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Arii Y.,Mukogawa Womens University | Takenaka Y.,Kobe Shoin Womens University
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry

Magnesium and calcium ions are important factors in making tofu. However, the molecular role of these ions remains unclear in tofu formation. We have previously shown that magnesium chloride concentration-dependent produced silken tofu-like (SP) and regular tofu-like (RP) precipitates, but was an inconsequential factor for the retention of tofu. We investigated in this present study, the effect of various metal chlorides on the metal chloride concentration-dependent changes in tofu formation. These changes occurred in a similar manner to that of the magnesium ion, in which SP formation was followed by RP formation. It is interesting that the midpoint concentration for the formation of SP and RP represented a good correlation with the stability constant of EDTA. This correlation demonstrated the possibility that metal ions would interact with the carboxyl groups of soy proteins. We consider from these results that metal ions were the initiators of protein association in tofu formation. © 2014 Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry. Source

Yin Y.,Dalian Medical University | Katahira R.,Kobe Shoin Womens University | Ashihara H.,Ochanomizu University
Natural Product Communications

Accumulation and metabolism of purine alkaloids in leaves of maté (Ilex paraguariensis) were investigated. In winter, leaves accumulated caffeine but not theobromine, indicating that caffeine is the end product of purine alkaloid synthesis in maté. To elucidate the purine alkaloid metabolism in maté leaves, the metabolic fate of [8-14C]theobromine, [8-14C]theophylline, [8-14C]caffeine and [8-14C] xanthine was investigated in the leaf disks of young and mature leaves. In young maté leaves, significant amounts of theobromine and theophylline were utilized for caffeine biosynthesis, but the conversion was not observed in mature leaves. A small amount of theophylline was converted to theobromine. Practically no caffeine catabolism was detected in maté leaves during a 24 hincubation. Catabolism of theobromine and theophylline via 3-methylxanthine was observed mainly in mature leaves. Xanthine was catabolised extensively via ureides in both young and mature leaves, but limited amounts are also utilized for the synthesis of theobromine, theophylline and caffeine. Possible pathways for the metabolism of purine alkaloids in maté leaves are discussed. Source

Cowie N.,Okayama University | Sakui K.,Kobe Shoin Womens University

This paper describes different ways in which digital technology can be used for language learning. It then identifies some key trends connecting assessment and technology in language learning and higher education: the use of automated systems to enhance traditional assessment practices; the use of Web 2.0 tools to facilitate new assessment practices; and, the increase in new skills and content areas in language learning which are a consequence of the rise in the use of technology. These are especially important in the creation of collaborative digital projects. The paper concludes by pointing out the implications of these trends for pedagogy and changing teacher roles. © 2015 JALT CALL SIG. Source

Kokan N.,Kobe University | Sakai N.,Kobe Shoin Womens University | Doi K.,Kobe University | Fujio H.,Kobe University | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy

Background: For olfaction, several studies have reported near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signal changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) during odor stimulation. However, the roles of human OFC in olfactory cognition are less well understood. This study was designed to better understand the roles of OFC for olfaction. Methods: Hemodynamic responses for phenyl ethyl alcohol or citral in the OFCs were measured with NIRS. After the experiment, participants were asked to describe the characteristics of the odor and to rate odor intensity and hedonic valence. Results: Statistical analysis of all participants' data showed significant changes in the concentration of total hemoglobin in the left OFC during the trial (p = 0.04). The total hemoglobin signal increased significantly in the right OFC (p = 0.0008) of the participants who successfully identified the odorant stimulus. Conclusion: Our findings showed that NIRS combined with a questionnaire is a useful method for studying the functional neuroanatomy of OFC in terms of olfaction. Copyright © 2011, OceanSide Publications, Inc. Source

Arii Y.,Mukogawa Womens University | Takenaka Y.,Kobe Shoin Womens University
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry

A wet precipitate is generated in the process of making tofu by adding a coagulant to the basic soymilk ingredient. We investigated the magnesium chloride concentration-dependent change in the precipitate weight. The wet precipitate weight dramatically increased following a short plateau phase at a low concentration of magnesium chloride. It is interesting that this weight slightly decreased following a long plateau phase at a high concentration. These low and high concentrations respectively induced precipitates with a smooth surface and rough surface. The precipitate with a smooth surface had a higher water content than that with a rough surface. These precipitates also had obviously different solubility in various chemical reagents. The different properties indicate that these precipitates were formed by different intermolecular interactions. These results can be utilized to more clearly understand the mechanisms involved in tofu formation. Source

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