUS reporter genes detected PCB126 at the level of 10 ng/g soils in the presence of biosurfactants MEL-B. Both phytomonitoring and phytoremediation plants were each evaluated from the standpoint of practical uses. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Miyahara S.,Kobe University
Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery | Year: 2013

Our experiences of secondary aortic root replacement after proximal aortic operation and their technical details are presented. Between November 1999 and February 2013, 50 patients underwent reoperative aortic root replacement(34 male, mean age 59.6±13.1 years). The mode of previous operation was ascending and arch replacement in 21, aortic valve replacement (AVR) in 19, and aortic root replacement in 10. Indications for reoperation included root dilation( n=13), aortic root abscess( n=13), residual proximal dissection (n=12), formation of pseudoaneurysm (n=5)and graft infection (n=3), and non-structural valve dysfunction (n=4). Mean interval from 1st operation was 84.3±85.2 months (range, 0.8 month~11.8 years). At reoperation, 29(58.0%)patients had Bentall operation, 11(22.0%)had valve sparing root replacement, 5(10.0%)had prosthetic valve preserved root replacement and 5(10.0%)had partial replacement of Valsalva sinus without reimplantation of coronaries. In-hospital mortality was 8.0%(4 of 50). The cause of mortality was sepsis in 2, low-output syndrome in 1 and hemorrhagic stroke in 1. During follow-up, 2 patients had a 3rd-time root replacement for pseudoaneurysm formation and infective endocarditis. Other 2 patients needed coronary artery bypass grafting(CABG) and AVR for structural valve deterioration. Freedom from 3rd-time aortic root related operation was 90.2±4.7% at 10 years. Actuarial survival after reoperation was 84.6±6.3% at 10 years. In conclusion, reoperative aortic root replacement can be performed with acceptable outcomes even in patients with complicated aortic pathologies.

Naegeli H.,University of Zurich | Sugasawa K.,Kobe University
DNA Repair | Year: 2011

The nucleotide excision repair (NER) system is a fundamental cellular stress response that uses only a handful of DNA binding factors, mutated in the cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), to detect an astounding diversity of bulky base lesions, including those induced by ultraviolet light, electrophilic chemicals, oxygen radicals and further genetic insults. Several of these XP proteins are characterized by a mediocre preference for damaged substrates over the native double helix but, intriguingly, none of them recognizes injured bases with sufficient selectivity to account for the very high precision of bulky lesion excision. Instead, substrate versatility as well as damage specificity and strand selectivity are achieved by a multistage quality control strategy whereby different subunits of the XP pathway, in succession, interrogate the DNA double helix for a distinct abnormality in its structural or dynamic parameters. Through this step-by-step filtering procedure, the XP proteins operate like a systematic decision making tool, generally known as decision tree analysis, to sort out rare damaged bases embedded in a vast excess of native DNA. The present review is focused on the mechanisms by which multiple XP subunits of the NER pathway contribute to the proposed decision tree analysis of DNA quality in eukaryotic cells. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Nakayashiki H.,Kobe University
Genes to Cells | Year: 2011

In mythology, the Trickster is an archetype who typically behaves selfishly and delights in playing tricks and breaking ordinary rules. In many myths and folktales, however, the Trickster also brings new knowledge and, ultimately, has positive effects on the community. Transposable elements (TEs) might have played such a role in the story of genome evolution. TEs can cause nonroutine genetic events like insertional mutations and ectopic recombination that provide a fundamental source of genetic variation, but they can also be a potential threat to genome integrity. Thus, the activity of TEs is usually controlled by an array of sophisticated mechanisms for genome defense. Recent findings indicate that TEs are important components of eukaryotic genomes, often to a much larger extent than ever anticipated. In this review, I focus on the contributions of TEs to various aspects of genome evolution. In addition, why TEs are specific targets for the genome defense mechanisms is discussed. © 2011 The Author. Journal compilation © 2011 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Sugasawa K.,Kobe University
Biochemistry (Moscow) | Year: 2011

The nucleotide excision repair (NER) subpathway operating throughout the mammalian genome is a versatile DNA repair system that can remove a wide variety of helix-distorting base lesions. This system contributes to prevention of blockage of DNA replication by the lesions, thereby suppressing mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Therefore, it is of fundamental significance to understand how the huge genome can be surveyed for occurrence of a small number of lesions. Recent studies have revealed that this difficult task seems to be accomplished through sequential actions of multiple DNA damage recognition factors, including UV-DDB, XPC, and TFIIH. Notably, these factors adopt completely different strategies to recognize DNA damage. XPC detects disruption and/or destabilization of the base pairing, which ensures a broad spectrum of substrate specificity for global genome NER. In contrast, UV-DDB directly recognizes particular types of lesions, such as UV-induced photoproducts, thereby vitally recruiting XPC as well as further extending the substrate specificity. After DNA binding by XPC, moreover, the helicase activity associated with TFIIH scans a DNA strand to make a final search for the presence of aberrant chemical modifications of DNA. The combination of these different strategies makes a crucial contribution to simultaneously achieving efficiency, accuracy, and versatility of the entire repair system. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Ma Y.,University of Coimbra | Prasad M.N.V.,University of Hyderabad | Rajkumar M.,Kobe University | Freitas H.,University of Coimbra
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2011

Technogenic activities (industrial-plastic, textiles, microelectronics, wood preservatives; mining-mine refuse, tailings, smelting; agrochemicals-chemical fertilizers, farm yard manure, pesticides; aerosols-pyrometallurgical and automobile exhausts; biosolids-sewage sludge, domestic waste; fly ash-coal combustion products) are the primary sources of heavy metal contamination and pollution in the environment in addition to geogenic sources. During the last two decades, bioremediation has emerged as a potential tool to clean up the metal-contaminated/polluted environment. Exclusively derived processes by plants alone (phytoremediation) are time-consuming. Further, high levels of pollutants pose toxicity to the remediating plants. This situation could be ameliorated and accelerated by exploring the partnership of plant-microbe, which would improve the plant growth by facilitating the sequestration of toxic heavy metals. Plants can bioconcentrate (phytoextraction) as well as bioimmobilize or inactivate (phytostabilization) toxic heavy metals through in situ rhizospheric processes. The mobility and bioavailability of heavy metal in the soil, particularly at the rhizosphere where root uptake or exclusion takes place, are critical factors that affect phytoextraction and phytostabilization. Developing new methods for either enhancing (phytoextraction) or reducing the bioavailability of metal contaminants in the rhizosphere (phytostabilization) as well as improving plant establishment, growth, and health could significantly speed up the process of bioremediation techniques. In this review, we have highlighted the role of plant growth promoting rhizo- and/or endophytic bacteria in accelerating phytoremediation derived benefits in extensive tables and elaborate schematic sketches. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Suda T.,University of Shizuoka | Hata T.,University of Shizuoka | Kawai S.,University of Shizuoka | Okamura H.,Kobe University | Nishida T.,University of Shizuoka
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Tetracycline antibiotics are widely used in human and veterinary medicine; however, residual amounts of these antibiotics in the environment are of concern since they could contribute to selection of resistant bacteria. In this study, tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), doxycycline (DC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) were treated with laccase from the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the presence of the redox mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). High performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that DC and CTC were completely eliminated after 15. min, while TC and CTC were eliminated after 1. h. This system also resulted in a complete loss of inhibition of growth of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis and the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata with decreasing tetracycline antibiotic concentration. These results suggest that the laccase-HBT system is effective in eliminating tetracycline antibiotics and removing their ecotoxicity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

A rarefied gas flow in a long porous channel having a periodic structure that is consisting of alternately arranged porous media and gaps, the former of which contains a periodic array of parallel circular cylinders, is considered for the case in which the channel is infinitely wide. The cylinder arrays have a periodic temperature distribution with the same period as the structure. Under the assumption that the length of each cylinder array and that of each gap are much larger than the period of the cylinders in the array, a fluid-dynamic system describing the overall behavior of the gas in the channel is derived from the kinetic system composed of the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation and the diffuse reflection boundary condition. The derived system is composed of a diffusion model for each cylinder array, whose isothermal version has been reported previously [S. Taguchi and P. Charrier, Phys. Fluids20, 067103 (2008)], a set of fluid-dynamic equations for each gap, and the macroscopic connection conditions at each junction between an array and a gap. Then, the fluid-dynamic system is applied to a long channel consisting of many cylinder arrays and gaps. Some numerical results demonstrating the pumping effect of the flow are presented. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Kondo T.,Kobe University
Journal of Medical Case Reports | Year: 2010

Introduction. Lung cancer with large cyst formation is relatively rare. This is a case report of a patient with lung cystic adenocarcinoma with multiple histologic patterns. This type of lung adenocarcinoma is believed to be the first reported case in English language medical literature. Case presentation. A 60-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to hospital complaining of dyspnea and died of respiratory failure. She had been suffering from lung cancer with pleural effusion for five years. Autopsy analysis revealed lung adenocarcinoma with large cyst formation showing a variety of histologic patterns. Conclusions. Autopsy analysis of this atypical case of lung cancer may provide insight and lead to a better understanding of the heterogeneity and clonal expansion of lung adenocarcinoma. © 2010 Kondo; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Matsuo H.,Kobe University
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2015

The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake damaged severely and extensively a large geographical area and caused devastating disruptions to the industrial supply chains in Japan. This paper focuses on a case of supply disruption of the automotive microcontroller units, which were produced by Renesas Electronics and supplied to Toyota via its first tier vendors like Denso. The first purpose of this paper is to describe, from a supply chain management view point, what happened and what actions these companies took, and to understand why it took three months for Toyota to recover to its pre-earthquake production level. Since many things happened, we apply a framework of SCM hierarchy to analyze the issues from the perspective of execution, design, strategy and sustainability. The second purpose is to identify based on this case analysis what functions are missing in the supply chain coordination mechanism of Toyota Production System, where the coordination is propagating from Toyota to upstream suppliers through the close interaction between the successive layers of its multi-layered supplier network. This case analysis implies that direct control functions need to be added to alleviate the disruption risk and secure the supply of key parts and materials. The third purpose of this paper is to show by presenting a detailed case analysis that the underlying characteristics of supply chain structure and infrastructure should be linked with the resilience tactics adopted. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kano S.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Kano S.,Kobe University | Tada T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Majima Y.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Majima Y.,Sunchon National University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2015

In this review, we describe recent progress made in the study of nanoparticles characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Basic principles of STM measurements and single-electron tunneling phenomena through a single NP are summarized. We highlight the results of electrical and photonic properties on NPs studied by STM and STS. Because nanoparticles are single-digit nanometre in diameter, a single-electron transport on individual nanoparticles such as Coulomb blockade and resonant tunneling through discrete energy levels are investigated. Photon-emission from NPs is also introduced based on STM measurements. Novel single-nanoparticle functions such as stochastic blinking and one-write erasing behaviours are presented. This review provides an overview of nanoparticle characterization methods based on STM and STS that include the detailed understanding of the electrical and photonics properties of nanoparticles. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

Kageyama A.,Kobe University
Journal of Visualization | Year: 2015

Abstract: Aiming at applications to the scientific visualization of three-dimensional simulation data of dynamical systems, a keyboard-based control method to specify rotations in four dimensions is proposed. It is known that four-dimensional rotations are generally the so-called double rotations, and a double rotation is a combination of simultaneously applied two simple rotations. The proposed method can specify both the simple and double rotations by single key typing of the keyboard. The method is tested in visualizations of a regular pentachoron in four-dimensional space by a hyperplane slicing. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015 The Visualization Society of Japan

Kageyama A.,Kobe University
Journal of Visualization | Year: 2015

Abstract: A method to visualize polytopes in a four-dimensional euclidian space (x, y, z, w) is proposed. A polytope is sliced by multiple hyperplanes that are parallel to each other and separated by uniform intervals. Since the hyperplanes are perpendicular to the w-axis, the resulting multiple slices appear in the three-dimensional (x, y, z) space and they are shown by the standard computer graphics. The polytope is rotated extrinsically in the four-dimensional space by means of a simple input method based on keyboard typings. The multiple slices are placed on a parabola curve in the three-dimensional world coordinates. The slices in a view window form an oval appearance. Both the simple and the double rotations in the four-dimensional space are applied to the polytope. All slices synchronously change their shapes when a rotation is applied to the polytope. The compact display in the oval of many slices with the help of quick rotations facilitate a grasp of the four-dimensional configuration of the polytope. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015 The Visualization Society of Japan

Fujioka K.,Chiyoda Corporation | Suzuki H.,Kobe University
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2013

Experimental studies have been conducted in order to obtain information on thermophysical properties and reaction characteristics of composite reactant of calcium chloride and expanded graphite, which has been developed to improve the performance of a reactor bed used for gas-solid chemical heat pumps. Effective thermal conductivity, permeability and reaction rate of the composite reactant have been measured. From the results of heat transfer experiments it was found that the effective thermal conductivity of the composite reactant is more than ten times larger than granular calcium chloride and strongly affected by void fraction. Permeability measurements show that the Darcy number increases rapidly with decreasing void fraction in the range of the void fraction from 0.4 to 0.6. The rate of reaction of composite reactant with water has been measured using a small cell which simulates a part of reactor bed where the reactant is packed between fins of plate-fin heat exchanger. The measured overall reaction rate has been analyzed using a model which is developed by taking account of the influence of adsorption of water molecules on hydration rate. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Shirase K.,Kobe University | Nakamoto K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
International Journal of Automation Technology | Year: 2013

An autonomous and intelligent machine tool have been developed to solve fundamental issues with the current command method using NC programs, and simulation technologies for its realization have been introduced. The process planning system introduced here, various process plans can be created, and the best process plan can be selected to achieve flexible machining operations in accordance with changes in production planning. Digital Copy Milling, digitizing the principle of copy milling, has opened up new possibilities for machine tool control. The NC machine tool can be directly controlled with the 3D CAD data of the product shape in Digital CopyMilling. Direct machining without the need to create an NC program before milling operation, adaptive control which changes the cutting conditions in accordance with the cutting load during milling operation, and fault detection in the cutting load and avoiding tool breakages can be performed through Digital Copy Milling. Themilling process simulator with integrated milling shape simulator and cutting force simulator provides new functions. Simultaneous cutting force prediction with milling operation provides the possibility of milling process control and fault detection by comparing the measured cutting force with the predicted one.

Abe S.,Kobe University
Pattern Recognition | Year: 2015

The problem of one-against-all support vector machines (SVMs) for multilabel classification is that a data sample may be classified into a multilabel class that is not defined or it may not be classified into any class. To solve this problem, in this paper we propose fuzzy SVMs (FSVMs) for multilabel classification, in which for each multilabel class, a region with the associated membership function is defined and a data point is classified into a multilabel class whose membership function is the largest. By computer experiments, we show that the accuracy is improved by the FSVM over the conventional one-against-all SVM. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kato N.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Tsutsumi M.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Sato R.,Kobe University
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture | Year: 2013

The present paper describes the effect of the half apex angle of the cone-frustum on the motion trajectory under simultaneous five-axis motion and the effect of the sensitive direction of the ball bar when the motion trajectory is measured along the three-dimensional circular conical path. In the present paper, simulation of the measurement by means of a ball bar instrument is mainly conducted using a motion simulator developed previously. In particular, a precise mathematical model was developed to express the pitch errors of the axes of rotation of the five-axis machining center having a tilting rotary table driven by worm gears. In the experiment and simulation, primarily the center position and half apex angle of the cone-frustum were varied. In addition, two sensitive directions of the ball bar were investigated. The motion simulator incorporating the pitch error model can express the detailed trajectories obtained by the ball bar, even if the half apex angle and center position of the cone-frustum and the sensitive direction of the ball bar were changed. Then, the influence of the frictional force of the linear axes of motion, and the backlash and pitch error of the axes of rotation on the circular trajectories were analyzed. In particular, for the case of a half apex angle of 45°, the trajectory due to the errors of the axis of rotation is strongly affected by the sensitive direction of the ball bar. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kataoka T.,Kobe University
Journal of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2010

In a previous work, Kataoka and Tsutahara (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 512, 2004a, p. 211) proved the existence of longitudinally stable but transversely unstable surface solitary waves by asymptotic analysis for disturbances of small transverse wavenumber. In the present paper, the same transverse instability is examined numerically for the whole range of solitary-wave amplitudes and transverse wavenumbers of disturbances. Numerical results show that eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of growing disturbance modes agree well with those obtained by the asymptotic analysis if the transverse wavenumber of the disturbance is small. As the transverse wavenumber increases, however, the growth rate of the disturbance, which is an increasing function for small wavenumbers, reaches a maximum and finally falls to zero at some finite wavenumber. Thus, there is a high-wavenumber cutoff to the transverse instability. For higher amplitude, solitary waves become longitudinally unstable, and the dependence of the eigenvalues on the transverse wavenumber exhibits various complicated patterns. We found that such eigenvalues versus transverse wavenumber can be simply grouped into three basic classes. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

Ho S.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Ho S.-H.,Kobe University | Li P.-J.,National Cheng Kung University | Liu C.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Chang J.-S.,National Cheng Kung University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

A two-stage cultivation strategy was applied to achieve greater CO2 fixation and carbohydrate productivity with an indigenous microalga Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N, which was first cultivated using a nutrient-rich medium to promote cell growth, and was then switched to a nutrient-deficient condition to trigger carbohydrate accumulation. The optimal biomass productivity, carbohydrate productivity, and CO2 fixation rate were 681.4, 352.9, and 1192.5mgL-1d-1, respectively, with a 51.8% carbohydrate content (based on dry weight). This performance is better than the results in most related studies. The microalgal carbohydrate was mainly composed of glucose, which accounts for nearly 80% of total sugars. Dilute acid hydrolysis with 2% H2SO4 can saccharify the wet microalgal biomass effectively, achieving a glucose yield of 96-98%. Using the acidic hydrolysate of the microalga as feedstock, the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) process gave an ethanol concentration of 8.55gL-1, representing a theoretical yield of nearly 99.8%. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Sakagami T.,Kobe University
Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures | Year: 2015

Long-standing infrastructure is subject to structural deterioration. In this respect, steel bridges suffer fatigue cracks, which necessitate immediate inspection, structural integrity evaluation or repair. However, the inaccessibility of such structures makes inspection time consuming and labour intensive. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing high-performance nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to assist in effective maintenance of such structures. Recently, use of infrared cameras in nondestructive testing has been attracting increasing interest, as they provide highly efficient remote and wide area measurements. This paper first reviews the current situation of nondestructive inspection techniques used for fatigue crack detection in steel bridges, and then presents remote NDE techniques using infrared thermography developed by the author for fatigue crack detection and structural integrity assessments. Furthermore, results of applying fatigue crack evaluation to a steel bridge using the newly developed NDE techniques are presented. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Ltd.

Recognition of the genus Habrocampulum Gauld, 1976 (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae) from Japan, with a new combination and a key to the species. Copyright © 2016 Magnolia Press.

We consider the reincarnation of interstellar dust to be reborn in protoplanetary disks as aggregates consisting of submicron-sized grains with a crystalline or amorphous silicate core and an organic-rich carbonaceous mantle. We find that infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust reproduce emission peaks at correct wavelengths where the peaks were observed in cometary comae, debris disks, and protoplanetary disks if the volume fraction of organic refractory meets the constraints on elemental abundances. We discuss what we can learn from the infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust in cometary comae and circumstellar disks. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Suzuki H.,Kobe University
International Journal of Refrigeration | Year: 2013

The 10th IIR Conference on Phase-Change Materials and Slurries for Refrigeration and Air Conditioning was held from 29th July to 2nd August 2012 in Kobe, Japan. Emulsion systems of organic phase-change materials such as tetradecane were reported during the conference. Prof. Arydi Suwono discussed trimethylolethane (TME) hydrate systems in his keynote lecture. The flow and heat transfer characteristics of phase-change material slurries were also discussed during the conference. During this conference, several researchers reported novel techniques using nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes in order to enable thermal conductivity improvements of phase change materials. Several authors also reported improvements in the wall in a generator of phase-change materials with nano-composites and with some chemical materials.

Nagoya H.,Kobe University
Letters in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2012

We realize affine Weyl group symmetries on the Schrödinger equations for the quantum Painlevé equations, by fractional calculus. This realization enables us to construct an infinite number of hypergeometric solutions to the Schrödinger equations for the quantum Painlevé equations. In other words, since the Schrödinger equations for the quantum Painlevé equations are equivalent to the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations, we give one method of constructing hypergeometric solutions to the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations. © 2012 Springer.

Forecasts of travel demand are often based on data from the most recent time point, even when cross-sectional data is available from multiple time points. This is because forecasting models with similar contexts have higher transferability, and the context of the most recent time point is believed to be the most similar to the context of a future time point. In this paper, the author proposes a method for improving the forecasting performance of disaggregate travel demand models by utilising not only the most recent dataset but also an older dataset. The author assumes that the parameters are functions of time, which means that future parameter values can be forecast. These forecast parameters are then used for travel demand forecasting. This paper describes a case study of journeys to work mode choice analysis in Nagoya, Japan, using data collected in 1971, 1981, 1991, and 2001. Behaviours in 2001 are forecast using a model with only the most recent 1991 dataset and models that combine the 1971, 1981, and 1991 datasets. The models proposed by the author using data from three time points can provide better forecasts. This paper also discusses the functional forms for expressing parameter changes and questions the temporal transferability of not only alternative-specific constants but also level-of-service and socio-economic parameters. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Okita Y.,Kobe University
General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery | Year: 2011

Paraplegia or paraparesis after otherwise successful thoracic or thoracoabdominal aortic reconstruction is a devastating complication for both patient and physician. Various strategies have been developed to minimize the incidence of neurological complications after aortic surgery. The incidence of spinal cord ischemia and subsequent neurological complications has been correlated with (1) the duration and severity of ischemia, (2) failure to establish a spinal cord blood supply, and (3) reperfusion injury. Preoperative identifi cation of the arteria radicularis magna, the artery of Adamkiewicz, facilitates identifi cation of critical intercostal vessels for reimplantation, resulting in reestablishing spinal cord blood fl ow. Techniques for monitoring spinal cord function using evoked potentials have been developed, and surgical techniques have evolved to reduce the duration of ischemia. Furthermore, sequentially sacrifi cing all the intercostal arteries while maintaining collateral circulation to the cord has produced good outcomes. The severity of ischemia can be minimized by using cerebrospinal fluid drainage, hypothermia, distal bypass, managing the blood pressure, and adjunctive pharmacological therapy. Reperfusion injury can be reduced with the use of antioxidant therapy. Recent advances in endovascular stentgrafting have reduced the incidence of postoperative spinal complications, especially among high-risk patients. © The Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery 2011.

Matsumoto J.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | Masada Y.,Kobe University
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2013

We study the stability of a non-rotating single-component jet using two-dimensional special relativistic hydrodynamic simulations. By assuming translational invariance along the jet axis, we exclude the destabilization effect by Kelvin-Helmholtz mode. The nonlinear evolution of the transverse structure of the jet with a normal jet velocity is highlighted. An intriguing finding in our study is that Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov type instabilities can destroy cylindrical jet configuration as a result of spontaneously induced radial oscillating motion. This is powered by in situ energy conversion between the thermal and bulk kinetic energies. The effective inertia ratio of the jet to the surrounding medium η determines a threshold for the onset of instabilities. The condition η < 1 should be satisfied for the transverse structure of the jet being persisted. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Nomura K.,Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research | Lintuluoto M.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Morigaki K.,Kobe University
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2011

Inhomogeneous line broadening due to conformational distributions of molecules is one of the troublesome problems in solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The best possible way to avoid it is to crystallize the sample. Here, we present a highly resolved 13C cross-polarization (CP) magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectrum of the highly ordered crystalline 1,2- dimyrystoyl-sn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and completely assigned it using two-dimensional (2D) solid-state NMR spectra, dipolar heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectra, scalar heteronuclear J coupling based chemical shift correlation (MAS-J-HMQC) spectra, and Dipolar Assisted Rotational Resonance (DARR) spectra. A comparison between assigned chemical shift values by solid-state NMR in this study and the calculated chemical shift values for X-ray crystal DMPC structures shows good agreement, indicating that the two isomers in the crystalline DMPC take the same conformation as the X-ray crystal structure. The phase diagram of the low hydration level of DMPC (3 ≤ nW ≤ 12) determined by 1H and 13C NMR spectra indicates that DMPC takes a crystalline state only in a very narrow region around nW = 4 and T < 313 K. These findings provide us with conformational information on crystalline DMPC and the physical properties of DMPC at a low hydration level and can possibly help us obtain a highly resolved solid-state NMR spectrum of microcrystalline membrane-associated protein samples. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Sakura M.,Kobe University
Acta biologica Hungarica | Year: 2012

Aggressive behavior of white-eye mutant crickets was investigated and compared with that of wild-type crickets. In the dark, wild-type pairs performed long-lasting fights with significantly higher aggressive levels compared to those in the light. In contrast, fights between two white-eye mutants were not significantly different with those between two wild-type crickets both in duration and the aggressive levels. Ethograms of aggressive behavior showed that the mutants could show typical sequentially escalating fight with the same behavioral categories as the wild-type crickets. These results indicate that the white-eye mutants are able to express normal aggressive behavior.

Ohta Y.,Kobe University | Yang J.,University of Vermont
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2013

General rogue waves in the Davey-Stewartson (DS)II equation are derived by the bilinear method, and the solutions are given through determinants. It is shown that the simplest (fundamental) rogue waves are line rogue waves which arise from the constant background in a line profile and then retreat back to the constant background again. It is also shown that multi-rogue waves describe the interaction between several fundamental rogue waves, and higher order rogue waves exhibit different dynamics (such as rising from the constant background but not retreating back to it). Under certain parameter conditions, these rogue waves can blow up to infinity in finite time at isolated spatial points, i.e. exploding rogue waves exist in the DSII equation. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Kuribayashi M.,Kobe University
Eurasip Journal on Information Security | Year: 2011

Digital fingerprinting is a method to insert user's own ID into digital contents in order to identify illegal users who distribute unauthorized copies. One of the serious problems in a fingerprinting system is the collusion attack such that several users combine their copies of the same content to modify/delete the embedded fingerprints. In this paper, we propose a collusion-resistant fingerprinting scheme based on the CDMA technique. Our fingerprint sequences are orthogonal sequences of DCT basic vectors modulated by PN sequence. In order to increase the number of users, a hierarchical structure is produced by assigning a pair of the fingerprint sequences to a user. Under the assumption that the frequency components of detected sequences modulated by PN sequence follow Gaussian distribution, the design of thresholds and the weighting of parameters are studied to improve the performance. The robustness against collusion attack and the computational costs required for the detection are estimated in our simulation. © 2011 Minoru Kuribayashi.

Exome sequencing has revealed the causative mutations behind numerous rare, inherited disorders, but it is challenging to find reliable epidemiological values for rare disorders. Here, I provide a genetic epidemiology method to identify the causative mutations behind rare, inherited disorders using two population exome sequences (1000 Genomes and NHLBI). I created global maps of carrier rate distribution for 18 recessive disorders in 16 diverse ethnic populations. Out of a total of 161 mutations associated with 18 recessive disorders, I detected 24 mutations in either or both exome studies. The genetic mapping revealed strong international spatial heterogeneities in the carrier patterns of the inherited disorders. I next validated this methodology by statistically evaluating the carrier rate of one well-understood disorder, sickle cell anemia (SCA). The population exome-based epidemiology of SCA [African (allele frequency (AF) = 0.0454, N = 2447), Asian (AF = 0, N = 286), European (AF = 0.000214, N = 4677), and Hispanic (AF = 0.0111, N = 362)] was not significantly different from that obtained from a clinical prevalence survey. A pair-wise proportion test revealed no significant differences between the two exome projects in terms of AF (46/48 cases; P > 0.05). I conclude that population exome-based carrier rates can form the foundation for a prospectively maintained database of use to clinical geneticists. Similar modeling methods can be applied to many inherited disorders. © 2016 Kohei Fujikura. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Kuboki K.,Kobe University
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan | Year: 2014

At a (110) surface of a dx2-y-2-wave superconductor, superconducting order is strongly suppressed. In such a situation, ordered states that are forbidden in the bulk may arise. This problem is studied for high-TC cuprate superconductors by treating the t-J model with extended transfer integrals using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes method. It is found that a flux phase with staggered currents along the surface, or an antiferromagnetic state can occur near the surface. Stability of the emergent surface states is different from system to system depending on the shapes of their Fermi surfaces. Possible relation to the experiments on the Kerr effect that suggest time-reversal symmetry breaking is discussed. © 2014 The Physical Society of Japan.

Takebayashi M.,Kobe University
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2014

This paper proposes a bi-level passenger transport market model taking into account competition between air and high-speed rail (HSR) in a domestic market. The paper discusses the characteristics of the relationship between market share and connectivity in domestic and international markets. The result suggests that because of the dominance of HSR in the domestic market, when connectivity between air and HSR is good, international passenger's welfare can be improved. Finally, when considering profitability of the players, there is an incentive for airlines to cooperate with HSR, but there is no incentive for HSR to cooperate with airlines. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Nakano M.,Konan University | Tateishi-Karimata H.,Konan University | Tanaka S.,Kobe University | Sugimoto N.,Konan University
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2014

Under physiological conditions, G-C base pairs are more stable than A-T base pairs. In a previous study, we showed that in the hydrated ionic liquid of choline dihydrogen phosphate, the stabilities of these base pairs are reversed. In the present study, we elucidated the unique binding interactions of choline ions with DNA atoms from a microscopic viewpoint using molecular dynamics simulations. Three times more choline ions bind to the DNA duplex than sodium ions. Sodium ions bind closely but not stably; in contrast, the choline ions bind through multiple hydrogen bonding networks with DNA atoms stably. The affinity of choline ion for the minor groove of A-T base pairs is more than 2 times that for other groove areas. In the narrow A-T minor groove, choline ion has high affinity for the ribose atoms of thymine. Choline ions also destabilize the formation of hydrogen bonds between G-C base pairs by binding to base atoms preferentially for both of duplex and single-strand DNA, which are associated with the bonds between G-C base pairs. Our new finding will not only lead to better control of DNA stability for use in DNA nanodevices, but also provide new insight into the stability of DNA duplexes under crowding conditions found in living cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Kuribayashi M.,Kobe University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2013

In conventional spread spectrum watermarking schemes, random sequences are used for the modulation of watermark information. However, because of the mutual interference among those sequences, it requires complicated removal operation to improve the performance. In this paper, we propose an efficient spread spectrum watermarking scheme by introducing the CDMA technique at the modulation of watermark information. In order to control the energy assigned to spread spectrum sequences, we propose a coded method that encodes watermark information into a constant weight codeword. If the weight and its code-length are properly selected, the performance of the method could outperform the conventional methods. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

Somekawa H.,Japan National Institute of Materials Science | Mukai T.,Kobe University
Computational Materials Science | Year: 2013

The deformation behavior at the grain boundary was investigated by the molecular dynamics simulation using two models based on different kinds of [1-100] symmetric tilt boundaries (Σ25 with a tilt angle of θ = 23° and Σ10 with θ = 78°) in magnesium. Grain boundary migrations occurred in both models due to the reduction in the internal energy during deformation. The deformation mechanism at the grain boundary was shown to be the twinning induced grain boundary migration. The grain boundary migration was affected by the grain boundary structures, and it was enhanced in the grain boundaries with high energies. On the other hand, the grain boundary migration was suppressed by the addition of solute atoms, i.e., aluminum and silver. The silver atoms were found to be more effective for suppression than the aluminum atoms. These behaviors occurred in both the molecular dynamics simulation and the experiments. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lin B.Z.,Kobe University
Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaihō | Year: 2013

In the current study, a total of 65 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the intron region were developed in goat (Capra hircus) by utilizing genomic information of cattle and sheep due to poor available genomic information on goat. Using these markers, we carried out genetic diversity and structure analyses for 10 Asian goat populations. The phylogenetic tree and principal components analysis showed good correspondence between clustered populations and their geographic locations. The STRUCTURE software analysis illustrated six divergent genetic structures among 10 populations. Myanmar and Cambodia populations showed high admixture patterns with different ancestry, suggesting genetic introgression into native goat populations. We also investigated the correlation between genetic diversity and geographic distance from a domestication center. This result showed a decreasing trend of genetic diversity according to the distance (P = 0.014). This result supported common consensus that western Asia is one of the centers of origin for modern Asian domestic goat. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

Hart P.A.,Ohio State University | Zen Y.,Kobe University | Chari S.T.,Mayo Medical School
Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a form of chronic pancreatitis that is characterized clinically by frequent presentation with obstructive jaundice, histologically by a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with fibrosis, and therapeutically by a dramatic response to corticosteroid therapy. Two distinct diseases, type 1 and type 2 AIP, share these features. However, these 2 diseases have unique pancreatic histopathologic patterns and differ significantly in their demographic profiles, clinical presentation, and natural history. Recognizing the popular and long-standing association of the term "AIP" with what is now called "type 1 AIP," we suggest using "AIP" solely for type 1 AIP and to acknowledge its own distinct disease status by using "idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis" (IDCP) for type 2 AIP. AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). The etiopathogenesis of AIP and IgG4-RD is largely unknown. However, the remarkable effectiveness of B-cell depletion therapy with rituximab in patients with AIP and IgG4-RD highlights the crucial role of B cells in its pathogenesis. IDCP is less commonly recognized, and little is known about its pathogenesis. IDCP has no biomarker but is associated with inflammatory bowel disease in ∼25% of patients. Recently, the international consensus diagnostic criteria for AIP identified combinations of features that are diagnostic of both diseases. Both AIP and IDCP are corticosteroid responsive; however, relapses are common in AIP and rare in IDCP. Therefore, maintenance therapy with either an immunomodulator (eg, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, or mycophenolate mofetil) or rituximab is often necessary for patients with AIP. Long-term survival is excellent for both patients with AIP and patients with IDCP. © 2015 AGA Institute.

Otsuka J.,Kobe University
Biology and Philosophy | Year: 2016

Over the past decade philosophers of biology have discussed whether evolutionary theory is a causal theory or a phenomenological study of evolution based solely on the statistical features of a population. This article reviews this controversy from three aspects, respectively concerning the assumptions, applications, and explanations of evolutionary theory, with a view to arriving at a definite conclusion in each contention. In so doing I also argue that an implicit methodological assumption shared by both sides of the debate, namely the overconfidence in conceptual analysis as a tool to understand the scientific theory, is the real culprit that has both generated the problem and precluded its solution for such a long time. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Kajino N.,Bielefeld University | Kajino N.,Kobe University
Communications in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2014

Let Z(t) be the partition function (the trace of the heat semigroup) of the canonical Laplacian on a post-critically finite self-similar set (with uniform resistance scaling factor and good geometric symmetry) or on a generalized Sierpiński carpet. It is proved that (Formula Presented) for some continuous periodic functions Gk:R ℝ and c ∈ (0,∞). Here dw in(1,∞) denotes the walk dimension, n = 1 for a post-critically finite self-similar set, n = d for a d-dimensional generalized Sierpiński carpet, {dk}k=0 n ⊂ [0,∞) is strictly decreasing with d n = 0, G 0 is strictly positive and G 1 is either strictly positive or strictly negative depending on the (Neumann or Dirichlet) boundary condition. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

The relationship between body weight and footprint area of modern avians was derived and used to estimate the body weights of non-avian theropods taxa from the Triassic to Cretaceous and extinct avian taxa from the Cretaceous periods. Geometric information, such as the area and shape of fossil tracks of extinct avians and non-avian theropods, was used to estimate body weight and habitat type. The percentage prediction and standard error of estimates indicated that the body weight estimated from track area is comparable with body weight estimated from body fossils bones. Therefore, this approach is useful when the fossilized track record is richer than the fossilized skeletal record. The data sets for avians and reptiles were combined and used to derive a body weight-area relationship that may be applicable to a broader range of organisms, such as plantigrade quadrupeds and digitigrade bipeds. Additionally, scatter plots of the relationship between habitat type and footprint shape of modern avians were used to infer the habitat type of extinct avians. This finding suggests that the pes of animals, living in areas characterized by fluctuating water levels, and under conditions facilitating the preservation of footprints, were similar in form to those of extant semi-aquatic avians. © 2014 Lethaia Foundation.

Yokota K.,Kobe University | Igaki N.,Takasago Municipal Hospital
Internal Medicine | Year: 2012

A dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor, commonly used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes, has caused concern because of immune system side effects. We report a 48-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes who was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after continued polyarthritis and an increase in rheumatoid factor up to 86 IU/mL after three months of treatment with sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor. The shared epitope (SE)-containing human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles, which are important predisposing factors for RA, were positive. RA might have been triggered by sitagliptin due to a predisposing condition. © 2012 The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine.

Yoshioka S.,Kobe University | Matsuoka Y.,NTT Data | Ide S.,University of Tokyo
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2015

We estimated spatiotemporal slip distributions from three long-term slow slip events (L-SSEs) that occurred beneath the Bungo Channel at the convergent plate boundary between the subducting oceanic Philippine Sea plate and the continental Amurian plate in southwest Japan between 1997 and 1998, 2002 and 2004 and 2009 and 2011. For this purpose, we employed an inversion method using a Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC), which included the following three prior constraints: the spatial slip distribution was smooth to some extent, slip directions were mostly oriented in the direction of plate convergence and the temporal change in slipwas smooth to some extent. Our results revealed that the three L-SSEs had a common feature: slipped regions expanded southwestward at accelerating slip velocities. We also found that major slipped regions migrated southwestward by approximately 50-100 km yr-1. In contrast, southwestward and northeastward migration of the slipped regions, whose direction differed from event to event, was also identified before or after the periods when the slip velocities were at their greatest. Comparing the obtained spatiotemporal slip distributions of the three L-SSEs with slip-deficit rate distributions obtained in our previous study, we investigated the accumulation process of the slip deficit caused by slip-deficit rate distributions and the release processes of the slip deficit caused by the obtained spatiotemporal slip distributions of the three L-SSEs. At the western plate interface of the Bungo Channel, as the slip-deficit rate was small and the amounts of slips associated with the three L-SSEs were large, most of the accumulated slip deficit was estimated to have been released. In contrast, at the eastern plate interface, as the slip-deficit rate was large and the amounts of slips associated with the three L-SSEs were small, the slip deficit was estimated to have accumulated effectively. These results suggest that the slipped regions of the three L-SSEs and the strongly coupled region are not spatially complementary; the accumulated slip deficit showed spatial variation even at approximately the same depth range along the arc. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society.

Dong B.,RIKEN | Hannezo E.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Hayashi S.,RIKEN | Hayashi S.,Kobe University
Cell Reports | Year: 2014

The morphological stability of biological tubes is crucial for the efficient circulation of fluids and gases. Failure of this stability causes irregularly shaped tubes found in multiple pathological conditions. Here, we report that Drosophila mutants of the ESCRT III component Shrub/Vps32 exhibit a strikingly elongated sinusoidal tube phenotype. This is caused by excessive apical membrane synthesis accompanied by the ectopic accumulation and overactivation of Crumbs in swollen endosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the apical extracellular matrix (aECM) of the tracheal tube is a viscoelastic material coupled with the apical membrane. We present a simple mechanical model in which aECM elasticity, apical membrane growth, and their interaction are three vital parameters determining the stability of biological tubes. Our findings demonstrate a mechanical role for the extracellular matrix and suggest that the interaction of the apical membrane and an elastic aECM determines the final morphology of biological tubes independent of cell shape. © 2014 The Authors.

Kurihara M.,University of Electro - Communications | Kuwakado H.,Kobe University
IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences | Year: 2013

In this paper, we present a construction of (n, k, d,m) secure regenerating codes for distributed storage systems against eavesdroppers that can observe either data stored in at most m storage nodes or downloaded data for repairing at most m failed nodes in a network where m < k ≤ d ≤ n - 1. The (n, k, d,m) secure regenerating code is based on an (n, k, d) minimum bandwidth regenerating (MBR) code, which was proposed by Rashmi, Shah and Kumar as optimal exact-regenerating codes, for all values of the parameters (n, k, d). The (n, k, d,m) secure regenerating codes have the security as a secret sharing scheme such that even if an eavesdropper knows either data stored in at most m storage nodes or downloaded data for repairing at most m failed nodes, no information about data leaks to the eavesdropper. Copyright © 2013 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers.

Adachi N.,RIKEN | Adachi N.,Kobe University | Kuratani S.,RIKEN
Evolution and Development | Year: 2012

Vertebrate head segmentation has attracted the attention of comparative and evolutionary morphologists for centuries, given its importance for understanding the developmental body plan of vertebrates and its evolutionary origin. In particular, the segmentation of the mesoderm is central to the problem. The shark embryo has provided a canonical morphological scheme of the head, with its epithelialized coelomic cavities (head cavities), which have often been regarded as head somites. To understand the evolutionary significance of the head cavities, the embryonic development of the mesoderm was investigated at the morphological and histological levels in the shark, Scyliorhinus torazame. Unlike somites and some enterocoelic mesodermal components in other vertebrates, the head cavities in S. torazame appeared as irregular cyst(s) in the originally unsegmented mesenchymal head mesoderm, and not via segmentation of an undivided coelom. The mandibular cavity appeared first in the paraxial part of the mandibular mesoderm, followed by the hyoid cavity, and the premandibular cavity was the last to form. The prechordal plate was recognized as a rhomboid roof of the preoral gut, continuous with the rostral notochord, and was divided anteroposteriorly into two parts by the growth of the hypothalamic primordium. Of those, the posterior part was likely to differentiate into the premandibular cavity, and the anterior part disappeared later. The head cavities and somites in the trunk exhibited significant differences, in terms of histological appearance and timing of differentiation. The mandibular cavity developed a rostral process secondarily; its homology to the anterior cavity reported in some elasmobranch embryos is discussed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Awata H.,Nagoya University | Yamada Y.,Kobe University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2010

We study an analog of the AGT (Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa) relation in five dimensions. We conjecture that the instanton partition function of 5D N = 1 pure SU(2) gauge theory coincides with the inner product of the Gaiotto-like state in the deformed Virasoro algebra. In four-dimensional case, a relation between the Gaiotto construction and the theory of Braverman and Etingof is also discussed. © SISSA 2010.

Jambunathan S.,Boston University | Yin J.,Boston University | Khan W.,Boston University | Tamori Y.,Kobe University | Puri V.,Boston University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Fat Specific Protein 27 (FSP27), a lipid droplet (LD) associated protein in adipocytes, regulates triglyceride (TG) storage. In the present study we demonstrate that FSP27 plays a key role in LD morphology to accumulate TGs. We show here that FSP27 promotes clustering of the LDs which is followed by their fusion into fewer and enlarged droplets. To map the domains of FSP27 responsible for these events, we generated GFP-fusion constructs of deletion mutants of FSP27. Microscopic analysis revealed that amino acids 173-220 of FSP27 are necessary and sufficient for both the targeting of FSP27 to LDs and the initial clustering of the droplets. Amino acids 120-140 are essential but not sufficient for LD enlargement, whereas amino acids 120-210 are necessary and sufficient for both clustering and fusion of LDs to form enlarged droplets. In addition, we found that FSP27-mediated enlargement of LDs, but not their clustering, is associated with triglyceride accumulation. These results suggest a model in which FSP27 facilitates LD clustering and then promotes their fusion to form enlarged droplets in two discrete, sequential steps, and a subsequent triglyceride accumulation. © 2011 Jambunathan et al.

Harima H.,Kobe University | Harima H.,Joseph Fourier University | Miyake K.,Joseph Fourier University | Miyake K.,Osaka University | Flouquet J.,Joseph Fourier University
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan | Year: 2010

For more than two decades, the nonmagnetic anomaly observed around 17.5K in URu2Si2, has been investigated intensively. However, any kind of fingerprint for the lattice anomaly has not been observed in the low-temperature ordered phase. Therefore, the order has been called "the hidden order". One simple answer to why the hidden order is still hidden is presented from the space group analysis. The second-order phase transition from I4=mmm (No. 139) to P42=mnm (No. 136) does not require any kind of lattice distortion in this system and allows the NQR frequency at a Ru site unchanged. It is compatible with Oxy-type antiferro-quadrupole ordering with Q = (0; 0; 1). The characteristics of the hidden order are discussed based on the local 5f2 electron picture. © 2010 The Physical Society of Japan.

Kobayashia T.,Kobe University
European Physical Journal B | Year: 2013

The question of how to stabilize financial systems has attracted considerable attention since the global financial crisis of 2007-2009. Recently, Beale et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 12647 (2011)] demonstrated that higher portfolio diversity among banks would reduce systemic risk by decreasing the risk of simultaneous defaults at the expense of a higher likelihood of individual defaults. In practice, however, a bank default has an externality in that it undermines other banks' balance sheets. This paper explores how each of these different sources of risk, simultaneity risk and externality, contributes to systemic risk. The results show that the allocation of external assets that minimizes systemic risk varies with the topology of the financial network as long as asset returns have negative correlations. In the model, a well-known centrality measure, PageRank, reflects an appropriately defined "infectiveness" of a bank. An important result is that the most infective bank needs not always to be the safest bank. Under certain circumstances, the most infective node should act as a firewall to